Skip to main content

Full text of "Pacific Rural Press (Jan.-June 1885)"

See other formats


D E0D7 lEDb317 

California State Library 

[ When, from whom, and how thi» volume was obtained, 
I with the price paid, if any, may be found oppo-iite 
\ the abone number in the Regixler of Bookx, 

which is always open to inspection. 

Extract from the Political Code. 

SKrxroN 2296. Books may be taken from tlie Library 
by the mkmbkrs op tiik LnxiisUATinK, uurinc; thk skssions 
I THKRKoF. and by other Slate officers at any time. 
I Sk(-. 2298 The Controller, if notified by the Librarian 
that any otlicer has failed to return books taken by him 
within tlie time prescribed by tiie Hules.aud after demand 
made, must not draw his warrant for the salary of sucli 
officer until the return is made, or three times the value 
of tlie books, or of any injuries thereto, has been paid to 
the Librarian. 

Skc. 2299. Kvery person who injures or fails to return 
any book taken is liable to the Librarian in three times 
tlie value thereof. 

No person shall take or detain from the General Library 
more than two volumes at any one time, or for a longer 
l)erio<i than two weeks. Books of rkfkrknck shall not 


the Rules.] 

as- The foregoing Regulations will be strictly enforced.-u* 






Vol. XXIX-No. 1.] 


i $3 a Year, In Advance 

( SiNoi.E Copies, 10 Cts. 

The San Joaquin District Fair Grounds. 

The District fairs of California have been con 
ducted with much spirit during the last few 
years. New pavilions have been built at sev- 
eral points. Speed tracks and accessory build, 
ings have been greatly improved or laid out 
anew. Liberal premiums have been offered, 
and notably fine exhibits have been made, as a 
rule, iu the several districts. This has been ac 

a photograph of the San Joaquin District Fair 
Grounds, at Stockton. The photographer 
chanced upon the ground just at the moment 
that an important race was on, and the engrav- 
ing presents the scene at such a time. It was 
the ■2.'22 class, and the starters were Vanderlyn, 
Allen Kay, Marin and Brigadier, in the order 
named. The race was won by Marin in three 
straight heats: best time, 2.22^, purse •'i<l,200. 
The attraction at thu track for the time left the 

tained a most splendid growth in its mechanical 
industries of late, and the rich agricultural 
counties of the district have all advanced 
notably, in Held, orchard and vineyard 

The San .loaquin ^'alley Agricultural Society 
was organized at a citizens' meeting, held in 
Stockton, January 28, IStjO. Col. H. T. Hug- 
gins was president, Austin Sperry, vice-presi- 
dent, and (leo. H. Sanderson, secretary. On 

ter retaining the office till November 1872, with 
H. T. C'ompton, secretary during the time. 
Col. Caleb Uoisey was elected president at the 
annual meeting of 1872, but held the office only 
one year, Mr. L. U. Shippee being unanimously 
elected president at the adjourned annual meet- 
ing held Dec. 6, 1873. ^Vith the exception of 
less than one year, when Mr. F. Arnold was 
president, Mr. Shippee has been president to 
the present time. His secretaries have been 


ASSOCIATION.— riioto. by Batchelder, Stockton. 

complished in part by the appropriation of 
money by the State, but this aid has been 
amply supplemented by generous contributions 

interesting exhibit in the foreground to itself 
for the moment, and allowed the camera to 
catch it in detail. It is one of Shippee's com- 

of money by enterprising citizens. In our I bined harvesters, the machine to which the Krst 

opinion, the fairs of California, from the State 
exhibitions to those of individual counties, have 
shown notable improvement during recent 
years. We recognize this as indicative of the 
better condition which has generally character- 
ized cur agricultural and other industrial inter- 
ests. Though we are very sure that these ex- 
hibitions can be still farther greatly improved, 
both in their fuller recognition of industrial 
matters, and in their moral tone and influences, 
we accept the improvement which has been se- 
cured as a warrant that other bettermeat will 

We give on this page au engraving taken from 

award was mide, after practical test in the 
grain field. 

The engraving shows that the San Joaquin 
district is well ecjuipped in the matter of speed- 
ing facilities. The district needs a good pavilion 
to fill out its equipment, and we understand 
that one is to be built iu the city of .Stockton, 
to be in readiness for the next fair. If this is 
done, and the accustomed liberality of the dis- 
trict is displayed in the ofifering of premiums 
for industrial exhibits, we shall expect to see 
one of the most notable exhibits of agricultural 
and mechanical products ever made iu a district 
fair in the State. The city of Stockton has at- 

February 4, 18()0, a district was formed of the 
counties of Calaveras, Tuolumne, Stanislaus, 
Mariposa, Merced, Fresno, Tulare and San Joa- 
quin, and a constitution was adopted, February 
11, 181)0. The organization was made perman- 
ent by choosing John McMuUen, president 
with two vice-presidents from each county; 
(ieneral P. K. Connor and K. B. Bateman were 
elected secretaries. Capt. McMuUen was 

H. T. Compton, H. W. Weaver, J. M. La Rue 
and J. La Rose I'helps. Without disparaging 
the services rendered by others, it must be 
stated that the moving spirits in the organiza- 
tion during recent years have been L. U. 
Shippee and H. M. La Rue. 

The San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Asso- 
ciation comprises District No. 2 of the group of 
districts as existing under the present law 

obliged to resign on account of private business appropriating money to foster agricultural fairs 

interests, and March 19, 1800, Dr. K. S. 
Holdun was elected president, and held that 
ofhce until he resigned, March 11, 18li7. Dur- 
ing that time (ien. P. E. Connor, Rev. Jas. 
A. Anderson, John C. Reid and H. T. Compton 
were secretaries. Mr. J. Sartis succeeded Dr. 
Holden as president, and at the end of the year 
was in turn succeeded by I. K. Doak; the lat- 

The district includes San Joaquin, Calaveras, 
Tuolumne, Stanislaus, Mariposa, Fresno, Tu- 
lare and JCeru counties of California. The 
directors of the district are as follows: L. U. 
Shippee, president; Jno. E. Moore, .1, A. 
Louttit, K. C. Sargent, J. H. O'Brien, Jas. A. 
Shepherd, Fred Arnold, 11. W. Russell, A. W. 
Simpson, treas.; J. M. Lallue, sec. 

[January 3, 1885 

II[jHE X>/^"IY- 

The Value of 


as Food for 

I'lDiioiiS I'liKs^ : -Few, I believe, are aware 
of the nouvislunent contaiuci'i in carrots. There 
is nothing Ojnal to them for milch cows, in- 
creasing the quantity and richness of the milk, 
anil giving the butter that beautiful golden 
color that is so much admired by all. Stock of 
all kinds are vety fond of them, and will gen- 
erally take them in preference to anything else. 
All of our horses will leave barley or grain of 
any kind if they can get carrots, and the cows, 
feed them what we will, always expect 
their feed of carrots, eagerly watching any oii>- 
who goes near the carrot patch, expecting to 
receive some of their favorite food. 

They are easily raised, as much so as corn 
or potatoes, and on goo<l ground, with water, 
1 have raised them to weigh .is high as eight 

The best variety for stock is the "^'ellow 
n.inver's." They should be planted in drills 
about three feet apart, as soon as the rains have 
wet the ground so it will not dry out, or in 
fact the sooner tliey are in now the better. 
I^ast year we planted about one-half an acre, 
and shall put in about twice that amount this 
winter. The seed came from .lanies (i. H. 
( iregory. of JIarblehead, Mass. If you can't get 
them anywhere else, they can always l)ehad from 
the above-named seedman. Hememlier and get 
the "Yellow Danver's." W. \V. IJi.iss. 

DtiarU , (Jill, 

board, rainy days excepted. The brush land | 
along the coast is well adapteil to grass, and if | 
farmers there would pay more attention to 
cultivated grasses and good stock they would 
be more prosperous than heretofore. 

R. Ci. SSE.VTH. 

1/ Fiirm, Sun Dnmo. 

Feeding Dairy Stock. 

Kditdks I'kkss: Mr. Stratton aska if pota. 
toes are good feed for milch cows, ^'es: but, 
like most other vegetables, they must be fed in 
moderate i|uantities— in fact, in smaller ijuan- 
tities than almost any other vegetable. Partly 
on account of i he lar^'e percentage of starch 
they contain, tliey are apt to scour cattle too 
much; :in<l partly for the same reason, cows 
ted on potatoes and hay alone will make very 
"thin" milk. To feed them properly, they must 
be used in conjunction with more nitrogenous 
food, such as oilcake and bran, with plenty of 
good, sound hay. 

Potatoes contain about 7 J per cent of water, 
and they cannot be used largely to advantage 
or profit at s."i per ton. None but city milk 
dairies, from which milk is sold at a good price, 
can use potatoes profitably at anything like the 
price named. 

As a rule, it will pay to cook potatoes for 
cat'le, horses, hogsand fowls. Cooked potatoes, 
fed with ground grain of any kind, make a very 
wholesome as well as fattening food. 


Where good crops of mangold wurzel, or any 
other variety of beets, can be grown, there is 
no comparison in the cost with potatoes at §."1 
per ton. 

Beets are good for fowls, and they are very 
fond of them, at almost any season of the year. 
At any rate, when there are any growing, or 
left where they can get at them, they always 
seem to be picking at them. They ca.) be fed 

, . .. r ,oc- • 1 j: „ f„ in almost unlimited iiuantities to cattle and 

subscription for ISSo, including a copy to the 1 , , , . ' , 1:11 „„ „„ 

,„. ,., ,. , .1 1 TL • I horses, sheep and swine, by w hich I mean as 

much as the animals will eat. 
Comparative Value of Roots and Tubers. 

Potatoes are considered more nutritious than 
mangold wurzel, weight for weight. 

The following is about the average propor- 
tion of ingredients in each of the three kinds of 
roots named : 

Experience at Jersey Farm. 

EurroKs Pui->s ; -As the end of 
1SS4 is near at hand, I desire you to 

the year 
renew niy 

noon, having extra rations of both mixed feed 
and hay. A man attends to their wants by 
giving them hay as fast as they eat it and 
about as long as they will cat it, after which 
they go out for a few hours and have as many 
beets as they want, but they do not cat near as 
many as in dry and warm weather. There is 
probably a degree of instinct in this, which I 
endeavor to satisfy by giving a larger propor- 
tion of dry food during the wtt weather, which 
they will not eat so mnch of in the dry, when 
they consume more roots — the result being 
about the same yield of milk in the wet 
weather ai in the dry. 

I have made Mr. iStrattoii's ijuestion a text 
for a rather long article, but one thing he may 
depend on, as a common sense rule in feeding 
live stock, that whatever they like best is best 
for them: this will apply to well-fed animals, but 
not to half starved ones that will devour what- 
ever they can get hold of. 


II oh II Sliii:oi', Sim Mai'o ('0. 

stands now among the most important on the 

The estimated production of meats durins the 
year ISSO was as follows: 

alue |S58,40n,Ci(Ki 

" 2e5,62.'>,i»)ci 

" 2a,(i()0,i)nii 

" •28,7tlo,OiiO 

'■ 0,t)U0,iK)O 

2?,non,riOO swine, slauttlitcrcd 
6..',oo,(KKi liecves " 
:i.iKK),(ioii veals " 
7,iiiiii.iKHi xhtq) 
.'i.oou.iKU) Iambs " 

This makes an aggregate of about SKi84,000,- 
000. ( )ther products of slaughtered animals - 
hides, horns, tallow, fats, glue, bristles and 
other products — woulil make a grand total ap- 
proximating §800,000,000. From this wide- 
spread industry comes, of course, the home 
supply of beef and dairy products in addition to 
all tlie sub.sidiary products of the pasture an<l 
stall, such as hides, horns, etc., with their 
various manufactures. 

The exports of beef during the fiscal year 
ended .lune 30, 1884. are: 



Frosli lifCf 120,784,r64 

Bucf, salted or cured 43,0-21,074 

Bet'f, canned 

Total value for 18)>;i-4 . . . 
Total value for l!^.S2-:t, . 

Tittiu Public Library, as usual. The 
growth of new and valuable reading matter the 
past year, denotes a life and strength ol useful- 
ness that has met the hearty appreciation of 
the friends of the Rru.M,, and no one can peruse 
its columns without concluding that it is in a 
highly prosperous condition. 

I have been neglectful in not reporting occa- 
sionally from .lersey Farm such matters as 
might interest your readers, and will now say 
that we arc seeding this winter about .")00 acres 
more land to grass — rye grass in the moist land 
and orchard grass in the dryer portions. These 
grasses h.Tve been in use with us for nearly ten 
years, and we have nearly •.',000 acres seeded in 
all, and in favorable years the grass is green in 
the valley throughout the year, and it is seldom 
that our dairy stock get anything but what the 
pasture alVords. 

Other Food Materials. 

We have betn experimenting with the field 
Sf|ua8h lately as food for cows in milk, and find 
that five pounds of cooked s(|Uiah will produce 
the same quantity of milk, that one pouud of 
ground wheat will, and the milk of equal quali 
ty. We are using ground wheat now as our 
princip;d foo<l, because of its relative cheapness 
to other food, while the milk from it is superior 
in qu,>lity to any other. We use the shrunken 
wheat ol the c iast with some volunteer barley 
and oats in it, and which costs about S^l per 
cental laid clown, and is fed with roller mid 
dlings which are now cheaper than bran. 

(•ur expi ri.nents for a long period, indicate 
the following relative value of food, puttini; 
wheat as the stand;ird at .'?l per cental: Corn 
would be HO cents raw, cooked oats ..Sj; 
barley .80; middlings (roller* .To: bran AS't; 
Kiiiiash .20 (cooked), and oil -cake meal some- 
where from .SI to .^I.OO. We have experi- 
mented with the latter several times but not 
satisfactorily to ourselves, and in general we 
have not found it an economical food, at the 
prices at which it is sold as compared with 
grain food. 

A Fine Milker. 

We were delighted not long since with the 
output daily of seven gallons of milk from a 
thoroughbred Jersey cow. .She gave HO pounds 
daily, for perhaps a month, on the usual feed 
and is now not far from "iO pounds. We have 
been raising .Terseys for some time and have 
had five and tix gallon cows, but this last 
capped the count. 

\Vo have had nearly four inches of rain this 
storm, and the fields never looked better for a 
good year. 


Kleali lonnin;; inKieUients -'.iio 

lli at v'ivinj; inxredients. is.uo 

Inorganic substances .*».).i*> 

Water "5.00 



The above i.s taVcn from Morton's "Cyclo- 
pedia of Agriculture," and is considered about 
a fair average of the ingredients contained in 
each root. However, all the ingredients will 
vary in ijuantity according to the soil, climate 
and kind ot manure used, and will be diflferent 
as grown in wet and cold or dry and warm sea- 

Potatoes are best when uewly-dug and de- 
teriorate in quality as they get dry and with- 
ered, while sun-burnt potatoes are poisonous. 
The opposite is true of mangolds, which, if 
anything, improve on being kept stored in a 
cool, dry place. 

Swedish turnips, or ruta bagas, like a moist, 
cool climate, and do not do as well as mangolds, 
where it is dry and warm. I used to grow a 
few acres every year, because I could have 
them ready for use about the first of .luly, 
which is about three months earlier than I want 
to begin to use mangolds, which I would rather 
sow in the month of May or the beginning of 
.June, than at any other time. Then they keep 
growing all summer, and do not ripen and drop 
their leaves, so as to make a second growth 
when the rain comes. 

Instead of S«edes I now grow sweet corn, 
of which, by planting at different times, say in 
May, .lune and -luly, I can have a good supply 
till some time in November, by v/hich time the 
mangolds are ready for use, they, as well as 
potatoes being best for cattle, when ripe and 
fully grown. The proportionate value of pota- 
toes to good hay will be about four tons to one 
in weight, and mangolds five to one respect- 
ively; that is, if hay is worth ?<1.1 per ton, pota- 
toes are wortli 75, and mangohls per ton. 
I believe this is about the computed value, ac- 
cording to analysis, but that does not p'ove 
everything; practice, with science, will work 
better than science without practice. 

The Service of Succulent Pood. 

The (Centrifugal Creamer. 

Wo have been using the I)e Laval Cream 
Separator daily for about three mouths, and we 
wonder now how it was possible to get along 
by the old method. One hundred and seventy- 
five pounds of our milk produces 'lA pounds of 
cream, or 14 ])fr cent, and the cream being .si 

Roots are at all times a valuable addition to 
the ordinary winter diet of live stock, espe- 
cially milch cows. Judiciously used, they will 
take the place of a fair proporiinn of a full diet 
of hay and grain— not only that, but the im- 
proved health and condition of catil t having a 
good sui)ply of roots ovsr those that have none, 
proves their value to stand higher in practical 
use than their apparent analytical value would 
teach us. 

That mangolds are a substitute for a portion 
fresh and free from taint it gives universal ; of the hay and grain diet, and rin- i-itkh, I have 
satisfaction. Tlie skimmed milk being fresh a practical illustration in the way I am treating 
and warm from the cow and machine the calf i my milch cows during these wet and stormy 

An Immense Industry. 

How the Beef is Produced to Feed Sixty 
Millions of People. 
The American people are the greatest meat 
eaters of any nation on the globe. To say 
nothing ot the immense quantity of pork, mut- 
ton, veal, poultry and fish which goes to make 
up tlie grand total of meat which is annually 
consumed by the people of this country, or sent 
abroad to feed other people, we have to add 
the immense aggregate of about fifteen millions 
of beef cattle, whose aggregate value is not far 
from .'?400, 000, 000. About two thirds of these 
cattle are raised west of the .Mississippi river, 
and by far the larger portion by what are known 
as the "cattle kings," who herd their immense 
numbers of cattle on vast areas of land, some 
of which has been obtained in various ways by 
purchase, but a large portion of which is simply 
occupied, and much of it fenced in without 
authority of law — a mere si|uatter's possession. 
The beef raised east of the .Mississippi is mostly 
produced by small farmers, in small herds, who 
engage in stock raising as a part of mixed farm- 
ing- i 
Cattle Trade of the Northwest. I 

Some idea of the immense proportions to 
which the cattle trade of the Northwest has 
grown may be inferred from the following : 
Thirty-five carloads of cattle being the last 
shipment of the season, passed through .St. 
Paul, Minn., via the Northern Pacific Hiilroad, 
on the '22d ult. The o dicers of the road esti- 
mate that upward of 4,000 carloads, or 80,000 
head of cattle, have been shipped to Chicago 
from Montana and Western lUkota. Com- 
pared with last season's east-bound business, 
this is an increase, say these officers, of 110 
to 120 per cent, and is also an increase of .'>,000 
head over the estimates made at the opening of 
the season, by the (Jeneral Manager, .Mr. Oakes, 
and the (ieneral Freight Agent, Mr. Jlanuaford. 
Large as the cattle business has been in the 
Northwest, it is steadily on the increase. 

Notwithstanding the large number of these 
cattle kings, and the large amount of capital 
they have invested in the business, there is, just 
now, as we have shown in a previous issue, a 
strong tendency of 

ForeiKn Capital 

To come in and make immense investments in 
this profitable line of business. As an evidence 
of its profitable nature, we find in a late num- 
ber of the London Timi'i, an advertisement of 
one of these cattle syndicates, w ith a capital of 
8,500,000, located in Texas, the net profits of 
which are set down as Ki per cent per annum. 
No wonder that with such margins for profit. 
British and other foreign capital is fast working 
its way into the great grazing regions, which 
flank the eastern and western slopes of the 
Rocky mountains. It should be understood, 
moreover, that there is scarcely a foreigner en- 
gaged in this class of industry, who is or ever 
expects to be a citizen of the L'nited States. 

cattle Trade of the Whole Country. 

The number and value of cattle in this country 
indicates the attention which is now paid to 
every form of this important industry. The 
enumeration of the cows in all the States and 
Territories is set down by Hon. (!eo. B. Loring, 
U. S. Commissioner of Agriculture, as 18,501,- 
•Zm, and that of other cattle gives us 2!),04t>, 101 . 
The estimated value of the cows is S423, 480,040, 
and the estimated value of the other cattle is 
§(>8;i,22!l,054. The total amount of this species 
of property is SI , 100,715, 70;{. The average 
value of the cows is •S:U..S7, and that of other 
cattle is S23.52. The total number of cattle 
west of the .Mississippi river is placed at 

does not discover the abstraction of the cream 
from it, and thrives equally well, so far as we 
can yet see. 

\Ve have some twenty and odd men grubbing 
brush again this season, and find no dilliculty in 
getting a!) the men wc needatSloper month and 

days wc are having. In dry weather they have 
their usual mixture of cut feed and a fair feed 
of hay after it, after which they go out to take 
their mangolds in the field, which they do with 
a relish. When the weather is wet they a -o 
kept in the liarn the greater part of the fore- 


The exports of fresh beef have exceeded those 
of any previous year. The nearest approach in 
former years was 100,004,812 pounds in IS.SO 
81 . The export price in the past year averages 
!) 9-10 cents per pouud. The number of cattle 
exported the past year, has also largely in- 
creased, being 11(0,518, against 104,444 the 
previous year. If we count the canned beef 
and make the net beef average of all grades ex- 
ported, .5.50] pounds, we have about ;{(jO,000 
slaughtered beeves exported, which with 1!I0,- 
000 shipped alive make a total of 550,000 beeves 

The Cattle Kings In Convention. 

The stockmen, generally, throughout the 
country, have long been organized for mutual 
advantage and protection into local and district 
associations. These local organizations have re- 
cently met in .St. Louis for the first time in a 
national association or convention, to consider 
their mutual interests, and to take such steps 
as might farther the general interests of all 
parties engaged in stock raising on a large 

The delegates to this coiu ention met on the 
17th ultimo, to the number of fully 1,200 per- 
siuis. Nearly all the \Ve8tern .States and Terri- 
tories were represented, also several of the 
F.asterii .States, also Mexico, England and 
Scotland. The convention was called to order 
by Col. R. I). Hunter, of St. Louis, who stated 
that the chief object of the convention was the 
formation of a "National League of t 'attle In- 
terests for Mutual flood," — a project which was 
fully carried out. The convention continued 
in session one week. 

What the Cattle Men Want. 

It transpired in the course of the discussion 
that one of the great wants of the National 
League comprises a scheme (juite as extensive 
in its scope as any one that has ever yet been 
asked for by the largest of our railway associa- 
tions. They ask for a great national drive- way 
or belt of land from six to eight miles wide, 
from the great breeding-ground in Southern 
and Western Texas noithward, across the 
country to the maturing-grounds on the borders 
of the British possessions upon the north. They 
not only ask for all the public lands along the 
route designated, but also for the right to con- 
demn whatever private property may come 
within the boundary of the route, to be pur- 
chased by the syndicate at a proper valuation. 
No proposition is made to in any way reimburse 
the (iovernment for any public lands which 
may be taken. This trail would be from twelve 
to fifteen hundred miles in length, comprising 
over five million acres, most of which belongs 
to the • iovernment. The land in question is 
probably more valuable than any similar con- 
tinuous tract which could be laid out to the 
westward of Middle Kansas. 

The Eastern and Montana Delegates Op- 
posed to the Scheme. 

The Kastern and .Montana delegates expressed 
themselves as decideilly opposed to the scheme 
— the former for evident reasons, as it would 
bring no advantage to them. The Montana 
delegates expressed a desire to put themselves 
on record as unanimously opposed to the 
measure, on account of the over-crowded state 
of the cattle markets and feeding-grounds of 
the Northwest, which would be made still 
worse by opening up a great highway by which 
the immense herds of the South should be 
be annually poured in upon their already over- 
filled pastures and market. 

The Indian Reservations. 

A resolutiim was also introduced with regard 
to Indians, in which the .Secretary of the Inte- 
rior was earnestly requested to restrict Indiana 
exclusively to the limits of their own territory, 
reciting the fact that each year permits are 
granted to large numbers of said Indians to 
leave the reservations and hunt over ranges 
stocked with cattle; and whereas, in addition to 

!I4S,575, and their value is considered to be the depredations on our cattle by these roving 

.S.5:W,(i.50,S71. Among all the products of our 
country, the meat products stand foremost, the 
order being: First, meats; second, corn; third, 
wheat: fourth, hay; fifth, dairy products; sixth, 
cotton. Tha export and consumption are enor- 
mous, and have never been equalled by any na- 
tion, whose chief business even had been con 
cernod with flocks and herds. The growth of 
the business has been unexpectedly rapid, and 

bands, their criminal carelessness yearly result- 
ing in the destruction by fire of vast acres of 
pasturage. These things, they very properly 
say, have a tendency to exasperate rangemen, 
provoke hostile collisions that inevitably result 
in the loss of life and great destruction of prop- 
erty, and inflict heavy expense on the (iovern- 

A rnaolution ■^v^ ulso introduood by IL JL 

Janjary 3, 1885] 



Llewellen, of Texas, protestine; against the 
allotment of large tracts of land to wild Indians, 
which otherwise would be of value for grazing 
purposes, and suggested that the lands be leased 
to stockmen, the proceeds to be spent for the 
benefit of the Indians. 

Other Resolutions. 

A resolution was introduced by Mr. Milne of 
New Mexico, in reference to the arid lands in 
his State, urging that Congress be memorialized 
to permit the leasing of these lands for grazing 
purposes. Kyferred. 

Another resolution was introduced to the ef- 
fect that Congress be memorialized to enact a 
law compelling railroads to use slat cars for the 
transportation of cattle. 

Branding Cattle. 

During the session of the convention the 
Tanners and Hide l>ealers held a side conven- 
tion at which the subject of the improper brand- 
ing of cattle, among other matters of interest, 
was brought up and fully discussed. Some 
favored, but most opposed the movement sug- 
gested to rid hides from brands. The former 
thought that if the hides were entirely freed 
from brands there would not be so much No. 2 
leather to handle, and the business generally 
could not be handled to such advantage as now 
— rather a singular line of argument. 

It was very properly held on the other hand 
that the branding of cattle, as generally prac- 
ticed in the West, was a barbarous custom, be- 
sides tending to great destruction and waste of 
property. It was neither humane nor economi- 
cal. The value of hides as at present branded 
was less by one dollar than those free from 
brands. At least a million dollars was annually 
lost to cattle growers and the trade by burning 
in Vjold relief nearly the entire alphabet upon 
the best portion of the hide. It was urged that 
endeavor should be made to secure some other 
good and satisfactory method of branding or 
otherwise securing a ready recognition of stock. 
A memorial to the Cattlemen's Convention was 
finally agreed upon, recommending that the 
branding of catttle be done on the head, neck 
or hip, and not in the promiscuous manner now 
in vogue, which so greatly diminishes the value 
of hides. The Tanners and Hide Dealers or- 
ganized into a National Association which will 
meet annually at the same time and place as 
the Cattle Growers' Association. It was held 
by the latter body that 

Cattle Raising Haa an International Im- 

England, particularly, looks to the plain.s 
and prairies of the Northwest for a supply of 
beef when her home market advances, and it is 
the desire of American cattle raisers to meet 
the demands of all orders from across the ocean. 
Beef in this country is a meat that has been 
daily accessible to the working classes, which 
cannot be said of several countries of Kurope. 
The prices of beef lately have an upward ten- 
dency. The cattle ranges are becoming more 
restricted every year. Diseases have prevailed 
virulently among cattle, and it is well there 
should be a national convention to consider 
every question, immediate or remote, in con- 
nection with cattle raising; how pasturage may 
be secured; how diseases among cattle pre- 
vented; how the prices of beef may be kept at a 
reasonable figure, and other kindred questions, 
all of whicii have an interest to the people at 

General Sherman Speak?. 

Gen. Sherman was specially invited to attend 
the convention. He responded and made a 
brief address of a general nature, concluding as 
follows : "I used to regret to see the bufl'alo, 
elk and antelope disappearing from the plains, 
and to see in their stead a race of scrawny, 
long-horned cattle. I can now see, how- 
ever, that it was the decree of nature, and that 
you, ji;entlfcmen, have reared a race of '20,000,000 
of fine breeding cattle, which supply the world 
with meat." 

Asking too Much. 

The (tovernment will doubtless be disposed to 
be generous to a great industry which is of 
such vital importance to the wliole poi plt^, 
but the public lands are becoming too valuable 
to be given away, especially to an aggregation 
of wealthy syndicates who are already reaping 
rich rewards for their investments, and who 
arc abundantly able to pay a reasonable price 
for all conveniences needed for properly con- 
ducting thtir business. Besides, the public 
lands are becoming too scarce to admit of any 
more concessions except in small tracts to actual 
settlers. For the same reasons, the proposition 
to close in large tracts should not be encour- 
aged, for it would only result in a further 
monopoly of large tracts of the public lands. 

A Fine Body of Men. 

Our exchanges speak of the delegates, gener- 
ally, as an unusually fine looking and represen 
tative body of men, overllowing with physical 
and mental vigor and activity, and they evi- 
dently mean business in its fullest sense. 

Cattle Growing and Civilization 

It has been truly said that "cattle growing 
represents the lowest form of civilizition. The 
cowboy is an exponent of that civilization. He 
is essentially its product. That industrial 
phase, however, is temporary, and will give 
way ic time to more diversified industry." 

Cattle growing enriches a few only. It builds 
up no towns or prosperous communities, and is 
not in sympathy with industrial progress any- 
>vhere. Its civilization is of so low a scale that 

it fairly strikes heads with barbarism. Our re- 
marks refer only to cattle growing under pecul- 
iar conditions. 

Cattle Growing in Early California. 

No more striking instance of the character- 
istics of cattle growing, and of the difference 
between the conditions of a cattle growing com- 
munity and one of mixed farminj; and diversi- 
fied industries can be cited than the condition 
of California at the time of the first discovery 
of gold here and the present social and indus- 
strial condition of the State. We need not re- 
hearse the facts — they are patent to eveiy well- 
informed reader. But, after all. 

Cattle Growing is an Honest Industry, 

One of paramount necessity, and one which 
should be encouraged in some form or other. 
That which we have described is its most objec- 
tionable form, and is practical only in extreme 
frontier regions. Kven as such it should not be 
encouraged to the detriment of legitimate farm- 
ing or the establishment of diversified indus- 
tries. No opportunity should be given by 
which such a business can po.ssibly become per- 
manently located in any locality where diversi- 
fied industries are possible. What would have 
been the condition of California to-day if the 
great cattle ranches of '-19 had not been broken 
up? The cattle lords of those days cared 
nothing for the progress of civilization or the 
building up of prosperous communities, and 
they did nothing in that direction. The dis- 
covery of gold brought in a new civilization, at 
which the cattle lords were at first overbearing; 
but numbers compelled them to give way, and 
they were finally content to sell out their large 
estates, which they did at nominal prices, iu 
consequence of which lands that were then 
worth not more than tw o dollars an acre, are 
Selling to-day for $50 and >?100 or more. Towns 
and cities have sprung up in what were then 
waste places, and piusperous communities of 
thousands now occupy localities which under 
the old regime, were fully occupied by dozens. 
Those who have brought about these desirable 
results have no sympathy whatever in common 
with the cattle lords of the at. Louis ( 'onvention 
who are seeking to get the control of new and 
additional millions of acres to add to their al- 
ready vast domains of land. There are already 
at least 100 individuals and firms whose ranges 
number from hilf a million to several millions 
of acres. The p-^ople demand that the Govern- 
ment shall see to it that no more additions be 
made to that class of land-grabbing operations. 

Legitimate Cattie Raising. 

As has already been stated, the Kistern cat- 
tle growers at the St. Louis Con\ ention had no 
sympathy whatever with the land-grabbing 
schemes of the extreme Western members. 
Cattle raising east of the Mississippi is carried 
out upon a legitimate basis as a part of regular 
farming operations, and it is also conducted at 
a handsome profit. Cattle raising of that de- 
scription should be encouraged, and might be 
successfully introduced into California. True 
it will not secure sudden or inordinate riches, 
and it is well for the country that it will not ; 
but it will afford a large and legitimate business, 
giving employment and a comfortable living to 
thousands of families, instead of the few roving 
cowboys who earn a precarious subsistence 
under the objectionable system. It will, more- 
over, furnish a home market for our surplus 
grain and renew the fertility of our worn-out 
wheat iields. 


State Board of Horticulture. 

An important meeting of the State Board of 
Horticulture was held at 40 California street, 
December 17th. There were present Messrs. 
K.llwood Cooper, Dr. E. Kimball, Wm. M. 
Boggs, (i. N. Milco and Dr. S. F. Chapiu; 
President Cooper in the chair and A. H. Webb 
Secretary. After calling the roll the Secretary 
read the proceedings of the last meeting, which 
were approved as read. After the reports of 
committees and the reports of the Secretary and 
Treasurer were read and approved, and also re- 
ports of members relating to horticulture in their 
several districts. Dr. Chapin, the Inspector of 
Fruit Bests, read an extended and interesting 
report of his work as Inspector, which was also 
approved. All these reports will be published 
in their biennial report to the Legislature. Dr. 
Chapin spoke in the highest terms of the very 
earnest and efficient work in the suppression of 
insect pests by A. F. Coronel, one of the Com- 
missioners at large in the Los Angeles district, 
also of .1. De Barth Shorl) of San Gabriel. 

Dr. Kimball and Dr. Chapin were appointed 
a committee to appear before the Legislature 
and refjuest certain changes in the present law 
governing the State Board of Horticulture, and 
President (Jooper was re(£uested to act as a com- 
mittee of one to urge upon our delegation in 
Congress to procure such amendments to the 
revenue laws as to re((uire every article im- 
ported, whether dutiable or free, intended for 
human consumption, to contain a true label of 
its contents, subject to confiscation by default. 

Secretary Webb's report shows a most won- 
derful growth of horticulture in this State and 
some facts stated are worthy of note. He sayt: 
"Majiy thousands of acres have been planted to 
fruit trees of v.arious kinds during the 

year. It is estimated that in the county of 
Santa-Clara alone (which has ever been conspicu- 
ous as a fruit section) 11,000 acres were added 
to the already extensive and prosperous or- 
chards. In the counties of Napa and So- 
noma full} five hundred thousand French or 
Petit d'Agen prunes alone were planted, and 
the unrivaled Vaca Valley, long noted for early 
and choice fruits, has kept pace with the rest. 
The fertile and thrifty .Suisun also claims at- 
tention as containing one orchard alone of some 
6,30 acres, which will soon be one of the finest 
in the world. In the northern portion of the 
S ate the desire to plant trees is just beginning 
to show itself and it is believed that the com- 
ing planting season will show a most wonderful 
increase in orchard-planting. The same and 
more may be said of Fresno, Tulare and neigh 

the State. About 2,000 seedlings of t\u 
are now ready for distribution. Unlike the 
American oaks, when transplanted to the cli- 
mate of California this tree proves to be a rapid 
grower, unexpectedly resistant of drouth, and 
promises well as the hardwood timber tree of 
the future on the Pacific Coast. It is not 
choice as to soil and location, and would prob- 
ably do well both on the mountains and in the 
plains, where the latter are not too dry. Its 
success should be extensively tested. Six 
plants to each. 

The JVcir Zaihnid Max, so useful to garden- 
ers and vineyardists for the purpose of tying 
with the ribbons into which the leaves readily 
split, and which are exceedingly strong, is again 
offered for distribution. Six plants to each. 
The Ramie, the so-called Chinese grass, of 

boring counties, while the counties of Los An- ' which the preparation for textile purposes by 

geles, San Bernardino and San Diego, with a 
reputation known to all and excelled by none, 
are all increasing their acreage at a rate unac- 
countable, and although California is even now 
far in advance of the Eastern States in horticul- 
ture, she is yet in her infancy of greatness as a 
fruit-producing country. But while every ap- 
pearance may seem bright and hopeful for the 
future, we should not shut our eyes to the 
threatening and imminent danger of a most un- 
just foreign competition. I allude, of course, 
10 the so-called reciprocal treaties with Mexico 
and other Central American Kepublics. It is 
unjust because it is openly acknowledged by the 
advocates of reciprocity that ihe a^anission of 
the fruits of those countries free of duty is the 
chief eijuivalent offered l)y the I'nited States 
for the benefits to be derived by those combined 
capitalists and corporations engaged in the pro- 
duction and manufacture of eoal, iron, steel and 
petroleum and the articles manufactured there- 
from. It is gratifying to know, however, that 
the State Horticultural Society, at their last 

machinery seems now to be in the way of 
oomplishment, should be more extensively 
tested. It succeeds exceedingly well at Berke- 
ley in heavy adobe, and is known to do well on 
sandy soils. Six plants to each. 

Angola Va.nic — (Paiiirnm SjiecUihile, Sor<ihiiin 
Huh III II XV or as it has unfortunately been 
called in California, "evergreen millet"). Roots 
in one-pound packages. 

New Zealand Salt Bush. Atriplex iiummtd- 
arhi, a forage plant adapted to salty and alkali 
soils (see Rep. for 1S82, p. 11"), belonging to 
the Lamb's (juarter group of plants; is much 
liked by cows. Ten plants to each lot. 

Of the Sicilian sumac, /i/t//.s Coriar'ia, the ex- 
pected large supply has iiot been realized, on 
account of the failure of the imported seed to 
germinate. It is now being multiplied by cut- 
tings and suckers from large plants. A small 
number can be distributed, one plant and one 
good root to each lot. 

Cuttings and Scions. 

Cuttings of the J/icwo ijrape, from Chile, 

meeting, passed unanimously,strong resolutions 

against the treaty with Mexico. But it may producing the splendid raisins exported from 
not be proper to discuss this subject in this that country. This grape has almost ripened 
short report. The next and most vital subject I its fruit this season at Berkeley, and the latter 
that concerns the fruit grower is the growing | closely resembles the muscat in most respects, 
necessity for cheaper transportation. This, it i Three cuttings to each lot. 

is confidently believed, will at no distant day ! In respect to scions, it should be understood 
be satisfactorily arranged betweeen the trans- that apart from cherries, to which the soil of 
portation companies and fruit growers. With 1 the University (irounds is hostile, all the more 
this accomplished, and regular daily trains i prominent varieties of apples, pears, plums, 
loaded with our choice fruits as fast freight to | peaches, apricots, etc., are represented in the 

the Eastern markets, and the dangers of com- 
petition referred to opposed and defeated, we 
shall be content." 

Distribution of Plants and Seioiis. 

University Experiment Station Bulletin 
No. 29. 

The following kinds of plants and scions, of 
l)roven or probable economic value in this 
State, will be available for distriljution from 
the University during the present season. 
Plan'uS will not, as a rule, be ready for sending 
out until on or about February 1st; while sci- 
ons may, if desired, be sent as pruning pro- 
gresses. Applica ions should be made at once, 
and will be filled in the order in which they 
have been received, omiiting, however, such 
plants as are known to be unadapted to the cli- 
mate of the locality concerned. Since, more- 
over, the object of the distribuiion is to test 
the adaptatioi' of the plants in as many locali- 
ties as possible, numerous applications from one 
and the same locality cannot be filled unless a 
surplus remains after those from different sec- 
tions have been supplied. 

Plants will be forwarded by express, scions 
by mail (unless specially otherwise requested), 
in lots consisting of the number hereinafter 
mentioned for each kind, on remittance of 25 
cents for each lot of plants, and 10 cents addi- 
tional for each additional lot, to pay expenses 
of packing, etc. For scions, send 10 cents for 
postage on each dozen called for. Postal notes, 
ray ible at the Berkeley postottice, are re- 
quested to be sent in lieu of stamps whenever 
practicable. Any surplus left after filling or- 
ders as far as possible will be returned to the 
senders, deducting letter postage. 


Esparto grass, Slipu tenaiissima, the grass 
so extensively used in the Mediterranean coun 
tries for cordage, baskets, etc., and lately ex- 
ported in large quantities as a material for paper 
making. It grows naturally on sandy beaches, 
within reach of salt water, but will doubtless 
be found adapted to many saline and alkaline 
lands now unreclaimed or occupied by the com- 
mon tule. It should be thoroughly tested in 
sandy lands southward of the Bay, especially on 
the west side of the San .Joaquin valley, and in 
South California, ^^'hen once "set," it will 
send roots deep for moisture. 10 plants to each 

The Carob tree, t'craloiiiu Si/iqi(a, the true 
"Algaroba" or St. .John's bread of the Mediter- 
ranean region, has been heretofore recommended 
for cultivation in the southern part of the State, 
on dry and otherwise unavailable hillsides, as 
well as in richer and moister lands, for the pro- 
duction of an excellent niilk-producing feed 
(See report Coll. of Agr. for 1882, p. jij 
Hardy from the bay southward, perha^^»fc're 
far north as St. Helena and Ma^rw(?g*^ees to 
plants to each, it being neoei 
of having both staminaj^-^ robur. Last 

gether. .^.^.^Lnrnsoi this use- 

University orchard, to serve as standards for 
verification of varieties. It is not deemed 
proper, as a rule, to offer for distribution va- 
rieties that can be readily obtained from nur- 
series, and thus to compete with private enter- 
prises. Hence those mentioned here are only 
such of the less common sorts as in our exper- 
ience at this locality seem to deserve a wider 

Pciirs. These wexe here, as elsewhere in the 
State, this season strongly affected by blight. 
The following remained almost exempt from this 
disease: Duchesse Precoce*, Doyenne Robin, 
Jalousie de Fonteney, Paradis d'Automne, Ma- 
rie Louise d'Uccles, Sheldon*, Duchesse d'Or- 
leans. Swan's Orange, Beurre Bosc*, Conseiller 
de la Cour,* Louis Vilmoriu, Pitmaston Duch- 
esse*, Doyenne D'Alencon*. Of these, those 
starred* are specially recommended as worthy 
of trial. 

The following were more or less affected: 
Brandy wine, Beurre Sterckman, (iratiola of 
■Jersey,* De Tongres, ' Frlton, Baronne de Mel- 
low,* .Tones' Seedling, Gray Doyenne, St. Ger- 

>lany other good varieties, such as Andre 
Desportes, St. Michael, Archangel, Napoleon 
III, Butter, Figue d'Aleucon, etc., were so 
badly afi'ected, that it seems undesirable to dis- 
tribute scions from them until the prevention of 
the blight disease shall have been better 

Phans. Of these, the following are recom- 
mended for trial: Black Morocco, Ontario, 
Wangenheim Prune, Prince of Wales. 

ApricoU. Blenheim, Alberge De Montagamet, 
Purple, Katsha, Canino G rosso, De Coulorge, 
Beuge, are among the less known varieties 
worthy of trial in this State, and of which 
scions can be sent. 

Of the seeds previously announced for dis- 
tribution the following are exhausted: the 
two kinds of Hromiin, Melium multiflorum and 
Pyrethrum cneraria'folium. 
Address applications to 

E. \\ . HlUlAKti, 

Uidci rMty of California, Ui'rkulvy, Oal. Dcr, 

SiiEEi'isKiN Leather. — The uses for which 
leather made from sheepskins is employed are 
almost numberless. Sheep are raised in large 
numbers over so great a portion of the earth's 
surface that the supply of raw skins is immense, 
and, tanned with either bark or surna. 
tanned with alum, it can, although 
much less strength than the goatie^or book- 
ished to imitate almost any jftTother kimls of 
leather. It fills a^Jj^^gt the only kind of 
facings of booU„.t linings, and for pocket- 


.rtiol..« "to" »;'™' one, ki»a, V.rli= 


milk w TOore 

easily <li" 

season s^f ^rce 


pAeiFie R.URAL f REbb. 

[January 3, 1885 


CorresiJOiidtiiice on liran^e principles anil work anil re- 
ports of transactions o( suhordinute Uranj^cH are rcspeL-t- 
full\' Rulifitcd for this depunnicnt. 

Flora's Choice. 

(W'rlttPu fur Ki hal Pkkss hy Mrs. .1. t". 1': i.i.HK.l 

When Jupiter created the Cioddtss of I'iuwers, 
I'lora, of maidens mosl fair and sweet. 

He gave her the privilege of choosing her lover 
From the gods, young and noble, that knelt at 
her feet. 

But the wooing proved vain for the light-hearted 

Declared to such lovers she d ne'er give her hand; 
And when Jupiter questioned, she snvlifigly an- 

" I'heir love is too lofty, loo silent and grand." 

Then forth Flora v^andered, until she met Zephyr. 

In idleness roaming a fair orange grove; 
And when with light words the false Zephyr wooed 

Without a demur she accepted his Kne. 
When Jupiter heard «hom Flora had cho.sen, 

He cried, "Thoughtless one, it ever doth prove 
I hat those of your sex are always pieferring 

Loud admiration to deep, silent love. 

"'st lliou but cho.sen a god's deep devotion. 

riiou would'st have shared hi.s immortality: 
I gave thee thy choice, and, alas, ihou hast chosen 

.■\ love, false and fickle, as soon thou shall see. " 
l-'-u; Flora, the fair, fodlish lioddess of 1- lowers. 

With a light-hearted laugh flew w ith Zephyr away. 
And Iroui her bright winjrs ihe tlower dust scattered. 

Falling where woodland and deep vallo) lay. 

With myriad blossoms the earth was soon eovered, 

.■\nd when Zephyr saw these new bfiings of bloom, 
He eagerly gazed on their brilliant young beauty 

.And inhaled with d<-lighl their fragrant perfume. 
When the lioddess of 1 lowers began to grow faded. 

False-hearted Zephyr deserted his bride; 
And when Flora saw that no longei he loved her. 

Alone and deserted she languished and died. 

Subject for January Discassions. 

Quis/ioit yo. — Is legisl.ition needed in the interests 
of Kgricullure If so. for what purpose and how to 
obtain it ? 

.'-^/o/ci. - -In considering the fjuestion of 
needed legislation it will readily be seen that 
there haa been much time devoted to Icgisla 
tion, both in State and Na ion, to every in- 
terest except agriculture, which has been so 
long neglected that it may be supposed by fomp 
that none is needed. Hut when we eonsiiler thi 
wants of the agricultural interest, its oft de 
pressed condition, the absorptions of its profits 
by tliose who have no claims upon it, the dis- 
crimination made against it in methods of nearly 
every kind of taxation, the neglect and ignoring 
its importance, usefulness, etc., we then learn 
to fully realize that legislation to protect it in 
its legitimate rights and to develop its useful- 
ness is greatly needed, and may be classified aa 
follows: Ist. Legislation to e<|Ualize taxation 
in proportion to wealth and value, assessments 
of taxes should be upon the principles of justice 
and eijuity. A system that exempts in any 
way ta.vable property, or permits under valua- 
tion in favorite cases, or assesses mortgaged 
property which ia ta.xing ilebt, or taxes one 
kind of property higher than another of like 
value, or discriminates so as to levy an un- 
just or double tax, as agriculture is often made 
to pay, is all wrong and should be changed by 
proper legislation. -lA. To permanently es- 
tablish agricultural studies in the common 
schools. A larg>^ majority of those attending 
the public schools in the rural districts are ex- 
pected to l)e the future farmers, then why not 
teach agriculture in these schools, so that the 
future fanner may become more practical and 
certain in farm operations. Hu'. to do this re- 
quires a change in the school law. 3(1. To 
regulate transportation ami interstate com- 
merce u))on the principles of justice to producer, 
transporter and consumer. Kates of transpor- 
tation, based upon actual cost and reasonable 
profits thereon, would be just and right, but to 
charge what the product will bear irrespective 
of the value of services as is now the practice, 
so as to accumulate a fund to pay speculative 
dividends on hundreds of millions of dollars on 
"irortlili 'ii wtiUn d itork," is robbery that should 
be prohibited by legislative enactments. 4th. 
To regulate and control all moneyed corpora 
tions and monopolies within the bounds of jus- 
tice, who now seek to control trade, commei ce, 
politics, elections, legislation and government 
in their selfish interest to the general disadvan- 
tage of the people. Legislation to control thein 
in legitimate channels should be had without 
delay, ."jth. To reclaim all forfeited lands, 
prohibit aliens from foreign lands from occu- 
pancy and ownership of our public land?, who 
do not intend to becnnid citizens or taxpayers, 
-nd have no love for our free institutions. 
"J^nds should be sacredly preserved for 
and defeiiur ow n people, who are ever willing 
lo elevate the ag'.Tnnieut with their money, 
ing its commissioner a Jiyes, if need be. Gth. 
position in the executive cdVi^'ent by mak- 
interesfof^H •^«"'--"»«re beJbg ^-'W^et 
interest of the American ..eonle the nr^nPa- 
of our great wealth *u I"*''.'''*- proaCc. 

needed to prohibit patent rights swindles, and 
to protect innocent purchasers, to prevent pois- 
onous adulterations of food, and to regulate the 
tariff on importations, so as to avoid discrimin- 
ation against agriculture in the payment of 
tarilf duty on agricultural supplies. To obtain 
legislation upon these subjects requires earnest 
and united ell'ort. Legislators should have been 
elected with reference thereto. But as this has 
not been done, we must now adopt the next 
best and most practical method, which is to 
petition our respective members of the State 
and national legislatures to support by effort 
and vote such measures aa we desire enacted. 
Individual letters from I'atrons to their respec- 
tive members in legislative bodies, calling their 
attention to these subjects, and urging their 
support to the same, will be of great value. We 
should also solicit the aid of non-membership 
farmcis to co operate with us— they are etjually 
inter, stud with us and should therefore extend 
a helping band. It is high time that these 
subjects receive legislative attention, and that 
Patrons act earnestly and wisely to secure the 
object in view. 

Ry the co-operative eflbrts of the Subordinate, 
I'otnoua and State (iranges, with the National 
(Grange in this legislative work, good results 
will doubtless be secured, and without such co- 
operation failure will in a measure follow. Pa- 
trons, it is with you to say by your efforts in 
the matter, whether success or failure shall 
crown the efJ'ort. H. K.siir..\i">:ii. 

t'lsfi,^. Mo. 

Grange Elections. 

Uj.h (.;k.\m;e, Ventura county. Kichard 
Robinson, M. ; .John Montgomery, 0.; H. J. 
Dennison, L.; Edward Ayres, S.; John I'inker- 
ton, A. S. ; W'. S. McKee, C". ; Robert Ayres, T.; 
S. C. (iridley. Sec; Milo Cory, <i. K.; Mrs. C. 
K. Soules, Ceres; Mrs. Wm. I'erri, Pomona; 
Miss Lillie Soules, Flora; Miss Ida Ayres, L. 
H. S. 

S.\CKAJiK.N"To (.iKA.MJK, Silcraineuto t'ounty. — 
Moses Sprague, M.; Geo. W . Hack, O. ; M. L. 
Rich, L. ; Julius Beach, S.; James W. Holmes, 
A. S.: R. Devenport, C: C. A. Hull, T.; Ida 
Flint, Sec: Joseph Holmes, (;. K.: Ruth .\Ier- 
win, Pomona; ISIinnie McXasser, Flora: Kdith 
• Ubson, Ceres; Carrie Rich, L. A.S. ; Frances 
Stevens, organist. 

Ckkes (JR.iNuK, Stanislaus county. — Vital K. 
Bangs, M.; M. J. Hall, O.; Mrs. A. M. Hans- 
corn, L.; W. (!. Munger, S.; P. P. Stiles, A. 
S.; Mrs. A, Chapin, C. : Warren Whitney, T.; 
1". W. Cook, Sec'y; A. P. Hoyd, (I. K.: Miss 
K. Hanscom, Pomona; Miss Mary Williams, 
Flora: .Miss l>ora Whitnev, Ceres; Mrs, Mary 
Bangs, L. A S. 

Stoi'KIiin <^i:.\si;k, Sau Joaquin county. 
T. K. Ketchum. \i ; Cha?. Stowe, 0.; Mrs. -1. 
Adams, L.; F. S. Beecher. S. ; Owen Carson, A, 
S,: Mrs. Wm. Kuhl, C. : D. A. Learned, T. ; H. 
T. Root, Sec; Wm. Kuhl, C; Miss Daisy 
Smyth, Pomona; Miss Caddie -Vlllng, Flora; 
Mrs. X. W. Post, Ceres; Miss Mattie drupe, 
L, A. S. 

Plvmocth (.Jk.vnc;k, Amador county. — J. 
Salee, M.; W'. (4. McMullin, (). ; Mrs. D. Wor- 
ley, L. ; W. H. Salee, S.; J. F. Gregg, A. S. ; 
Mrs. M. E. W^heeler, C; John Sharp, T.; S. C. 
Wheeler, S. ; B. Jelmina, (t. : (Mara vSalee, Po- 
mona; M. M. Moore, Flora: IClla Wheeler, 
Ceres; Mrs. S. J. Salee, L. A. S. 

A.MEitKj.vN RivKK Git.wt!!!, Sacrameuto 
county. - Hro. James Beach, M.; 15ro. N. H. 
Liuridsen, O. ; Bro. M.C.Pike, L.; Bio. W. 
H. Gitfen, S.; Bro. Fred Taylor, A. .S.; Harry 
Williamson, C; Bro. J. W. Kilgore, T.: Bro. 
D. W. Taylor, Sec; Bro. J. T. Wright, G.; 
iSister Alice Bryant, Ceres; Sister Maggie CJox, 
Pomona; Sister Mary Cornell, Flora; Flora 
Wright, L. A. S. ; 15ro. Wm. Ilryant, Trustee; 
Sister Etta Cornell, Organist. 

old Granges is, in my opinion, the surest indi- 
cation of the permanent increase in prosperity. 
When old members of the Order are willing to 
take hold again and build on a foundation laid 
years before, that has had time to become sea- 
soned, the superstructure is one to be of 8Ui;h a 
character that it will withstand all decay, be- 
cause the material with which coni-tructed has 
been fully tempered. Of course I do not mean 
to say that new (iranges should not be organ- 
ized, but I firmly believe that greater good can 
be done by reviving an old < J range or adding 
members to an already existing one. 

Sacramento Grange. 

Edituk-s Prkss: — A large attendance assem- 
bled at the Hall on the second Saturday of 
December to elect officers for the ensuing year, 
but the list was not completed till the fourth 
Saturday of the same month. The list of ofli- 
cers elected I send you to insert under the 
proper heading. 

On completing the election the Grange gave 

! the first and second degrees to a class of five 

1 brothers and tw o sisters, 

I On the second Saturday of January the third 
and fourth degrees will be conferred on a large 

! class, followed by the installation of the new 

I officers and a harvest feast. 

j W'e have had an abundance of rain, farmers 

. are joyful, and plenty of work lies before them. 

I Santa Claus visited the children, and a number 

I of entertainments went off both in city and 
country. (<eo. Rich. 

Sacranitido, C'al. 

W. Ma.stkk Coultkk in New Oki.ean.s.— 
We received the New Orleans Pirayiiiie, of 
Dec. 17th, containing full account of the 
World's Exposition opening, by kindness of 
Bro. S. T. Coulter, who, with Sister (Joulter, 
we are glad to know, is taking a general view 
of the great fair. 

Grange Progress. 

In a letter to the District Grauge of North- 
ern Virginia, Brother W. M. Ireland, Worthy 
Sicretary of the National (i range and one of 
the founders of our Order, thus writes concern 
ijig the Grauge movement: 

Two of my associates, as founders of the 
Order, Brother John R. 'J'hompsoi. and John ' 
Trimble, will be with you, and will tell you of j 
the many anxious days we— your fathers in 
this work— passed, the alternating hopes and 
fears that ruled us when laying the foundation 
of the ( irder, in giving to the farmers a bond 
that would unite them in sympathy with each 
other, and to the end that their callling might 
be elevated and eunobleil. 

Since its inception, the O.d' r has been pros- 
percus, but not without passing lli:ough many 
dark days; but never, even for an instant, has 
the faith of the founders in the ullim ite suc- 
cess of the cause wavere('. Its priuciples must 
ultimately triumph, if all will join hands and 
work together with a hearty good-will. 

For some years the Order has been steadily 
advancing; another one just about to close has 
shown greater prosperity than its predecessors. 
A solid, substantial increase is steadily going 
I \lore new (iranges have been organized in 
Doiinani ^..j,. than for many years before, 
and s('t to work.- are being constantly revived 
''"^'■'^"'■giance, putfii.'^iembers are renewing 
and buniishing their weaporfiieir armor again, 
great fight for right, And in tb19«?ge in the 

'val of 

California Fruit Expressed Eait. 

The following, from a private letter by a 
prominent gentleman in New York, dated Dec. 
Ttth, relates to a small lot of choice quality of 
fruit shipped by express during the latter part 
of October last: 

IVrmit me to thank you, and Dr. Siren Izel through 
you, for the box ol very fine fruit. Mrs. Henry and 
myself lind the grapes very tine and well preserved. 
The white grapes did not keep as well as the others. 
.My son opened thi'm four weeks ago and they were 
.// time well preserved. The dark gi'a.jes an' 
fresh and nice now. John F. H'-'.nkv. 

.\".'. 2y r,.//e^'e PLue, ,V. Y. 

This certainly shows that with proper care 
our grapes may be safely sent by express to our 
friends as freely as we choose to bear the 

Oi k Pokk Pi'.iU'i i ts Ar.iio.ui. — Hon. Fred k. 
T. Frelinghuysen, Secretary of State, has in- 
structed the American Ministers to England, 
France and (iermany to secure all the informa- 
tion in their power in regard to the system of 
inspection of hog products in the countries to 
which they are respectively accredited, and any 
other information bearing upon the subject of 
discrimiiiatiun against A iierican hog products 
abroad. It is expected that replies from these 
Ministers will be received at Washington in 
time for the (Jonvention of Swine Breeders and 
Pork Dealers, to be held in that city on the 
14th of January, 18S.5. 

Fink -fEK.sKY Bi li,. — We recently hiid the 
pleasure of seeing a very tine Jersey bull, 
owned by .lohn I'yle, of San .lose, 'i'his bull, 
(ilen Alto by name, was bred by L. ('. Powers, 
of Watsonville, and purchased by Mr. Pyle, in 
May of this year. Ho is almost a perfect type 
of the thoroughbred Jersey, and is registered 
both in New- York and San Francisco. Anyone 
wishing to know more of his history will fiud it 
by referring to No. 00, in the American 
• I ersey Register. .Mr. I'yle also has some very 
tine tlioroughbred co>v-, wl.i.h are also regis- 

Fine Aitlks.— The finest yellow Newtown 
pippins we have seen this year reached us ou 
Christmas morning, from Dr, .S. F. ('hapin, of 
Sin Jose. The Doctor has a Hue reputation for 
worm free apples, and it is a good thing nowa- 
days to have such a reputation. The apples 
were just such as he is marketing through 
Littletield, Allison iV Co., of this city, and are 
a product which any fruit grower could be 
proud of. 

I'EH.soN AL. — Ml. and Mrs. R. B. Blowers, of 
Woodland, started East last week for a three 
months' excursion, a part of whicli will be 
spent at the World's Fair at New Orleans. 
Mr. Blowers will place on exhibition a box of 
raisins made three years a^o and which remain 
in tine condition a practical refutation of the 
claim that California raisins will not keep. We 
trust their journey will be safe and enjoyable. 

jGCgf^icultural X^otes. 


ItosK^i. -Mr. W. A. T. Stratton, of Petaluma, 
recently ministered to our passion for roses by 
sending a lot of rooted bushes, assorted kiuds, 
for our Berkeley . garden. Mr. Stratton cer- 
tainly sends out hnc plants, large aud vigorous 
.lud a mass of roots on them. We hear he is 
now making a specialty of roses and chrysan- 
themums, and he has a splendid collectioa of 
varieties of both [ilaat^, 

Bi.ACKLEi; IX MiKKAV ToWNsiiii', -Liver- 
more lli rahl: The disease known as blackleg 
is still doing damage among the cattle on the 
Murray township mountain ranges. John 
Clark has lost forty head of calves in about five 
months from this disease, .lohniiy Hayes has 
met with considerable loss, and there is scarcely 
a band of cattle in the mountains which has 
not suffered with more or less severity. The 
disease attacks only young cattle, a year and a 
half being about the limit. They arc sick but 
a day or two, and after death become putrid 
almost immediately. It is believed by men 
who have observed the symptoms very care- 
fully that it is caused by some vegetable poison 
on the range, which they eat when feed is short. 
Mr. Clark states that should the spread of the 
disease increase next year as it has this, it will 
nearly rid the State of young cattle. 


Aktk.sian Well Borinu. — Ukiah Corres- 
pondent Mendocino liincon, Dec 27: I lately 
made a visit to the artesian well, and I note 
progress to date. \\ ork is going on steadily, 
and the boring has now reached a depth of IGO 
feet. Of this depth, at least 120 feet has been 
through solid rock, mingled with what appears 
to be crystallized quartz. Through the court- 
esy of Mr. E. K. McCord, who is the foreman, 
I am enabled to give some details of the ma- 
chinery and manner of boring. A H-horsc 
power engine does the drilling and pumping. 
The driving wheel is of wood, seven and a 
half feet in diameter with 12 inch face. A 
crank of 28 inches stroke is attached to this 
wheel and is connected by a staunch fir timber 
to the huge walking beam which operates the 
pump and drill. This walking beam is 24 feet 
long and 14x28 inches. A large wheel, in the 
form of an immense spool, designated as the 
bull wheel, is put into place close to the mill. 
At either end of the shaft is a wheel seven and 
a half feet in diameter; one for a break, and 
the other for a tug belt, which pulls the heavy 
tools and huge rope out of the well when nec- 
essary. This spool is capable of holding 2,000 
fiM.t of 2|-iiich rope, or nautically speaking, a 
7-iuch rope. (Ju the wooden drive-wheel is a 
puUy w Inch carries the rope that propels the 
bull wheel. Close to t'lie drive-wheel there is 
a sand pump reel, which pumps the debris out 
of the well. A falling and upward motion is 
obtained with this arrangemeut, by which the 
operator by moving 'a lever, can lower or lift 
the sand pump at will. A steel shaft 50 feet 
long and drill eight iuclies wide, weighing three- 
quarters of a ton are the tools used in drilling. 
The drill has about two feet fall aud makes 
about 40 strokes per minute. A person stands 
in attendance turning the diill coutinaully. 
Sjmetimes a reamer, which very closely resem- 
bles a gigantic snapping-bug, is u.sed when the 
chisel fails to give room enouuh for the piping 
to be forced into the well. The well is cased 
with No. 14 double black iron pipe, which is 
forced downward by a very heavy lever. A 
tower GO feet high, 10 feet square at the base, 
aud four feet square at the top is erected over 
the well. A pulley over which the heavy cable 
rope runs is placed at the top of the tower. Mr. 
McCjrd, the foreman of the work, is also pro- 
vided with a set of hand-tools for shallow wells. 
A blast of giant powder was put in at the depth 
of KiO feet a day or two since w hich worked 

Monterej . 

Pasti hini; Fallow. .Salin is City Demorrat 
Our principal farmers— we mi an those whoowu 
their lands and are in a position to make per- 
manent arrnngeinente are taking the first step 
towards diversifying their pursuits, .f. B. 
.Smith, of Smta ICita, was, as we understand, 
the lirst to see that the country could not bear 
cropping in grain without rest, and commenced 
a system of fallow in combination with the 
pasturing of stock. The arraugement is simple, 
the land being fenced otf in tracts, enabling each 
one of them to !>e left in grass every third year. 
It works well, the land being thus rested at the 
same time that live stock so pastured affords 
the farmer a resource quite as valuable as grain. 
His honor, H. S. Ball, has divided his 800 
tract lying along the road to Santa Rita into 
three fields of equal dimensions, intending that 
one of them shall be left at fallow -in grass— 
every third year and be applied to the rearing 
and pasturing of live stock. Fur the more 
convenience he has moved his residence, with 
barns and other appurtenances, from next the 
high ro id to the center of the whole tract, 
where coming to water the stock will ba seen 
daily. These measures look in our judgment 
to tiie diversifying of farming pursuits in our 
county on a wider and much more comprehen- 
sive scale in the near future. 'J'he man must 
be short-sighted who does nut see that the 
business of mere grain growing has had its day. 


The Wine CkoI-.- Ht. Helena Suir: The 
enormous increase in the wiuc business will be 
observed rather from the additional cellars en- 
gaged in it than from the actual increase in the 
amount itself, for the latter may be the acci 
dent of a year, an abnormally large crop, or un- 
usually favorable conditions of manufacture; 
but additional places of wine-making show an 
increased interest io the business and an in- 


creased amount of capital invested therein. 
'The number of cellars this year is an enormous 
increase over that of any previous one. Not all 
of them, it is true, make any considerable 
amount -many of them only a few hundreds of 
gallons each — but the fact that thsy started in 
at all shows a commejidable interest in the busi- 
ness, and promises well for its future. For the 
man who starts in to make up his own grapes, 
13 not only learning to make wine — and good 
wine — but is learning also what kind of grapes 
to raise for it; for when he has to face the mar- 
ket itself, he will be put to his mettle to pro- 
vide for it the very best material possible, to 
make it rank with the product of other vint- 
ners. The number of cellars this year, 97, is a 
gain of over 50 per cent over that of last year, 
which was 63; and the total product is 4,0.37,090 
gallons, against 2 'M)0,\!jO gallons last year. By 
a comparison of tluse making 5,000 gallons and 
over, we find the number to lie 75 to 4S, about 
the same percentage of increase. 'I'he number 
making 10,000 or over is (iS this year, toS7 last 
year. The number making 100,000 or over is 
17 this year, to 5 last year, and these 12 make 
S, 182,000 gallons of the whole. The total 
amount is more than double tliat of last year, 
but of this, it must be l)orne in mind, a very 
large portion has been made into brandy, so 
that nowhere near the amouut represented is 
on the market for sale as wine. 

Hors. —The hop interests of Napa county are 
not very extensive and are v ell cente-ed within 
a radius of two miles of St. Helena. The rich 
bottom lands along Napa river afl'ord every 
advantage for the successful cultivation of hops. 
Why is it that so meagre an acreage is now 
devoted to this industry in N'.pa county we 
cannot say, as there are no doubt many acres of 
land along the river at present not under cul- 
tivation that could be reclaimed and converted 
into profitable hop farms. This season found 
only five growers or firms engaged in the hop 
business; a visit to their yards in September, 
when the harvest was at its hight, showed us 
that there were :535 pickers employed and that 
the estimated yield of the five yards was placed 
at 115 tons. The names of the growers and 
their several acreages are as follows: Philip 
Elting, 14 acres; Storey Uros., 41 acres (15 acres 
here and 26 at Rutherford); Cole and Simpson, 
30 acres (part owned by Mr. Cole and part by 
Mr.'Spear); .lames Uowdle, 35 acres; Lane k 
Rassmusseu, 14 acres (land owned by R. F. 
Lane). The yield for 1884 is: Philip Kiting, 
146 bales, 14 tons; Lane & Rassmusscn, 160 
bales, 14 tons; James Dowdle, 332 bales, 32 tons; 
Cole & Simpson, 300 bales, 30 tons; Storey 
KBros., 220 bales, 22 tons. Total yield, 1,1.58 
^ales, 1 12 tons. The hop business here is con- 
sidered safe and profitable, though prices are 
fluctuating. Two years ago, we think it was, 
our growers received as high as 75 cents and i^l 
per pound, and made fortunes in the single 
season by reason of the extraordinarily high 
prices; this year, however, the tables are 
turned and prices are lo w, not high enough, in 
fact, to justify growers in selling. 

San Joaquin. 

Storm Notes. — Editors Press: — Since my 
note of threatening skies of Dec. 20th, heavy 
rains (probably three and a half inches) have 
fallen, so that the Calaveras and its tributaries 
have overflowed a wide extent. At Messick's 
bridge, above Linden, the river is said to be 
four miles wide, but falling rapidly. Consider- 
able sowed land was under water on the Cala- 
veras bottoms. By strenuous eflbrt some have 
kept the water from going on the grain higher 

the ripening of the fruit. On the whole, how- 
ever, the. opinion seems very general that, while 
the wine h not up to the usual standard, it is 
not very much below it, and will bring a profit- 
able price in the market. A few cellars have 
already been sold at fair figures, to be delivered 
next spring. Prominent among the sales so far 
reported, are those of Shaw's and Weise's cel- 
lars, among the choicest of the Glen Ellen dis- 
trict. It is not proljable that the area of vines 
will be materially increased in Sonoma valley 

The abundant rains have dispelled the linger- 
ing doubts about a wet Christmas and solved 
the problem of the summer-fallow planting 


(Jrazinu liV Arizona. — Governor Tritle says 
the grazing interests of the Territory have 
largely increased during the last year; quite ex- 
tensive importations of improved breeds of cat 

proper next spring. Glen Ellen's vineyards ! tie and horses have been made in Arizona, at- 

will be broadened to some extent, but the best 
informed men of that excellent district are 
holding back, until experiments now lieing 
made shall have given them a better knowledge 

tractcd by the unequaled advantages to be found 
there for the stock owner, in the mildness of the 
climate, the extensive ranges, the nutritious 
grasses, and the small amount of care required 

than they now possess, of the varieties of vines j by the stock. There has been an entire absence 

most suitable for planting in their locality. 
Capt. .1. H. Drummond, one of the best authori- 
ties on wines in Oaliiornia, is doing a work of 
incalculable benefit to (ilen Kllen, in particular, 
in the way of propagating scores of different 
varieties of vines, imported directly from Eu 
rope at great expense, with the end in view of 
ascertaining beyond a doubt, which varieties 
will succeed best in the Glen Ellen district. 
Mr. Drummond has, furthermore, rec u ly had 
erected, by the only Ludwig, an excellent stone 
cellar, in which he will age wines, in order to 
test their properties, and ripen them for market. 
The phylloxera is playing havoc in many vine 
yards in Sonoma valley, but those persons who 
are trying resistant stock report good results. 
The pest, while multiplying with almost in- 
credible rapidity, migrates very slowly, and we 
believe that reasonable care in killing infested 
vines as soon as they are attacked, and subse 
quently planting resistant stock in their stead, 
will effectually check its spread. 

Santa Clara. 


rainfall here in the fiuuta Cruz mountains has 
been 21! inches for this storm. It has rained 
almost constantly for ten days. 1 live on the 
summit back of Saratoga. — T. .1. LrccocK. 

OiiANCF.s.— Red Bluff Sr/ilhicl; E. Crotzer, 
nurseryman of this place, brough to the Sciidix l 
office yesterday, two bunches of large sweet 
oranges, two varieties, the Konah and Manda- 
rin, grown in his orchard, corner of Monroe and 
Crittenden streets. The larger bunch had 
eleven on it, on a space of about four inches, 
the other had four. The trees on which they 
grew ai'e seven years old, from a bud, about 
four inches in diameter and 14 feet high. The 
largest orange is 12 inches in circumference, 
and the smallest 1 1 inches. The tree has not 
had extra care, this being the first year it has 
produced hui^-. Mr. Crotzer has four orange 
trees about the same size, all bearing this year. 


The Rain.— Visalia D<-/to., Dec. 28: The 
welcome rain which had been threatening for 
some weeks past, came to us at what is gen- 
erally considered to be the proper time for the 
first heavy rain of the season. Other showers 
that fell earlier, had started the young grain 
and wild ft ed to growing in many parts of the 
county, and the rain came last week in time to 
save the sprouted seed and to moisten the 
ground to a depth of several inches, which will 
enable farmers who had not sowed grain, to 
seed their land now, the ground being suffi- 
ciently damp to germinate and keep the grain 
growing for some weeks. Those who had not 
summer-fallowed their land, and those who 
have new land to break, will now have an op- 
up'. A break of 1.50 feet, three miles above portunity to plow. Last year it was very late 

here, still is ready, when the waters rise again 
to pour the Calaveras into the made channels. 
Raining slowly and warm. — Mrs. W. 1). Ash- 
Lf;v, Dec. 28. 


Vaca Vai.lkv. — Cor. Sacramento /In': The 
fruit interest was not sufiering at ail for lack of 
rain. The long, dry autumn has given the 
fruit men a splendid opportunity to rush along 
their pruning, so that branch of work is, goner- 
ally speaking, much further advanced than is 
usual at this time of the year. Shippiug also 
was c;i r -icd on very late, shipments of grapes 
being made from A'acaville nearly every day up 
to December 1st, giving vineyardi.sts ample time 
to pick their entire second crop — which was un- 
usually heavy. Peaches were sent from here as 
late as November 6th, and oranges of a fine 
quality are now going forward, shipments hav- 
ing been made for the past two weeks. The 
growing of citrus fruits has thus far received 
little attention in this section. Although the 
eyes of fruit men might profitably be turned in 
that direction, since, in proper locations, the 
tree does well, and we can market its product 
from two to three weeks earlier than Los 
Angeles. The level lands of the valleys are not 
wefl adapted to its culture, but benches along 
the hillsides above the frost line seem to furnish 
just such a home as the tree requires. Very 
little plowing has been done here as yet, but a 
week of fair we.ather would show the busy 
teams in every field. Nursery stock will begin 
to move at once, and the bu<>y tre-? planting 
season is virtually upon us. 


Sdnoma Valley — Cor. Smta Rosa I)i „inrr<tl: 
The wine makers of the valley report rath. . an 
unsatisfactory vintage. While the grapes from 
a few favored vineyards made excellent wine, 
the major part of the yield is second-class in 
quality, owing to the disproportion of sugar and 
acid in the grapes, resulting from the phenome- 
nal climatic conditions which prevailed during 

of epidemic diseases among cattle and horses in 
this Territory, and the percentage of loss per 
year is stat ;d to be about three per cent, being 
less than any other portion of the United States. 
Much of the 60,000 square miles of grazing land 
in Arizona, though bountifully covered with 
rich grasses, cannot be utilized at present for 
grazing purposes, on account of the absence of 
water. It is believed, however, that this draw- 
back can be largely, if not almost completely 
remedied by the introduction of artesian water. 
In fact, where the experiment has been tried, 
in Sulphur Spring valley, Cochise county, the 
result is most satisfactory, "sufficient water 
having been obtaine<l in this way to water at 
least .30,000 cattle, besides affording sufficient 
irrigation to maintain the gardens that a popu- 
lation attending to this stock would require, and 
perhaps tree plantations for the relief of stock 
from sun and wind." Thj importance of this 
(juestion of obtaining water by artesian well 
process throughout the Territory vi here super- 
ficial streams are not sufficient to maintain 
stock, much less for agricultural purposes, is 
apparent. Should all of the grazing land in the 
Territory be made available in this way, it is 
estimated that there would be ample pasturage 
for 5,000,000 cattle. 'I'here are now in the Ter- 
ritory about 300,000 head of stock, with proba- 
bly good pasturage, under present conditions, 
for 1,000,(00 more. 


IwroRTEn Stoc;k.— Carson ..4/j;>t'f/, T)ec. 27: 
During the past few years Nevada farmers have 
taken a good deal of interest in the best breeds 
of cattle, and sending their old scrub stock to 
the rear. The leading importers of good stock 
ic Nevada now are Cleveland of White Pine, 
Vail of Churchill, and Marsh of Douglas. Vail 
has just imported a herd of the (Jalloway cat- 
tle, which are hornless. The herd cost him 
^f40,000. Cleveland is experimenting with all 
sorts of stock, and getting the very be<t that 
money can buy. Marsh, after considerable ex- 
perimenting, has settled down upon the Dur- 
ham as the most profitable stock. He began 
with a cow that cost him .'i<500, and his neigh- 
bors thought that it was a big price to pay, but 
that cow has already returned him •'i!4,000, and 
he has •'#10,000 worth of her descendants left. 
Marsh sells calves from his blooded stock in 
sums varying from .^^100 to !i?500, according to 
the age. The bull at the Orphans' Home is 
from .Marsh's ranch, and valued at ¥2.50. Sen- 
ator Haines has some good stock. He at- 
tempted to raise some Jersey cattle, but says 
they are a failure. They are almost worthless 
for beef, being not much bigger than ordinary 
calves, and give but little milk. Four(]uarts of 
their milk, however, yields about as much 
cream as another cow's ten (juarts would. 
Haines has a three-fourths Holstein bull and a 
full-blooded Jersey. 'J'he .lersey has a head 
not much larger than a dog, and big black eyes 
which seem as tender as a woman's. They are 
not, however, for the treacherous beast wages 
war upon everything in sight, and chases the 
hands all over the ranch. When it sees a man 
on the other side of a fence, that it wants to 
exterminate, it lowers its head, fills the air 
with rails and posts, and goes through. While 
the Jersey cows are family pets, the bulls are 
the most treacherous animals alive, and more 
dangerous than a lion. They are iniiek as light- 
ning and cunning as cats. Mr. Bliss has a 
thoroughbred Jersey cow, and Mr. Fox a 
three-(|uarters. All cattle dealers agree that 
Nevada is a splendid State for stock raising. 

News in Brief. 

Grk.\t excitement has been created in Geor- 
gia by the discovery of silver near Fort Moun- 

It is said that never in the memory of any 
living man did Chrifetmas close in England in 
deeper gloom . 

The municipal authorities of Paris have 
agreed to vote 60,000 francs toward the Grand 
Prix, which will be run in .Tune next. 

The (ireat Eastern is still being prepared for 
sailing for New Orleans. Grave doubts are en- 
tertained as to whether she is seaworthy. 

A ( uLiiRKi) man and woman of Newport have 
drawn •'SI, 000 from a savings bank and gone to 
Canada, because of a fear that they were in 
danger of being re-slaved. 

pROHiiiiTloN is such an utter failure in Kan- 
sas that legislative action is expected very soon 
on the question. The li<(Uor laws, .as tliey stand 
now, ;r; totally inoperative. 

Sevekat. prominent bu.siness men of Pitts- 
bu'g have decided to organize a stock corpora- 
tion for the purpose of erecting and maintaining 
an exposition building in that city. 

New York fashionables are reputed to have 
sent forth the edict that flowers are to be ban- 
ished henceforth from society gatherings, ope- 
ras and theaters, as well as funerals. 

On Christmas afternoon the electric light 
mast on the corner of Buena Vista and Short 
streets, Los Angeles, succumbed to the action 
of the continued rain, and fell with a crash. 

The raising of the age at which a child can 
b« admitted into the public schools from five to 
six years, is being agitated in New York, and 
the introduction of a bill into the Assembly to 
that effect is talked of. 

The monument to Kit ('arson. General Fre- 
mont's famous guide, is aliout completed, and 
will arrive at Santa Fe this week. It is under- 
stood that the inaugural ceremonies will take 
place on Decoration Day. 

A I'EAKi. weighing 03 karats, the largest 
known, and valued at .$17,000, was found by 
an Indian diver at Mulege, Lower California, 
recently, and sold by him for StiO to a person 
who shipped it to London. 

The plea of a Nashville negro, convicted of 
butting an enemy almost fatally, was that in 
infancy he had been fed on milk from a noto- 
riously belligerent goat. The Judge said he 
could not regard that fact m an extenuation. 

TtlK Direct United States Cable Company 
and French Cable Company made a reduction 
in the cable tariff' to (Jreat I5ritain, Ireland and 
Frauce to 20 cents per word. The reduction 
was caused by the competition of the Mackey- 
Piennet ('able Company. 

A Soi TiiERS" Pacific Kist-bound train was 
boarded on the 23d inst. , near the Pecos river 
crossing, by a hand of drunken cowboys, who 
amused themselves by firing their pistols 
through the car windows and roof and other- 
wise intimidating the passengers. 

Despite the arrest and expulsion from the 
Republic of cert.iiu Mormon missionaries who 
made themselves obnoxious to the authorities, 
the work of recruiting in the interest of the 
Utah religion continues with gi eat activity in 

Burn of the Nevada Senators and Represen- 
tative (/assidy are considerably annoyed in 
answering the questions put to them about the 
possible extinction of Nevada as one of the 
States of the Union, as the entire press of the 
East is seriously discussing the effect of a State 
being taken out of the Union. 

in the season before the ground was wet enough 
to permit a plow to enter it. It is not likely 
that the increase of the area sown to grain will 
be nearly so large as last year, when it was 
doubled, but in the newer settled portions of 
the county, the acreage will be extended con- 
siderably, and the total yield for the season be 
greater than that of the one just past. A large 
amount of land was seeded to alfalfa last year, 
by those intending to engage in the raising of 
stock, and more is to be planted this year for 
the same purpose. The acreage of fruit and 
vine lands will receive a greater proportionate 
increase this winter, than that seeded to grain 

or any other crop. The season promises to be ^ _^ ^ ^ _ a- 

a propitious one for tree-planting, as the ground j 'phe beef is cla'imed to be"supedor to"Californ?a 

will be in excellent condition to keep the young 
trees growing. Last season furnished abundant 
proof that it is not safe to depend upon the 
grain crop alone, for the income was small al- 
though the yield was large. There are many 
other parts of the world that can and does 
compete with California in the growing of grain, 
but none where fruit can be grown so success- 
fully and profitably .as here, and our farmers 
should not neglect to act accordingly. 


The Outlook. -Driiiomd: Up to the I6th 
inst. the farmers of this section suffered con- 
siderable anxiety concerning the f:ite of the 
summer-fallow wheat, which, in many jjlaces, 
owing to the protracted drought, was in a per- 
ishing condition. The volunteer grain which 
affords pasturage had put on a sickly appear- 
ance, fin account of the heavy frosts which 
came in the early part of the month, ceased to 
grow, and was in many places dying. Stock 
bogan to grow thin, and feeding had to be 
resorted to, which is unusual so early in the 
season. Altogether, the outlook for the farm- 
ing interests was r.ithcr discouraging, and busi- 
ness of all kinds languished as it sympathized 
with prospects of agriculture. The last ten 
days, however, have changed these conditions. 

beef, and brings better prices in the San Fran- 
cisco market. The climate is particularly 
adapted to the growth of thoroughbreds, and 
when epidemics come they can be driven to the 
mountains for safety. 

Seed ('atai.i)(!I'E. — We have received a copy 
of Cox's "Seed Annual" for 1885, which has 
just been issued by Thomas (^ox & (jo., of 400 
Sansome street, S. F. Jt is a large well illus- 
trated publication with a colored floral frontis- 
piece which will be acceptable to all tlower, 
vegetable or tree growers. We find mention of 
all old standard sorts and many of the newer 
favorites in all lines of growth. 

N'ick's Florat, (JriDE. — This old favorite 
comes out early with a new ornamental cover 
and the usual complete collection of garden 
seed and accessories. It is fortunate that Mr. 
Vick'a sons arc so well ijualitied to carry on a 
valuable enterprise which their father wrought 
up witli such skill and devotion and left as the 
monument of a well spent life. The name is 
still James Vick, R-'ciiester, N. V. 

Twenty miles of wire on the California and 
Oregon Telegraph is down, doubled up by sleet. 

A Fine Sewing Machine Establishment, 

Undoubtedly the finest establishment for the 
display and sale of sewing machines is that just 
opened by the New Home Sawing] Machine 
Company, at 108 and 110 Post street, opposite 
O'Connor, MoHatt it (Jo's. The rooms have 
been fitted up in the most expensive style, and 
surpass anything heretofore attempted on this 
coast for business purposes. The counting- 
room, furniture, wall paper, frescoes, carpets, 
and in fact everythiog about the esti'blishment 
is of the handsomest description and in the moat 
perfect taste. 

On December 20th there was an opening ex- 
hibition, which was largely attended, and can 
still be enjoyed by visitors. The idea of the 
display is to give the ladies an idea of the per- 
fection to which this company have brought 
their now justly cclebr-ated machines. An ap- 
preciative writer in one of the daily papers 
gives the following sketch of the display: 

The display consists of clegcnt and damask 
porlicnvs, wmdow hangings, bed draperies, table 
sc.irfs, b.mners, .screens, tidies, frame pieces, and 
111 iny other articles all hp.-iutifuHy and elaborately 
ciiihroidered and ornanunitcd in applique, 
< lic-iiillc and arasene. The company is an Orange 
(Mass..) corporation, and during tlie last four years 
has come npidly to the front in this line of business 
and now does the lir^cst wliolesale sewing machine 
business in the United ."states. 'I'hey have hereto- 
fore only sold at retail in the larger cities of New 
\ork. I'hiladclphi:!, f hic igo, .St. Louis and New 
Orleans, and in each ot these cities they now lead 
all other machines in the numbers sold and the sat- 
isfaction giv;n. Their inmensc business has been 
the result of the real .superiority of their m.achines, 
toijcthcr with their careful and conscientious fulfill- 
ment of all promises and tlic fair and liberal .system 
upon wliicli they ahvays conduct their business. 
Till- general manager for this city is George H. 
Root, a gonial gentleman of m.tny years' experience, 
who jHoposes to carry oat the company's usual lib- 
eral policy to the letter in his dealings with oui 


[Jandary 3, 1885 

"De Mortuis, " 

For our brother, «hile he is striving and moving 

along the world's ways, 
We have only harsh judgments, stern counsel, half 

uttered affections, cold praise. 
Our cheer of full-hearted approval, our frank. i|uick 

applause we deny; 
Knvy, malice and jealousy, calumny, all the world's 

hounds in lull cry 
Unrelenting pursue him, while friendship barks low 

in the rear of the race, 
Reluct.-int, perhaps, at his faults and his frailties till 

death ends the chase. 

Then all his virtues, his merits shine forth, and all 

the charms that he owned 
Rise up unobscured in their beauty, all frailties and 

faults are atoned. 
All the good is remembered and pondered, the bad 

swept away out of sight, 
And in death we behold him transfigured, and robed 

in memorial light. 
We lament when lamenting is useless, we praise 

when all praises are vain. 
And then, turning back and forgettii g, begin the 

same sad work again. 

Ah! why did we stint to him living our gift > Were 

we poor t Had we naught— 
Not a wreath, not a flower for our friend to whose 

grave we such tribute have brought? 
Ah ! the largeness of the heart that had strengthened 

and gladdened his soul 
We refused him, and proffered him only the critic's 

poor miserly dole. 
Still we meant to be just, so we claim, though the 

judgment was cold that we gave. 
Was our justice, then, better than love? < ome, say 

as you stand by his grave. 


Home Reading and Scrap-Books. 

IWritten (nr Rnni. I'krss In [.. I . .MiI'avn.I 

We are a large family. We are all fond of 
reading, from pater-familias with his calf- 
bound books, down to tlie baby with her 
"nursery." Among us there is a lawyer, a 
doctor, a scientist, a florist, a musician and a 
farmer, besides a sprinkling of the fairer sex, 
who soften by their gentler natures the asperity 
of any discussions which arise among us con- 
cerning the topics of the day. Among so many, 
it is needless to add that our tastes are as dis" 
similar as our ages and occupations. We live 
in days when "of making books there is no 
end." In days wherein the press is the ruling 
power of the world. Ours, also, is the age of 
the specialist. So much is written upon even 
the simplest subject that one can hardly hope 
to read a little of it all without devoting a life- 
time to the work. 

Under the circumstances, how can any one 
hope, in the few short evening hours ( which are 
all that the most of us have to spare for daily 
reading or study) to do more than skim through 
the multiplicity of subjects presented to our no- 
tice in the periodicals and newspapers of the 
day, to say nothing of those found in good 
books which the teeming press is crowding ujion 
us from week to week and year to year. 

'J'his skimming process, by whicli we gather 
the gist of an article before us by glancing at or 
through i'', without really reading it at all, is 
an art much in need of cultivation by the peo- 
ple of our time, wherein many of the brightest 
minds of the age have Ijeen smitten with a sud- 
den blight from the overtaxing of the brain. 
Indeed, it is only by the constant practice of 
some such process as this that the time can be 
gained which one would wish to devote to the 
perusal of those subjects that are of especial in- 
terest to themselves, whether their reading be 
for present pleasure or future profit. 

In Our Home Reading Club, 

Besides this skimming process, which we all 
pursue, we have agreed upon a way of dividing 
up the reading matter that each day's mail 
brings in, which works so well with us that it 
seems almost a duty wliich we owe to others, 
to give them the benefit of our e.xpcricnce upon 
this subject, since it is equally applicable to 
the needs of small clubs, friends boarding to 
gether or large families like our own. 

Upon the walls of the old library, "where 
we most do congregate '' when the day's work 
is done, are suspended a do/.en or more tasteful 
wall-pockets of one device or another, as the 
owner's fancy may dictate. Kach is marked 
with its initial letter, as "L" for the lawyer, 
" A " for the artist and "Al " for the musician. 

The evening mail is piled upon a typical 
" round table, " and, when the twilight hour is 
past, which so especially belongs to the 
cultivation of the sweet amenities of home, the 
evening lamps are lit and each member of the 
family selects his own mail according to a 
previous adjustment, by which the leading 
daily papers and monthly magazines have been 
apportioned among them. 

rh" same dailies are given each day to the 

same parties. No one attempts to read them 
all. ]*"ach reads his own, for it is conceded 
that by so doing a more etiicient use can be 
made of his time. The leading dispatches are 
virtually the same in all, and when one is 
reading a paper to which he is accustomed, one 
knows at once where to find any information 
which he desires. Telegraphic news, local 
items, stock reports, prices current, marriages 
and deaths are all at his fingers' ends, and one 
grows, after awhile, to be not only •ummloiin'il 
to, but rtally fittarh<il to their daily paper, 
which comes to them, in their ijuiet homes 
evening after evening, like a welcome friend, 
bringing information and if need be, advice and 
counsel upon the topics of the times and a 
synopsis of the whole world's doings condensed 
upon its pages. 

Is'ow, let us suppose that the lawyer has read 
the evening paper assigned to him. He cuts 
out the .Supreme Court decisions which are pub- 
lished therein, puts them away in his own es- 
pecial walI-i)ocket, then says to the farmer: 

"^'ou will find an article upon the value of 
'Sugar lieets for Feeding Stock,' in this paper. 
Shall I cut it out for you'r" 

"No, thank you; I will read it now if you 
are through with it," returns the farmer, lay- 
ing aside his Aiii'fimn Aiirkultm-kl.. 

"Wait a moment, till 1 cut out this little ar- 
ticle upon 'Painting on Silk,' for our artist" 
(who happens not to be at home that evening). 
.So the piece upon art matters is put into the 
artist's bracket for his perusal upon his return. 

"Doctor, ' says the musician, "here's a new 
remedy for hydrophobia. A South American 
plant that cures every time. iJo you want it?" 

"No. Most of those 'new cures' are hum- 
bugs. t)h, well, exchange papers and I'll look at 
it. I've marked an account of the rendering of 
the "(.)ratorio of the Seven hast Words," for 
you, there" — pointing it out, as they exchange. 

And so the thing goes on. Kach reader bears 
in mind the tastes of the others, and when they 
meet with an article which they think will 
prove of interest to another member of the 
family, it is pointed out to him, or if he is ab- 
sent, cut out and put in his especial pocket 
prepared to receive such clippings. 

From time to time, these wall-yjockets are 
emptied, and their contents are read and sorted 
by the owners. Those of no permanent value 
are thrown into the waste basket, whilst articles 
deemed worthy of preservation, are pasted in 
the scrap-book, which each member of the 
family keeps for the purpose of collecting, in a 
safe and permanent form, all the information to 
be had in regard to the specialty which he 

Oftentimes one of the number, comes accross 
some information in a magazine or book which 
he is reading, that sheds a light upon some 
point under discussion, or treats upon some 
subject whicli he feels assured would interest 
another of the party. Of course, these cannot 
be cut out, nor in many instances can the book 
be defaced with even a pencil mark. In this 
case, if the particular member is present to 
whom the article would be of interest, his at- 
tention is drawn to it at the time. If he be 
absent, then a brief memorandum is made for 
him and dropped into his bracket, notifying him 

that "in vol. 1, page 7"^, of he will find 

an item of importance concerning such a sub- 
ject," which authority he can then consult at 
his leisure. 

^Vith the little memorandum for a guide, as 
to just where to find the information he wants, 
no time will be lost in hunting it up when it is 
needed, and if it is important enough to warrant 
it, a synopsis of the article is made and pasted 
in its appropriate place in the scrap-book, where 
it can be found at a moment's notice. 

it will readily be seen that any one reading in 
this systeniatized way ,will, in a short time, 
with the assistance given by all the other mem 
bers of the family or club, be enabled to collect 
a scrap-book, full of really valuable information 
upon any given subject. Besides this, the 
added pleasure of knowledge, pursued under 
such congenial conditions, will more than repay 
one for the extra thought refjuired to keep the 
run of the special topics which interest other 
members of the circle, wliilst at the same time 
he is seeking those which are peculiarly agree- 
able to himself. 

Scrap Books. 

.\lready our scrap-books are becoming valu- 
able works of reference, containing, as our sci- 
entist's does, for instance, (through the patient 
collection of articles bearing upon these sub- 
jects) all the latest advances along the line of 
scientific thought throughout the world. 

Much of this information, which is classified 
with good care, and thoroughly indexed, one 
would scarcely know where else to find, as it 
in most instances has not yet appeared in book 

It is astonishing, too, how fast the wall -pock- 
ets become plethoric and overflow, and one's 
stock of knowledge accumulates, when little by 
little, each day adds something to the stock in 

Kxpcrience has proved to us time and again, 
that it is the part of wisdom to cull at once the 
jewels cast before us by the teeming press, and 
store them for safe keeping in our wall-pockets, 
nor ever to trust to finding the article we had 
wished to preserve "at some more convenient 
season," when the scissors were at hand, the 
paste just right, and we ourselves were in a 
more collective mood. 

Delay in this matter seems really dangerous, 
and fate is almost sure to punish our procrast- 
ination by the destruction of the paper, and the 

entire loss of the article which we had intended 
should grace our scrap-books, and increase our 
store of information. 

Nor i.s it necessary that one should buy an 
expensive book in wliich to preserve their daily 
clippings, as one may easily be made at home 
which will answer every purpose, by cutting 
out two and leaving one leaf, in any old ac- 
count, or other large, well-bound book, (no 
longer of value) since it is the contents, not the 
cover, which make a scrap-book valuable to its 
owner. This matter, however, may be left to 
the individual reader, who can vary the cover 
of his scrap-book to suit either lus fancy or 

Advantages of the System. 

The points I wish to enforce are these: First, 
the great advantages of a plan of reading, car- 
ried on systematically through books, and even 
through the daily newspapers, from day to day. 

Secondly, the assistance which members of a 
family or club can be to each other when that 
plan is known and co-operated in by all the 

Thirdly, the importance of not trusting to 
memory alone to preserve valuable information 
when found, but of compiling it at once, under 
proper heads, where it can be referred to with- 
out loss of time when it is again reijuired. 

And lastly, the danger of procrastination in 
such matters, by which many important items 
slip through our fingers, fade from our brains, 
and are lost to us forever, for want of a little 
forethought in cutting them out at the proper 
time and preserving them as we ought. 

The beginning of a new year has, from time 
immemorial, been the seaoon set apart for mak- 
ing "good resolutions." Would it not be well 
for us all to plan out our work ahead, in the 
mental as well as the material matters, and sec 
by so doing how much can be accomplished in 
the new year upon which we are just entering 
by a settled plan of reading. Be it ever so lit- 
tle that we are able to do in that line, ' ' every 
little helps," and in these blessed days of free 
libraries, cheap books and cheaper news- 
papers, no one has any right to rob their after 
years of the joy which a well-stored mind will 
aSord them, when this wealth (of which no 
after misfortunes can rob them) may be had by 
all at the cost only of a little time and patience. 
Read good books. Head a little every day, and 
by the end of the year these "many littles" will 
make an amount that will astonish the careless 
observer who is forever complaining that he has 
"no time" to devote to his mental culture. If 
one will take the pains to plan for it, some odd 
hour may be gained out of eacli day, and no 
other part of one's labor will be found to yield 
so rich a reward as that which one invests in 
this way. If the whole hour cannot be taken, 
take the half of it. In this matter every mo- 
ment is precious, for remember: 

"Little drops of water, 

Little grains of sand, 
Makt- the mighty ocean 

.•\nd the beauteous land. 
And our little moments. 

Humble tho' they tie 
Make the mighty ages 

Of Kternity." 

Women Doctors in Hospitals. 

The action of the medical and surgical socie 
ties connected with the Paris hospitals, wliich 
have just refused to admit women to compete 
for positions in the hospital service, is an odious 
instance of what Charles Keade would have 
called "trade unionism" among the doctors. If 
a woman can prove her superior fitness for a 
position in a fair competitive examination, she 
ought to be allowed to do so, and to have the 
position she has earned by her superior attain- 
ments. But no woman is to be permitted even 
to compete. M. Paul Bert sided with the 
women, and Laboulaye, who wrote bravely in 
defense of women doctors, would doubtless have 
done the same if he had lived. 

The fact that so large a proportion of hospital 
patients are women, tnakes the exclusion of 
i|ualified women physicians from positions in 
the hospital service as undesirable as it is self- 
evidently unjust. One of the most touching 
scenes in "Dr. Sevier" is that where Mary Rich- 
ling, in the Charity hospital, lies in a cold per- 
spiration of terror, watching the approach of 
Dr. Sevier and his crowd of medical students. 
If examination before a crowd of men is so ter- 
rible to a modest woman when she knows that 
the examining physician is gentle and consid- 
erate, what must it be when he is hard and 
coarse '/ (Jliarles Reade, in ".X Woman Hater" 
— a book for which the women doctors united in 
a testimonial of thanks to him — has given some 
idea of the comfort which the presence of women 
doctors may afford to women patients. Rhoda 
(Jale, in describing the clinics at the infirmary, 
says of herself and the other women students: 
" We held a little aloof from the male patients; 

I M'e always stood behind the male students; but 

! we did crowd around the beds of the female 
patients, and claimed the inner row; and, sir, 
they thanked (iod for us openly." Those who 
have read Kugene Sue's terribly graphic de- 

' scription of the progress of Dr. Oriftin artd his 
medical students through the women's ward of 

I a Paris hospital will easily understand this. 

j — Woiitan'* Journid. 

TuKKiMH Bathh. Turkish baths are em- 
ployed for treating sick horses in many coun- 
tries, and they have been found valuable aids 
in numerous cases. The temperature may be 
from 150' to ISO". 

Acknowledgments— Thoughts in Detach- 
ments, etc. 

(Writtuii lor Ki RAL Pnihs, liy Ues. »'. I, II. NiciiOL«.l 
The following I'nlhiU, from Mr. Berwick's 
toothsome " Sauce for the (Joose," etc. — pub- 
lished in the Ri:k.\i. of the 'JOth of Nov. — com- 
mend and explain themselves. 

" 1 feel it incumbent on me to express my con- 
viction that justice demands a co-tenancy, by both 
sexes, of all structures |>olitical. court-houses 
Capitols, or White Houses. * * * It has been 
objected that women do not know how to vote; * 
* * given the suffrage, the intelligent ballot would 
be the result. » - • ] imsi this recantation of 
past errors will beacceptable to the "Home C'ircle," 
especially to my friend C. I. H. Nichols, of Potter 
valley. Ldw.\kl) Berwick. 

Ciirinel. .\'<n\ islh. 

My enjoyment of Brother Berwick's cordial 
greeting, from the woman sull'rage platform, 
as above, is too deep and keen for a 
simple acceptance of his "recantation of 
past errors," as he is pleased to term his 
gallant abandonment of untenable positions 
on the subject of woman's legal and political 
rights, which have been a topic of lively dis- 
cussion in our "Home Circle" at intervals since 
early in I ST L 

Brother B. will please accept my hearty con- 
gratulations on the happy clearance of his men- 
tal vision; also my gi'<tteful assurance, that but 
for his sturdy and able opposition I should have 
missed much of the inspiration and more of the 
opportunity for the prosecution of my woman's 
mission through the columns of our favorite 
journal. For this, and for his kind reference 
to my friendship (as a means of grace, I take 
it), 1 do most heartily thank him. While I 
live and am able to occupy a niche in the 
"Home Circle," I shall esteem it both an honor 
and a pleasure to discuss wi^h him ways and 
means for making the world better, assured that 
in trying to benefit the masses we will grow 
wiser and better ourselves — in the pursuit of 
truth outgrow the petty ambition of winning 
the argument. 

As Gems in Political Economy, 

We owe "Jewell" something more than a penny 
for her thoughts. Of course the dust will fiy 
when experienced housekeepers ply the civil 
service brooms. But, as my mother used to 
i.ay, "In rooms kept well sweptthere cannot be 
much dust." If we may not discuss politics in 
our "Home Circle," wc surely may chip away at 
their demoralizing souvenirs; we may vigor- 
ously protest against their "Nasty" carica- 
tures, which arc alike offensive to good taste 
and destructive to good morals — wounding the 
tender sensibilities of women and children, to 
whom they would not dare exhibit their heart- 
less work in person. The lamented (!reely and 
his invalid wife, who apprehended and shrank 
from the ordeal to which mistaken friends 
tempted him, were borne to their graves on the 
Nutt y jtoliiiriil hi iiiifi . Traitorous to human- 
ity, it should be arrested as libellous, by fines 
and imprisonment. 

Truthfulness is a virtue that never stands 
alone, and no annount of care is wasted that cul- 
tivates, not alone the habit of speaking truth- 
fully, but a profound reverence for truth itself, 
as underlying all that is tructworthy and lovely 
in human character. Do editors and writers 
for our literary journals see, that sneering at the 
boy Washington, n-ho rontd not I' It <i lie, is mak- 
ing our boys of to-day ashamed of truthfulness, 
and teaching them that It/imj is a manly trait? 

"Oiiln vi/< I'otii- II icill I/O loth- /<oW»," said 
the opponents of woman suHragc. What they 
say now is told in a few brief extracts from the 
Washington Tenitory journals,- as follows: 

"The result shows that all parties must put 
up good men if they expect to elect them. 
They cannot, as they have done in the past, 
nominate any candidates and elect them by the 
force of the party lash." oli/mjiin Tnui-n-ripl. 

"Any one could not. f j,il to see that hereafter 
more attention must be >;iven at the primaries 
to select the purest material by both parties, if 
they would gain the female vote." -Dimocralir 
St'ifi' Joiiriiril. 

"The ladies voted with rare good judgment, 
few of them casting a straight ticket. They 
were treated with the same deference and 
respect which they would have received had 
they been in their own homes." — Dayton C'/iroii- 


"Their presence is having the effect which 
always goes with the presence of a woman — 
men seem to have more respect for themselves." 
— Sfal/ii Daily Vhronii h . 

It looks as though the "vile women" and 
"rough men" had emigrated from Washington 
Territory, as not a dissenting voice from the 
above is heard. 

Poiiio, Dir. I.Vh, 1884. 

Watkic RFi^fiKKii. — The amount of water re- 
quired for the human system is from four to 
five poumls per day. I'art of this is, of course, 
supplied by our food, but not all. Those who 
eat much salty or highly-spiced food require the 
most. The man who consumes much fruit 
requires much less drink. It is an excellent 
plan, when possible, to take our liquids as much 
as possible in the form of fruits as, in spite of 
all our precaution, most water, unless distilled, 
is more or less loaded with impurities of some 
sort, and often of a dangerous character. 

January 3, 1885.] 

"I've Been Thinking" Series.- No. 3. 

[BY .IKWFLI/. 1 


This is a serious <|Ucstion, friends. When 
we bring to mind the fact that we are a nation 
of invalids — dyspeptics mostly— a disease 
which underlies nearly all others, it is well 
worth our while to think, talk, and write upon 
the subject. Poor health effects us individu- 
ally and collectively, also. It is estimated that 
every sick person, if long ill, saps the vitality 
of at least sei-i-ii., who are moderately well. 
This, I think, a large estimate, but it is cer- 
tainly true that at least two lives are devoted 
or sacrificed for every one ! I'erhaps this may 
account for the many who are leading half dead 

The chief re(|ni->ites to insure health are, good 
food, pure air, outficient exercise, abundance of 
sleep, perfect rest, plenty of sunshine, proper 
clothing, a harmoninus social life, and a clear 
conscience. Of the many causes of disease, per- 
haps our ignorance of the laws i;ontrolling and 
belonging to life, is greatest. Then, too, a 
thoughtless disregard for those laws and bad 
habiis, which are sure to uiulcritiine the con- 
stitution. Inherited weakness, as well as 
tendencies to disease, curse many an aspiring 
life, liad habits of living, by vitiating the 
blood, retarding the circulation and exhausting 
vitality, soon destroy the regular action of the 
various organs. Pain then gives the brain 
warning that .something is wrong — that the 
machinery is out of order. Fortunate is the 
heeding indi idual who can repair damages 
now by rest and assisting nature a little in some 
simple way. 

The Patent Medicine Nuisance. 

Woe be unto those who embark upon tlie sea 
of patent medicines at this stage. Like the 
straw the drowning man caught to preserve 
life, they are about as safe. The wonder is that 
any one is sick, while such an array of cure alls 
are advertised in papers, having theirmillions of 
testimonials, filling the drug stores and riding 
every fence rail ! The utter ignorance of the 
people is well illustrated by the vast yearly in- 
comes of some of these patent medicine vendors. 
It is astonishing, also, how long the vitality 
will endure abuse, and exist. Instead of using 
only the interest of life -recuperative energy — 
a large majority are actually consuming the 
principal itself. 

Yet we wonder why so many die young, in 
the prime of life it may be, with perhaps some 
simple disease that the attending physician is 
usually most successful in treating. 

Observe the ordinary young person's life of 
these days. Is it exemplary? It may be; 
and yet he tobacco and liquor, (only 
enough to be nodnliU'), may be a good, thorough 
business man, you say — and society man too — 
which means that his recreations and rests are 
few, and llir;/ after nightfall, and on Sundays; 
consequently, midnight scarcely ever finds him 
asleep. The breakfast is late, a cup of coffee, 
and a few mouthfuls, a hurried lunch at mid- 
day, and the heartiest meal at night -with the 
usual drink and smoke after each meal — and 
between it may bel His evenings are spent at 
theatre or club ball, or at a friend's. So you 
see what little pun: air he gets is while going 
to and from business or amusements, and t/iat 
usually vitiated by a cigar. This life is in every 
way unnatural, though common enough! 

So will be his sickness and death quite com- 
mon and yet unnecessary, had his blood been 
kept pure with fresh air and good food, exer- 
cise, and plenty of sleep — the latter is as useful 
to keep the body strong as proper food and 
sunshine. Oh, that I had the power of expres- 
sion of a Dickens, or a greater, even, that I 
might arouse mankind to the crinif of sickness! 
The late Mrs. K. W. Farmern, one of the most 
gifted and talented of women, '^nce said, "I 
should be afkmned to have typhoid or any sort 
of fever, knowing it to be my own fault." 

She was an enthusiast on health subjects, 
and a physician, yet she died from oonsump 
tion, but caused by over-e .haustion in attend- 
ing upon our sick soldiers during the war. 
Duty to others oftentimes precedes duty to 
self, and our best knowledge then avails others 
much, but Hii as nothing. Is it not a physical 
sin, when we deliberately keep ourselves igno- 
rant regarding God's sacred laws of health? 

It is so considered in the moral life, and 
surely (iod expects as perfect work from us, 
physically as spiritually. In the good time com- 
ing, when our doctors consider it their best 
duty (.0 Icarh how to keip well, as well as to ijft 
well, and our ministers shall teach, as well as 
preach, that the gospel of health is as truly di- 
vine as the gospel of peace and good-will, then 
will there cease to be popular and fashionable 
inducements to destructive habits —tobacco 
using, costly dinners, midnight revels, tight 
lacing, and bad dressing, etc., etc. When intel- 
ligence becomes the rule, instead of the excep- 
tion, and experiment has given place to knowl 
edge as to the best and right way of living to 
promote perfect health: when children are tiorii 
without perverted appetites and the seeds of 
disease, then we may hope for a race truly in 
the image of the Creator. 

J)e< r Ridije Farm, Lou OcIok. 

Utili/.inu House Mkat in London. — Three 
thousand horses die each week in London. 
Their carcasses are purchased by a company 
which delivers meat for cats and dogs to many 
thousands of customers. There are 700,000 
cats in the city, 


The Puzzle Box. 

The Ship's Crew. 

On a ship is a crew of thirty men, fiftee.i being 
whites and fifteen negroes, with only food enougli to 
keep fifteen men alive until they reach land. It is 
therefore resolved to throw half the crew overboaid. 
The C'aptain anxious to save his white companions, 
so arranges the men in a circle that, by commencin!; 
at a given point and throwing overboard every ninth 
man until fifteen are taken, none but negroes are 
destroyed. How does tlie Captain arrange his crew. 

Lizzie A. Jones. 


1 wandt red one first down by the river's brin!;, 
and second the placid water 1 saw reflected black 
clouds, foretelling the .ipproachofa feirful third. 
As I turned to seek shelter the plaintive nielotly of 
a whole was borne to my ears. C'l.AUni:. 


1 de-cIare a filial duty 

Of the child toward the mother, 

And the sentence that I utter 
Backward readeth like an echo, 

Or an angel's voice repeating, 

"keveren ;e always render to her." 

J. K. 1'. I'..\KI.K. 

Word Values. 

1. What word, meaning a cover, equals ^51 ? 

2. word, meaning energy, eqmls 1.006-' 

3. Whnt word, meaning "blue and lil.u k", equals 
557? (L.-VUlili. 


1. Behead that place and leave 'his place. 

2. Behead a month and leave yes. 

3. Behead a plant and leave to descend. 

4. Behead to heat and leave a part of the body. 

Bi. \Ni nr.. 

Answei'Sto Last Puzzles. 
Odd DivisioN.s. — Extend (.\ ten d|. 
( HAUADE. — I'ig-eon. 

Hidden Gkove. — i. Ash. 2. Maple. 3. Kir. 
4. Pine. 5. Oak. 6. Pear. 7. Apple. 

CURTAILMKNIS. — I. Here, her. 2, Pearl, pc.\r. 
1,. Hate, hat. 4. Herod, hero. 
]•: N D E I) 
M E A 1) ]•: 

Children's Plans. 

It was a bright, warm day. Mike was thresh- 
ing in the barn, while the sunshine, streaming 
in at the open door, turned the grain dust to 
gold. Outside, in the yard, were the children 
and the chickens — the former idle enough, and 
the latter running here and there and scratch- 
ing as vigorously as if their lives depended upon 
their own exertions. Presently Winnie picked 
up the dish in which she had brought the corn, 
and went b.ick to the house, but the younger 
children lingered, declaring that the pleasant 
autumn day was just like summer. From watch- 
ing the chickens they began to watch the doves 
on the roof of the barn. 

" I'd rather be a bird than a chicken," said 
< leorgie. 

" I'd like to be a bird," said Nell, dreamily. 
"Then I'd fly away up in the sky. I b'lieve I 
could 'most fly to heaven; anyway, I'd go -way 
off over the ocean." 

"Why can't we fly ?" asked Ceorgie, wonder 
ingly. "I never thought about that." 

" 'Cause we don't have any fezzers," explained 
Teddie, turning round from his post of observa- 
tion by the barn door. 

" That's it — we haven't any feathers or 
wings," said Nell; "if we had, I guess we could 


"I'm going to have some right now," de- 
clared Teddie, jumping down from the steps 
and beginning to pick up some of the feathers 
scattered about the yard; "then I'll fly 'way 

That was a brilliant idea ! The little girls 
opened their eyes wide in wonder for a minute, 
and then they followed Teddie's example, and 
three pairs of little hands worked busily. They 
stuck feathers in their belts, feathers in their 
hair, feathers in their shoes, and then, with a 
great bunch in each hand, they climbed to the 
top of the chicken house "to get a good start,'' 
as (ieorgie said. 

"I I — don't know how," admitted Teddie 
rather doubtfully, as they stood in a row on the 
roof of the low building. 

"Why, you must Hop your wings just this 
way," said Nell, waving her hands wildly ; "and 
when I say 'three !' we'll all jump off and tly. 
One, two, three !" 

rhe jumping was easy enough, but alas 1 for 
the flying ! Down among the straw and hay of 
the barnyard tumbled three disconsolate little 
figures, and Teddie, striking an arm against an 
old wagon box, set up a cry of pain which 
brought Mike from the barn. 

"And why couldn't ye fly ? " repeated Mike, 
when he had heard the story. " \Vhy, because 
the wings was none of your own, and nobody 
cm lly with borrowed ones. If ye'll just le- 
niember that, it'll be something worth learnin', 
for there's plenty of older folks than you that's 
thryin' to do it. They Hy into splendor on 
o'her people's money, and into good society on 
the respectability of their families, and some of 
'em even think to tly into heaven on the good- 


ness of their fathers and mothers. They'll 
never do it; it's nothing but pickin' up feathers 
in the barnyard, and it'll end in a tumble." 

Mike went back to his work, and if the chil- 
dren did not (juite understanil him, Nell caught 
a part of his meaning, for she said: " ^V^ell, if 
we can't make good birds. I guess we can make 
good children, and we'll have to wait till (iod 
gives us wings." — Morniiiii Star. 

The Crooked Tree. 

"Such a cross old woman as Mrs. Barnes is I 
I never would send her jelly or anything else 
again," said Molly Clapp, setting her basket 
hard down on the table. "She never even said 
'thank you,' but 'set the cup on the table, 
child, and don't knock over the bottles. Why 
don't your mother come herself, instead of 
sending you ? I'll be dead one of these days, 
and then she'll wish she had been a little more 
neighborly. ' I never want to go there again, 
and I shouldn't think you would." 

"Molly ! Molly! come (|uick and see Mr. 
Daws straighten the old cherry tree !" called 
Tom through the window, and old Mrs. Barnes 
was forgotten as Molly flew out over the green 
to the next yard. 

Her mother watched with a good deal of in- 
terest the efforts of two stout men, as, with 
stout ropes, they strove to pull the crooked 
tree thi.", way and that, but it was of no use. 

"It's as crooked as the letter S, and has been 
for twenty years. You're just twenty years 
too late, Mr. Daws," said .Toe, as he dropped 
the rope and wiped the sweat from his face. 

"Mother," said Mollie, as she stood by the 
window again at her mother's «!do, "I know 
now what is the matter witii old Mrs. Barnes. 
She needn't try to De pleasant and kind now, 
for she'* like the old tree; it's twenty years too 

' It's never too late, with (iod's help, to try 
to do better; but my little girl must begin now 
to hold back harsh words and unkind thoughts. 
Then she will never have to say, as .foe said 
about the tree, 'It was twenty years too late.' " 
— Child's World. 

A (Jodi) GARCLb:. — A gargle made of strong 
black tea, and used cold, night and morning, is 
now the fashionable preventive in London 
against falling a victim to sore throat during 
the cold winds of spring, .and similar "cold 
spells" at other times of the year. 

Ovs'i'EUs. An oyster has nearly as much nil 
triment as an egg, and a little less than 
mea*-. They are the most digestible of all shell 


X)oj^E:sTie Qeoj^ojviY. 

Pancakk. — A novelty in pancakes is made in 
this way : To two eggs allow two ounces of 
flour, a little salt, and milk enough to make a 
batter of medium thickness. Beat the eggs until 
they are very light before adding the flour; put 
a lump of butter into a saucepan, and then 
pour iu enough batter to make one large cake; 
put in just enough to cover the bottom of the 
pan nicely, as the cake should be so thin that 
it will not need to be turned. When the pan- 
cike is done, sprinkle powdered sugar over it 
and roll it up; put on a hot plate, and when 
you have three oc four done send them to the 
table. To make these cakes very delicate, 
flavor them with a little lemon. A little thick 
raspberry jam may be rolled in them if you 

The (jli'KEN OK ProDiNC.'^. — One pint of bread 
crumbs (not crumbs of stale bread unfit for the 
table), one quart of sweet milk, one cup of 
sugar, and ttie well-beaten yolks of four eggs, the 
grated rind of one lemon, and a piece of butter 
the size of an egg. Bake until done, but not 
watery. Whip the whites of four eggs, and 
beat in one cup of pulverized sugar, in which 
you have put the juice of the lemon. .Spread 
over the pudding a layer of jelly or raspberry 
jam: then pour over it the whites of the eggs. 
Set it in the oven to brown slightly-. Serve cold 
with cream. Tiiis is an excellent dessert for an 
elaborate dinner, as it iuay be made early in the 
morning, and sc be out of the way. Fkuit PruiiiNc. One pint of flour, 
two teaspoonfuls baking powder, one-half tea- 
spoonful salt, one cup milk, two tablespoonfuls 
melted butter, two egg^, one-half cup of sugar, 
one pint berries or ripe fruit, or one cup raisins, 
stoned and halved. Mix the baking powder 
and salt with the flour; add the milk and melted 
butter. Beat the yolks of the eggs, add the 
sugar, and beat them well into the dough. Then 
add tlie whites of the eggs, beaten still, and then 
the fruit, well rolled in flour. Steam two hours, 
and serve with lemon or foamy sauce. 

Cori'EE Cakk.— One cup of sugar, one cup 
of 11 olasses, two-thirds of a cup of butter, one 
cup of strong coffee, one tablespoonful of soda, 
one teaspoonfi'l of cinnamon, one of cloves, five 
cups of flour. Bake in two tins. 

FdAMV Saite. Whites of two eggs, one cup 
of sugar, one cup boiling milk, juice of one 
lemon; beat the whites of the eggs till foamy, 
but not dry; add the sugar, and beat well; add 
the milk and lemon juice. 


Cure for Diphtheria. 

Ruth Lockwood. the nine-year ohl child of 
Thos. Lockwood, a compositor in the New ^'ork 
y'/'mf.s office, became violently ill with diph- 
theria a little while ago. ,She was so weak it was deemed dangerous to try trache- 
otomy, or cutting open the windpipe. A day 
or two before, Dr. Nichols, of 117 West W.ash 
ington place, who was attending her, received 
a copy of the Paris Fiijurt), which contained a 
report made to the French Academy of Medi- 
cine by Dr. Delthil. Dr. Delthil said that the 
vapors of liijuid tar <ind turpentine would dis- 
solve the fibrinous exudations which choke up 
the throat iu croup and diphtheria. Dr. 
Delthil's process was described. He pours 
equal parts of turpentine and a liquid tar into a 
tin pan or cup and sets fire to the mixture. A 
dense, resinous smoke arises, which obscures 
the air of the room. "The patient," r)r. 
Delthil says, "immediately seems to experience 
relief; the choking and rattle stop; the patient 
falls into a slumber, and seems to inhale the 
smoke with pleasure. The fibrinous membrane 
soon becomes detached, and the p.atient coughs 
up microbicides. These, when caught in a 
glass, may be seen to dissolve in the smoke. In 
the course of three days afterward the patient 
entirely recovers." 

Dr. Nichols tried this experiment success- 
fully with little Ruth Lockwood. She was 
lying gasping for breath when he visited her. 
First pouring about two tablespoonfuls of licjue- 
Hed tar on an iron pan, he poured as much tur- 
pentine over it and set it on fire. The rich, 
resinous smoke which rose to the ceiling was by 
no means unpleasant. As it filled the room the 
child's breathing became r.atural, and as the 
smoke grew dense she fell asleep. 

Food Koii THE Old. — An old person neither 
has the appetite, the power of digestion, nor 
the demand for food that younger persons have, 
and it is a dangerous plan to feed him too 
largely or luxuriously. His body is less active, 
his luugs take in less oxygen, his blood flows 
more slowly, his mind acts less vigorously, and 
to this lower change of vital activity, his food 
must be accommodated. 

Crea.m I'OK Inkant.s. — Struve upholds Dr. 
Biedent's suggestion that only cream should be 
used for the earliest nourishment of young 
children brought up by hand, as the digestibility 
of any milk is inversely as the (juantity of 
caseine which remains in ihe skim milk. 

Nice Dessert. — Try the following recipe for 
dessert. It has all sorts of names, but is us- 
ually known as rice a la 'I'rautmannsdorf : Boil 
a i|uarter of a pound of rice in milk, and while 
hot put in .an ounce of butter, some sugar and 
some essence of vanilla to taste. Dissolve half 
an ounce of gelatine in a little milk, and beat 
to a froth half a pint of rich cream. When the 
rice is cold, add the gelatine and whipped 
cream. Put it in a mould on the ice until it 
becomes perfectly firm. Serve with a fruit 
sauce or with preserved fruit. 

Bkeakkast Di.sii. — A very nice breakfas 
dish is made by chopping remains of yesterday's 
roast very fine and seasoning well; then take 
some mashed potato, mix one or two raw eggs 
I with it until it is like a paste and can be spread 
out; sprinkle it with flour and cut out round 
cakes; put a tablespoonful or more of the meat 
upon one cake; lay another over it and press 
the edges together, and fry in hot lard or beef 
dripping until a delicate brown. 

('AliiiAdE .\ND \'E.\r.. — A dish that needs to 
be more generally known is m.ade by chopping 
some veal, that has been cooked, very fiue; 
season it highly with popper and salt and a lit- 
tle mustard, and bind it with the yolk of an 
egg; then take a firm head of cabbage, cut out 
the heart, and fill the space with the veal; tie 
the cabbage up in a cloth and let it boil until 
tender. Some cooks use part cold boiled ham 
and part veal tr chicken. 

(IlNcEK Snai's. — ginger snaps are very 
eiisp, and keep well. One coffee- cup of butter 
and lard nd.xed, one cofl'oe-cup brown sugar; 
one cup cf molasses, half a cup of water, one 
tablespoonful ginger, one tablespoonful cinna- 
mon, one teaspoonful cloves, one teaspoonful 
soda dissolved in hot water; flour enough for 
pretty stifl' dough. Roll out very thin and 
bake quickly. 'J'he spices must all be ground. 

Fid Pi lunNo. - Chop half a pound of good 
figs until they are (|uite fine, a little more than 
a quarter of a pound of suet, also chopped veiy 
fine, and half a pound of line bread crumbs. 
Mix these altogether well, moistening well with 
molasses; add a little sugar to sweeten it suff,- 
ciently, and a teaspoonful of salt. This pud- 
ding requires boiling for an hour and 11 lialf. 

Lemon Sai c-k.-— Two cups hot water, one cup 
sugar, three heaping teaspoonfuls cornstarch, 
grated rind and juice of one lemon, and one ta- 
blespoonful of butter. Boil the water and sugar 
five minutes, and add the cornstarch, wet in a 
little cold water; cook eight or ten minutes, 
anil add the lemon nnd, juice and butter; stir 
i.ntil the butter is melted, and serve at once. 


[January 3, 1885 


Published by DEWEY & CO. 

Office, 262 Market St., N. E. cor. Front St., S. F. 
tf Take the Ekvator, So. It Front St. 

APDRK89 ALL literary and biislnesfl oorrespoDdeuce and 
drafts for thiii i)at>er ia the name of the timi. 

Our Subscription Bates- 

OCR Si'BscKiPTiox Kateh are three hollars a year" 
In ailvauce. If continued sulwcriptioDs are not prepaid in 
advanoti. for any readou, fifty cknt>« extra will be charged 
for each year or fraction of a year. t>s "So Dew uaues 
|ilae«d oil the list without cash in advance. Agents wanted. 

Advertisins Rates. 

i ICff*. t Month. S Months t Tear. 
Per Line (agate).... 8 .25 8 .80 t 2.20 « 5.00 
Half inch (1 aqua re). 1.60 4.00 10.00 24.00 

One inch 2.00 6.00 1 4.00 45.00 

Large advertiflenients at faToral>k' rates. Special or read 
iog notices, legal advertisements, notices appearing in extra 
ordinary type, or iu particular parts of the pai>er, atspecia 
rates. Four insertions arc rateil iu a ntonth. 

■ 'TK ADVBRTisEME.vr."i.— Advertisements not received 
LAhg Tuesday unll he charged 10 per cent, additional 
as early a\t-;.»r extra cost, unless otherwise contracted, 
for night woTk"' 

Our latent fonm go to ^ . 

nress Wednesday evening. 

' '^tass mail matter. 
Entered at the S. F . Fost Cilice as seoouu-^.. j 

DEWEY & CO., Tate-nt Solicitors. 



Saturday, January 3, 1885 

EDITORIALS. — The San Jo;ii|>lin District Fair 
Grounds,!. The Week; Manners, tj. The Ayricultu- 
nil Kxiierinieiit Stations; Turification of Water by Mo- 
tion: Norman Hordes, 9. 

ILLUSThATIONS.-Fair fironnds of the San Joa- 
quin Iii>trift Axrit.'iiUural Association, 1. Meal .Sketch 
of Norman Horsus n the R.iad, 9. 

ENTOMOLOGICAIj.-The Canker Worm Moth at 
Work: 'rri ^itnrunt for sicale Insect", 8- 

QUERIES AND KBPLIKS.-ruttins in Alfalfa: 
Winilhreaks for the Plains: What to Plant, 8. 

THE DAIRY.— The Value of Carrots as Food for 
St4trk. Kx|.rrieMce at .Terscv Kanu; Keedini; Dairv 
SStotk, 2. 

THE STOCK YARD. - An Immense Indu9tr\ , 2-3. 

HORTICULTURE.— State Board of Horticulture; 
l>istriI)Ution ot i'lants and Srious, 3- 

(poetrj ); Sulijict for Jaiiuar.v Discussions; Urange Elec- 
tions; .Sacrament'" (irange; <.;raiiixc Progress, 4. 

Counties >>t California, 4-5. 

TSB HOME CIRCLE.- "IV .Mnrtuis" (poetry); 
Home KeadinKfand Srrap-IJof«ks; Women r>octors*in 
Hospitals: .\i knowlcd>rments Thoughts in Detach- 
ments, Kti-., 6. ' I vc Been Thinking- Series -No. 7 

YOUNO FOLKS' COLUMN.- The Puzzle Box: 
Children's Plans; The i rooki d Tree, 7. 

GOOD HEALTH.- cure f..rl>iphtheria; Food for the 
Old; Cream f..r Infants, 7. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.- Pancake; The i^ueen of 
Puddings: .Ste.imed Fruit PuiUlini;; Nice Dessert: Break- 
fast Dish; Cabbage .and Veal: liinger Snap«, 7. 

Business Announcements. 

Agriuultural Implements— Baker Jc Hamilton, S. F. 
l.e Conte Pears- t'. W. Dearliorn, Oakland, ( al 
Nurseryman -F.. Cill, Oakland, Cal. 
Seeds — Plant Seed Co., .St. l..ouis. Mo. 
New Home Sewinjc Machine -.s. F. 
Poultry— T. Waite, Brighton, Cal. 
.Southern California— L. .M. Holt, Riverside, < al 
Grape Cuttings - .1. A. Clark, Woorlland, Cal. 
Kooted Vines— Henry Mel, (llenwood, Cal. 
Olives— A. T. Marvin, S. F. 
Fruit Drier— Schmolz Mammoth Drier Co., s. F. 
Oooseherrics 0. Tiisetti, San I.eandro f al. 
Orape Cuttings .1. C. Merithew, Copt tone, Cal. 
Fruits— F. B. Clowes, Stockton, Cal. 
Liniment— H. H. Moore & Sons. 
Seedlings Bloomingtnn Nursery Co. 
Kiverside Nursery - O. 0. Goodrich, Sacramento. 
Seeds— Simuel Wilson, MechanicM ille, Pa. 

<ar See Advertising Columns. 


"Good manners," says Lord Chesterfield, 
"are, to particular societies, what good morals 
are to society in general their cement and 
their security." Kmerson defines good and bad 
manners as "What helps or hinders fellowship." 
Sidney .Smith says, "Manners are the shadow 
of virtues," and ."^outh assures us that we may 
carry good manners "from the hand to the 
heart, improve a ceremonial nicety into a sub- 
stantial duty, and the modes of civility into 
the realities of religion." As a malter of fact, 
however, the majority of even good people find 
it easier to do generous and magnanimous 
things occasionally, than to do little, courteous 
and kindly things continually. In the first 
case the person follows the impulse of grand 
sentiments, which overcome for the time his 
selfish love of ease: in the other, selfishness and 
self-assertion are subject to constant restraint. 
The gentleman and lady, therefore, whether 
they be dressed in broadcloth or batin, 
homespun or linsey-woolsey, whether they be 
persons of ordinary capacity and virtues, or 
heroes and geniuses, are distinguished from 
other men and women, not l)y superiority of 
force and intelligence, but by superior delicacy 
of perception of the "vital properties" which 
should regulate the social intercourse of human 
beings. P^arl Chatham's definition of politeness 
is, "lienevolence in small things," and good 
m'annerA,^''^ always either the instinctive ex- 
pression of a goCiti^!?!*' ^'■e the result of an 
austere discipline, which jjft expres- 
sion of a bad one. Human naturc'il j?. ™per' 

J oseph Miller tells us about. The parents of 
many so-called gentlemen, evidently neglected 
to pay the e.xtra sixpence. In social intercourse, 
everything goes on charmingly as long as the 
conversation is vapid and flabby. The moment 
it bears on ({uestions which really interest 
human beings, it is in danger of becon-ing the 
field in which contempt, scorn, hatred, malice 
and all uncharitableness find free expression 
The inevitable, irrepressible dogmatism of the 
individual, triumphs over the principles of which 
he is the apparent champion; and he asserts 
himself while he fancies that he is simply back 
ing his principles by the force of his personal 
will and convictions. In nine out of ten, 
he is deceived, his vanity, his egotism, his 
prejudice and passion sweeping him beyond the 
border of decency and courtesy. Whenever 
the politician or theologian can in earnest de- 
bate, possess his soul in patience and "sweet 
reasonableness," his serenity, treating 
his adversary, with the courtesy that respects 
honest conviction, we shall begin to think the 
dawn of the tnillenium is on the sky. 


The Canker Worm M<jth at Work. 

This pest is now at work in Alameda county. 
The Haywards Journal editor says he visited 
an orchard in San Lorenzo, Dec. •24th, and was 
shown dozens of the male and female cunker 
worm moth just ascending the trees. Kvery 
tree, however, had a band around it, covered 

feet, that most of the ladies and gentlemen ^X^.K"^'^^ ^ preparation of tar and printer'- int 

... - . thpv ' r ii.:.- - I. i __. 

4 pounds tobacco. This portion can be obtained 
there at a cost about .V^ cents per pjuud. 

Further steps with ingredients and propor- 
tions are given. 

(The addition of the coal oil ingredient, and 
the method of incorporating sulphur, is that 
used by Mr. H. M. Lelong, San Gabriel.) 

The sulphate of iron experiments I have ear- 
ned on this present season; the formula I have 
decided upon is as follows, viz. : 
R concentr.ited lye (.•\merican) @ $4.25 per 
case of 48 It.?. ; or caustic soda, @ 5 

cents per drum — ;< tb jo c 

.Sulphur, by bbl. @ 4^4 cents per lb.— 2 fts. 9 
Whale oil .soap, L. A. Soap Co.; per tt>., sJ^ 

cents; freight, iH cents— 8 lbs 56 

Coal oil, 2 quarts ,q 

Sulphate of iron (copperas), by ijbl. @ 3 cents 

per R>.- -2 lbs 5 

Water, 32 gallons. ' ' 

The Week. 

An area of low thermometer has followed the 
low barometer, and as we write on Tuesday, 
there are signs of a New Years' mantle of snow, 
like that of two years ago. The plenteous rain, j 
however, puts people in good nature, and they ; 
do not mind the cold as though it had capped a [ 
dronth. The figures of the rain storm 

meet with are, unlike the poets, "made, rather 
than born." Courtesy, on the whole, it an art, 
rather than an instinct or an inspiration. 
Good manners is a flower of culture. 

As an art, it is subjected to some exacting 
tests, and the most cruel of these is the temp- 
tation to sacrifice courtesy in a conversation or 
discussion which touches upon topics which 
imply an opposition of strong prejudice or con- 
viction. The surface gentleman, the fop, cox- 
comb, dude, who has sunk his conscience and 
intelligence in his manners, escapes from the 
temptation through mental and moral apathy. 
The conversation of such persons is usually an 
imbecile imitation of good manners. But to 
have in social life, conversation which shall be 
bright, animated and earnest, without violating 
the "proprieties," is very ditiicult. In liter- 
ature, in art, in politics, in morals, in religion, 
the differences of opinion have so many roots 
in individual character that good manners are 
in constant peril from an unsocial ferocity of 
self-assertion. The calm, cool persons, decked 
out in purple and fine linen, and exchanging 
courtesies in gilded parlors are often found to 
be barbarians at heart when their cherished 
ideas or beliefs are assailed. In the best com- 
pany we find that the art of disagreeing, which 
implies that the collision of prejudices, princi- 
ples and ideas shall be conducted with a con- 
stant reference to the law of courtesy, is an art 
still in its infancy. That mere morality or 
genius is no guaranty of good manners in such 
matters, is proved by such cases as Dr. Johnson 
and Carlyle. .lohnson could rail at foppery 
and coxcombery, but he had no word of rebuke 
for the social coarseness and savagery of which 
he was so often guilty. "You don't understand 
the question,' and "You lie, sir," were common 
epithets in argument with scholars on his own 
level. Carlyle's supreme contempt for the per- 
sons who disagreed with him often exasperated 
those who had the highest respect for his in- 
tegrity and insight. 

As a .rule, our controversialists in politics 
show I ^^'^ theology, are gentlemen in the ordinary 
sense of the word. At least, they are civilized 

that enough has fallen for present uses, in all 
parts of the State, and a good, long winter for "P *° " P°'°*- 

work is to follow the delights of "the holiday " ^ discussion, he 

eeaaon assails his intellectual opponent as though he 

The "next great event will be the regathering "'"'^ ^^'^ personal enemy. I'ropositions are not 
of the Legislature at Sacramento for the regular i °°'y confounded with persons-which of itself 
biennial session. Important questions in the j 
agricultural interest are pending, and we are 

wheC they 'JJofied this they were caught and 
could proceed no further. 'The guide caught a 
number of the females, and on opening them 
there were seen, through a magnifying glass, 
hundreds of small eggs. It has been shown 
that each female moth has from l.'iO to 300 
eggs, and hundreds gather at the bottom of 
each tree. Unless the fruit men go right to 
work and band their trees they will have mil- 
lions of them eating into their fruit next year. 
Now is the time to set to work. If operations 
are postponed until after the rain stops the 
female moth will have left the ground, as- 
cended the trees and deposited her eggs, then 
the orchardist is at the mercy of this little but 
destructive pest. In a number of orchards they 
have cleaned out full one-half of the apple and 
cherry crop. In fact they take to all kinds of 
fruit trees, and unless prompt measures are 
used, the entire crop will be destroyed. Those 
who have been successfully fighting them for 
the past two years, are A. P. Crane, H. W. 
Meek, l.ewelling Clint and Lew King, and 
others. Kvery orchardist in thatsection should 
at once begin work to stop them from reaching 
the trunks of the trees, but if they neglect to 
do this they will pay dearly for it. Unless im- 
mediate steps are taken to check their increase, 
the entire fruit crop in this valley will soon be 
at the mercy of this pest. Lewelling and A. I'. 
Crane are now rebanding their trees, and 
others will follow their example. This moth has 
reached Haywards' vicinity; and it would be 
well for our orchardists to closely examine 
their trees. Will Knox is banding his trees 
near town, and we learn that Dr. Kimball is 
doing the same. Any one wishing to get infor- 
mation on this pest would do well to call on 
A. I'. Crane, at San Lorenzo. 

Total 86 


Cost, per gallon of mixture, 'J5 cents. 
This proportion being borne in mind, any de- 
sired quantity may be made. Should a stronger 
wash be desired, use but i-J gallons of water. 

First put the sulphur in a kettle and add a 
little water, then add the lye and boil together 
for a few minutes with a slow fire, stirring well. 
Do not add any cold water when boiling. Now 
add the whale oil soap and pour in the coal oil 
with a little water. Stir well while heating 
and boiling. After beginning to boil add a 
little more waiir. At ull times when water is 
added do not use a quantity at any one time to 
exceed the itmouut of cojl oil used. When 
this is well cooked, and the soap is thoroughly 
incorporated, add the sulpha' e of iron. 

To this whole mixture thus prepared, the full 
amount of water, warm or cold, may be added 
at any time for use. 

Caution should be used in mixing the coal oil 
that ihe flame of fire does not ignite the mixt- 
ure, and it is advised this preparation bo 
carried on in some safe place. 

It is believed" thai tin's mixture, whish I will 
name and hereafter call, "Whale Oil and Iron 
Compound, ' will give great satisfac'ion to all 
who will employ it, and it is therefore fully pub- 
lished.— S. F. Chapix. 

-but all the possible wickedness which 

pleased to see among the Legislators so many 
who have actual knowledge and experience in 
the matters likely to arise. We expect a use- 
ful session, which is certainly a hopeful view to 
take of it. 

Repre.sestativer of the Transcontinental 
Association will meet in San Francisco on the 
r2th of January, and much speculation is rife 
as to the result of their labors. 

from the proposition, is considered to be em- 
bodied in the person who holds them. "Send 
me Linkuin's scalp," a tender Southern maiden 
wrote to her lover in the rebel army, and this 
wild, Indian element of warfare may be de- 
tected in almost every theological quarrel. 

"Saxpence for them which lams to read, and 
saxpence more for them which larns manners," 
were the terms of the old .School-mistress, 

Treatment for Scile Insects. 

Dr. S. F. Chapin, State Inspector of Fruit 
Vests, has issued a bulletin as follows: Careful 
experimentation carried on for several years 
(see Report of this office, 1S8S, I'age 2C>, experi- 
ment No. 20), with the more recent addition of 
two ingredients, has developed an effectual 
insecticide which may be more generally used 
than any other at this time known, and the 
cost of which is but one quarter to one third 
that of the best washes hitherto used. This 
wash can also be universally used summer and 
winter alike, for any and all the insect pests 
usually treated by spraying; and with the very 
valuable advantage, .so long sought for, without 
injury to tree, foliage, or fruit. It is also of 
great value in mildew and fungoid diseases, 
such as attack the pear, apple, etc., and to 
j cleanse trees of moss and other parasites. 

The most serious of our scale insects the ter- 
rible Irrryii piirrhasi (cottony cushion), scale, 
the San .Jose scale {An/ihlioln'i pi rnirioxm), and 
all others of this class are effectually destroyed 
by this wash. For the first named this is the 
only completely successful remedy that has been 
used, as it can be applied on evergreens as well 
as to deciduous trees and shrubs. 

The ingredients used are: Whale oil, concen- 
trated lye (potash and caustic soda), tobacco, 
sulphur, coal oil, sulphate of iron (copperas). 

Ditticulty in conveniently compounding the 
whale oil soap makes this portion of the mixture 
more easily obtained from the Los Angeles 
Soap Company, who use in 100 pounds of soap, 
4.3 pounds whale or seal oil, 2 pounds tallow or 
grease, 1 1 pounds potash, I pound caustic soda. 

©UEf^lES /tJ^B ^EfLIES. 
Putting in Alfalfa. 

Editors Prkjis:— Mr. \Vm. Crosby, of Liver- 
more, inquires how to put in alfalfa seed, and 
as I get 80 many good items from the Ri ral I 
will reciprocate by giving him the plan which 
I have found best, after a short experience of 
only four years, \\ hen I came here I was told 
to sow early- with the first rains. At first I 
practiced that plan, but for the last tw o years 
I have sown late and I think with much better 
results. I found that young alfalfa was too 
tender to stand even the light frosts of San 
Diego county successfully, and, being delicate, 
makes but little growth during cold weather 
and the weeds get the start of it. 

My plan now is to plow the ground at least 
twice during the winter, and cultivate or bar- 
row and be sure that no weeds are allowed to 
grow to sap the moisture. Have the ground 
well harrowed and smooth and free from clods, 
(as it will be if properly cultivated) sow in 
March; ten pounds per acre. Use only a clod 
crusher or br.ish drag after sowing. Sow no 
grain and cut all weeds before they are large 
enough to smother the alfalfa. I do not irrigate 
for the same reason that Jack did not cat his 
supper; he had none to eat. We have no water, 
but we raise alfalfa here on bottom land success- 
fully without, and cut from four to six crops 
besides the winter pasture, which is the best 
crop of all. With proper irrigation I think 
alfalfa will do well most anywhere. But oth- 
ers, to the colli raiy notwithstanding, " ever- 
green millet ' is a humbug and a delusion. 
That is my experience after two years' trial. 
- B. B. R., Bernnnio, Od. 

Wlndbrea s for the Plains. 
Editors Press:— 1 wtii.- you concerning wind- 
breaks. I have a ranch ol line valley loam, about 
so miles north of Woodland, where 11, e north wind 
scorches and blows things to pieces. .Vow. my ob- 
ject is to plant some of it in choice fruits and vines, 
and 1 want a stiff windbreak to the north and north- 
west. I want a tree that will grow quickly. Is the 
caialpa of any account, and do they absorb as 
much of the moisture around as the giim } Would 
l)lue gums, three trees thick to the row, be capable 
of standing up against the norther without trimming 
back for two or three years ? — y. P. Oakland. 

We would like to hear from our valley read- 
ers who have experience with different trees. 
We do not know how the catalpa does on our 
plains, perhaps some one can tell from experi- 
ence. The eucalyptus changes its behavior 
very much according to location and conditions. 
It is objectionable as a windbreak on some ac- 
counts. The Monterey pine (not the cypress) 
has done remarkably well in some jiarts of the 
San Joaquin valley. Let each one write of his 
own trees and his own location, and we shall 
have a good fund of information. 

What to Plant. 

ILniTORS Press:— I have about ten acraeof river 
bottom land of rather sandy soil which can be thor- 
oughly irrigated if necessary, which I wish to set in 
fruit trees (the fruit I wish to disjiose of in a green 
state). I would like advice from readers of the 
Press as to which will be the most profitable variety 
to plant, also which variety is the best as food for 
hogs or cattle.— A Subscriber, Tres Pinos, Cal. 

January 3, 1885] 


The Agricultural Experiment Stations. 

The propositioQ for Congress to do something 
useful for the agricultural interest by the 
establishment of agricultural experiment sta- 
tions in the different States has received the 
approval of the leading agricultural organiza- 
tions of the country, and it is to be hoped that 
the present session of Congress will enact the 
law providing for the work. This movement 
comes in direct line of the improvement and 
elevation of the Department of Agriculture it- 
self, which is advocated by all. There is a 
difference of oj/inion among those who support 
this idea as to whether the department should 
be elevated to a cabinet position with a secre- 
tary of agriculture at its head, or whether, as 
is shown by Prof. Hilgard's article on a follow- 
ing page, more good could not be done by giving 
the department a different direction of elevation 
and improvement. This is an important subject 
for discussion, and we give the views of Prof. 
Hilgard as representing that side of the ques- 
tion. We trust they will be generally read and 

The movement for the establishment of agri- 
cultural experiment 
stations is now before 
Congress in 
ional bill H. R., No. 
7498, "To establish 
agricultural experi- 
ment stations," which 
has been favorably 
reported by the Com- 
mittee on Agricult- 
ure, and its passage 
recommended. This 
bill proposes to pro- 
vide such stimulus 
for agricultural im- 
provement, as the 
patent laws do for 
mechanics, manufac- 
turers and artists, 
and the copy-right 
laws for authors. This 
seems to be the only 
way in which such 
an end can be reached . 
Farmers cannot main- 
tain a personal right 
to improvements in 
tillage, in crops, in 
stock breeding, in 
overcoming the dis- 
eases of animals or 
plants, or in with- 
standing the attacks 
of insect enemies. 
However much of la- 
bor, or study, or 
money the farmer 
may expend for cither 
of these, his neighbor 
can imitate his work 

and get as much profit from it as he himself 
can, and that without asking permission or ex- 
pressing thanks. Some action of the sort pro- 
posed by this bill may fairly be asked, in order 
to put agriculture on a par with the other in- 
dustrial arts. 

Agricultural Experiment Stations carry on 
investigations in subjects of the greatest im- 
portance to agriculture, by the use of the accu- 
rate methods and processes of chemistry, bot- 
any, entomology, physiology and kindred sci- 
ences. The analysis and management of man- 
ures, the production and adaptation of new 
varieties of seeds and crops, the destruction of 
injurious insects, the protection a;^ain8t con- 
tagious diseases of animals, have all been the 
subject of successful and satisfactory investi- 
gation in Experiment Stations. Wherever 
they have been established they have proved 
themselves of great benefit to farmers, and have 
received their unanimous and hearty support. 
There are a hundred or more of them in the 
various countries of Europe, and in our country 
they have been established in Connecticut, 
North Carolina and New Jersey for several 
years, and are highly valued. More recently 
they have been established in New York, Ohio, 
Wisconsin and some other States, and are doing 
good work. 

When the interests involved are looked at, it 
will be seen that the outlay coutemplated by 
this bill is exceedingly small — fifteen thousand 
dollars ($15,000) a year for each State, or five 
hundred and seventy thousand dollars ($070,- 

000) for all the States, while seven million five 
hundred thousand (7,500,000) men, whicli is 
forty-four (44) per cent of our working popula- 
tion are engaged in agriculture; ten thousand 
million dollars (.5!10,000,00O,000) are invested in 
farm lands, four huadred million dollars ($400,- 
000,000) in its implements aod machinery, fif- 
teen hundred million dollars ($1,500,000,000) in 
its live stock, and its annual products are 
twenty-two hundred million dollars ($'2,200,- 
000,000). Surely the farming community may 
ask this comparatively small provision for their 

The bulletins publishing the results of the 
work of the State Experiment Stations are 
printed as soon as work is done, and sent with- 
out charge to farmers who desire them. And 
they are producing a great revolution in farm 
economy wherever their influence extends. 
The benefits of intelligence and skill in farming 
make themselves felt wherever they are applied. 
To produce these, no other means equal to that 
of Agricultural Experiment Stations have been 
devised. And no thrifty and progressive farm- 
ing community can afford to do without them. 

The establishment of these stations in con- 

Purification of Water by Motion. 

A discovery has been made by Dr. Pehl, of 
St. Petersburg, which promises to have a very 
important bearing on many industrial processes. 
The water of the river Neva is very free from 
bacteria, having only about 300 germs in a cubic 
centimeter. The canals of St. Petersburg, on 
the contrary, are infected with bacteria, their 
number reaching 110,000 in a cubic centimeter, 
even during good weather. The same is true 
with regard to the conduits of water for the 
i supply of the city. While the chemical com- 
position of the' water passing through these city 
conduits hardly differs from that of the Neva 
(Ijy which they are supplied), the number of 
bacteria reaches 70,000 against 300 in the water 
freely taken from the river; and the worst 
water was found in the chief conduit, although 
all details of its construction are the same as in 
the secondary conduits. Dr.Peh' explains this 
anomaly by the rapidity of the motion of the 
motion of the water, and he has made direct 
experiments in order to ascertain that. In fact, 
when water was brought into rapid motion for 
an hour, by means of a centrifugal machine, 
the number of developing germs was reduced 
by ninety per cent. Further experiments will 
show if this destruction of germi is due to the 
motion of the mass of water, or to molecular 
motion. If this discovery of Dr. Pehl's be con- 


nection the Agricultural Colleges will be 
strengthening to both. The colleges have done 
excellent work, and have given a large return 
to the country for the gifts by which they were 
established. The $7,0.10.000 fund created by 
the gifts of the government has been supple- 
mented by $5,000,000 more from States 
and benevolent individuals. The colleges 
have been established in all the States, 
and more than 4,000 students are profiting 
from the instructions of above 400 professors. 
These institutions mainly teach the branches 
of learning which relate to agiiculture and the 
mechanic arts, — while the experiment stations 
apply these branches of learning to the practical 
wants of the agriculturist. The studies begun 
by the students in college are carried on by the 
practical farmer in the field, and the college 
professors will be quickened in their duties by 
seeing the useful purposes to which their 
sciences are applied. It brings learning and 
work fairly in connection, and meets a pressing 
demand of the age. 

The advantages to be secured by the passage 
of this bill are wide and far-reaching, both for 
the farmers and for the whole country, and the 
interests which it is intended to promote are so 
vita) to the prosperity of the whole country as 
to be entitled to the fostering care of the gen- 
eral Government. 

Norman Horses. 

We have upon this page a spirited ideal 
picture of a span of Norman horses which the 
artist has drawn with the idea of showing that 
the breed has ac ion as well as weight, and 
agility as well as strength. As we have men- 
tioned on several previous occasions, these Nor- 
man horses are getting widely distributed over 
the State, and are becoming popular wherever 
they are introduced. They are stamping their 
form iadelibly upon the common horse stock 
of the State, and the resul; is evidently a great 
improvement in our horse flesh. As this be- 
comes more apparent the demand for thorough- 
breds inoreises and importations increase. We 
lately made brief mention of the fifth importa- 
tion of Theodore Skillmm of Petaluma, and 
promised fuller particulars. We now take 
space for a few interesting facts concerning the 
last group of horses brought by Mr. Skillman 
in connection with the engraving which some 
of them closely resemble. Certainly Mr. Skill- 
man has made good his old repu'a;ion in the 
selection of the last lot of seven stallions and 
two mares. They arrived December 13th, and 
looked as fresh as 
daisies as they came 
fromthecars. "Snow 
Flake" is a beautiful 
dapple grey, standing 
17 hands high and 
weighing 1,820 lbs. 
at four years old. This 
horse promises, when 
matured and in flesh, 
ti weigh over 2,000 
pounds. He holds his 
head high, has a keen 
6y6> good back, good 
heavy bone and moves 
like a horse weighing 
only 1,200 pounds. 
He has securedsweep- 
stakes where ever 
shown in the ring. 
"Debonaire " is a 
dark brown, standing 
16^ hands high on aa 
fine a set of feet and 
legs as was ever 
placed under a horse, 
and knowing well how 
to use them, making 
an active horse. De- 
bonaire is four years 
old, weighing 1,630 
pounds. He is short, 
and strong in back 
and loin and he pro- 
duces an impression 
on the beholder, which 
grows in favor the 
longer he is contem- 
plated. Mr. Skillman 
has four blacks, that 

firmed, it will become possible to destroy bac- > would make a fine four in-hand. They are all 

AiJKAHAM Lincoln's Invention. — The model 
of an apparatus for "lifting vessels over sho^ds," 
for which a patent was issued in 1849 to Abra 
ham Lincoln, will form a portion of the Patent 
Office exhibited at the New Orleans Exposition. 

teria, and render a water comparatively pure, 
simply by passing it through a centrifugal ma- 
chine. The subject is of special interest to 
brewers, who suffer, perhaps, more than any 
other manufacturers from the attacks of bac 

The Treaty With Nicakagita. — One of the 
most important announcements made in the 
President's message was that the Government 
has concluded a treaty with ihe republic of 
Nicaragua for the construction, by the United 
States, of a canal, railway and telegraph line 
across the Isthmus. 

The route over which it is proposed the 
Government shall build a canal lies between 
Greytown on the Atlantic and Port San Juan 
ifel Sur on the Pacific. Surveys have been 
made of this route several times, and it is highly 
commended. The priposed line of will 
pass directly through Lake Nicaragua, which is 
90 miles long and 40 miles wide. Its waters 
are fresh and of sufficient depth to float vessels 
of the deepest draught. There are also several 
islands in the lake which can be utilized for 
repair and supply stations. The lake is 1 10 feet 
above tide wa er, and six locks and five inter- 
mediate levels will be required for the Pacific 
side of the canal. On the Atlantic side five 
locks and four in ermediate levels are proposed. 
These locks, an authori y says, would no more 
limit the number of vessels passing through the 
canal than would a single tide-lock on the 
Pacific end which is necessary to any route, 
even by a level sea way. The canal would have 
to be dug 17i miles to unite the waters of the 
Pacific wi h the lake. Upon the opposite side 
36 miles will have to be excavated, making a 
1 otal of 5.').J miles and 119 by canal, river and 
lake. The distance between Sm Francisco and 
New York will be shortened 10 days. The 
estimated cost is from 43 to 75 millions. 

fco 1 hoi s s. Our attention was especially c illed 
t ) ' T o iipette," a coal black, four years old, with 
a fii e cU a 1 h 'ad, a full, pretty eye, a mild, 
kind counteni nos, a beauty to look at, weigh- 
ing 1,615 lbs., and a movement full of action 
and grace. "S )usonnett," his mate, is three 
years old, coal black, weighs 1,600 lbs., and at 
maturity will weigh over 1,800. This is also a 
fine colt, and since we saw him, we learn that 
he has been sold to Robert I. Orr, of San Felipe, 
San Benito county. 

"Jupiter" and "Pancha" are blacks, with 
stars in their foreheads. They each wei^h over 
1,700 pounds, and are so near alike that one 
must be a hor,se expert to distinguish them 
apart. They are cer ainly a fine span of s al- 
liens. ''Jerome" is a dark iron-gray, four 
years old, weighing 1,800 pounds, with heavy 
bone and good action — a perfect draft horse. 
Mr. Skillman has with this importation two 
imported mares, "Pellot" and "Biche." They 
are both recorded in the Percheron Stud Book of 
France, as shown by the certificate which Mr. 
Skillman has. They, with the stallions, are all 
entered for register in the National Register of 
Norman horses. All are warranted as imported. 

After a short rest in the city, where they 
were visited by many who are interested in fine 
horses, the animals were taken to Mr. Skill- 
man's Magnolia Stock Farm near Petaluma, 
California. Mr. Skillman has done much to 
promote the Norman horse interest in this 
State, and no doubt his latest importation will 
attract the attention of those desiiing choice 
animals. One of his latest sales was the fa- 
mous stallion "Tornado," who took the first 
premium three successive California State 
Fairs, to T. C. White, of the Raisina vineyard. 
Fresno, Cditornia. Mr. Skillman disliked to 
part with this fine animal, which has brought 
him such honor and has done such great service 
for the neighborhood. 


pAeiFie I^URAL f RESS. 

[Janoaby 3, 1885 

The Department of Agriculture. 

SuserestioDS for Its Improvements. 

Now that a change of administration at Wash- 
ington will probably lead in changes in the vari- 
OQS branches of the Government, it is timely to 
give attention to the Department of Ai;ricul- 
ture, and the ideas which should prevail in the 
choice of a Commissioner. The agricultural in- 
terest, through the Grange and some other or- 
ganizations, has called for the creation of a cabi- 
net rank, for the governmental agriculturist, 
and a bill to accomplish that result is now be- 
fore Congress. Some of the foremost agricul- 
tural thinkers of the country, who are quite 
as anxious that the department should be ele- 
vated and improved, are of the opinion that this i 
could be better done by making the Commis- 
sioner rather less than more of a political of- 
fice than it is now, and that greater scientific 1 
and practical efficiency could be thus attained. 1 
One ol this mind is Prof. Hilgard, of onr State | 
University, and his views were presented at 
length in the Atlintlr Monthly some time since. | 
As this side of the matter has not heretofore ! 
been generally presented, we shall give an ab- j 
stract of his essay, which we trust will be full 
enough to maintain the thread of the argument: 

The act establishing the Department of Agri- 
culture recites that its "general design and 
duties shall be to acquire and diffuse among 
the people of the United States useful informa- 1 
tion on subjects connected with agriculture, ; 
in the most general and comprehensive sense 
of that word, and to procure, propagate and 
distribute among the people new and valuable 
Sf-eds and plants." A succeeding section speci- I 
fies that such information shall be obtained by 
the commissioner " from books and correspond- [ 
ence, and by practical and scientilic e.xperi- 
ments, by the collection of statistics and by i 
other appropriate means within his power." ' 

The very general wording of this act leaves j 
to the commissioner a wide discretion in respect 
to the manner in which the intent of the law [ 
shall be carried into effect, and probably was 
intended to do so by its framers. In view of 
this, it is a curious fact that no qualifications as 
to special fitness on the part of the incumbent 
are prescribed ; the selection being left entirely 
to the good judgment of the executive. 

What Has the Department Done ? 

It can hardly be surprising that wide differ- ! 
ences of opinion as to the proper scope and 
mode of action should have arisen in respect 
to the Department of Agriculture as well as the 
agricultural colleges. Like the latter, that 
department and those placed at its head have 
been highly extolled on the one hand, and 
roundly denounced for utter inetticiency and 
uselessness on the other. As in the case of the 
colleges, the truth is doubtless to be sought 
between the extremes. Much of what has 
been objected to is and has been due to causes 
lying outside of the department itself, in the 
political atmosphere of the country, and in the 
immense extent of the territory over which the 
benefits of tiie department were to he spread 
by the aid of the small sums that have, until 
quite recently, been at its command. The in- 
evitable great dilution of the effects produced, 
under the circumstances, could hardly fail to 
draw down upon the department the criticism 
of portions of the country, or of certain special 
agricultural industries, which for the time 
being found themselves neglected. 

If we examine in detail the records of the de- 
partment, as shown by tlie annual and special 
reports issued by it, we find that, so far as they 
go, the letter as well as the spirit of the law 
creating it, has been fairly complied w ith. It 
is a common thing to hear these reports sneered 
at, and to find them in the leceptucles usually | 
provided for waste paper. But it is generally ! 
true that the sneering critics are those who [ 
would have little use for agricultural reports of 
any kind, and that the fault found is not as to 
what is in the reports, but rather what is not 
there; that is, they do not happen to contain 
anything that applies usefully to some particular 
region or circumstances. ♦*♦•♦♦* Apart, i 
however, from some weak papers, such as will [ 
occasionally find their way into much more ' 
pretentious publications, we need not be ashamed 
of the quality of the matter that has entered into 
the agricultural reports. 

The adequacy of the department to the needs I 
of the overshadowing industrial interests of the 
country is quite another matter, and the weak- I 
est point of the case. Its work has certainly j 
not met the expectations entertained by the 
general public; and the causes assigned have 
been as various as the remedies proposed. | 
Prominent among the reasonable grounds for | 
dissatisfaction, has been the management of the 
distribution of seeds and plants, provided for | 
by the original act, that has absorbed a con- | 
siderable share of the appropriations made by i 
Congress, and for years has loaded down the I 
mails with thousands of packages of seeds that, 
even if "valuable," were certainly not "new" 
in any sense, save that of having been grown 
the preceding season, and might have been 
purchased by anyone desiring them, at any 
country variety store, or at least of seedsmen 
or nurserymen, in any portion of the country 
to which they were adapted. The practice 
competed with legitimate trade, and alienated 
from the support of and co-operation with the 
department, a professionally intelligent and in- 
fluential class of men through the country. • ** 
* * Nearly all the commissioners have com- 
mented more or less upon the evils of this 
system, and the firm stand taken by the late 
commissioner Le Due on this point secured for 

him the respect even of those who found fault 
with the somewhat "personal" character of his 

Apart from this obvious and legitimate cause 
of complaint, the objections to the management 
of the department have not been very defi- 
nitely formulated, and are rather to be inferred 
from the propositions made for changes intended 
to render it more efficient. 

Should the Office Be Political? 

The reasonable claim that agricultural inter- 
ests should have greater influence in the oouu- 
cils of the nation than has heretofore been the 
case has led to a movement which contemplates 
the elevation of the conimissionership of agri- 
culture into a cabinet office. It is supposed by 
the advocates of this measure that a position 
and vote in the cabinet would insure a more 
serious and liberal consideration of agricultural 
interests by the government. But it is not 
clear what practical object would be accom- 
plished by this mere change of name, or increase 
of conventional dignity. The tims when 
reforms could be accomplished by such ea-'y 
means^is past. It is not supposable that an 
alHitus of greater wisdom in the management 
of his department would thereby inflow upon 
the new minister, ex officio; and it would be 
dithcult to point, in the political history of the 
United States, to any case in which agricul 
tural interests would have been sensibly bene- 
fited by a cabinet vote. If it is the influence 
on congrt-isional legislation that is contem- 
plated, a much shorter and more direct way to 
reach the object is to send to Congress mi-n 
who shall truly represent these interests, and 
this it is entirely withia the power of farmers 
to do, without asking any legislation or consent 
of cabinet or Congress. It is the lack of a 
sufficient number of such men in the legis- 
lative halts, both State and national, 
that keeps the agricultural interests beg- 
ging at the doors of legislative assem- 
blies for the recognition and aid which they 
ought to be able to command. What more 
need be said on this point, so far as Congress is 
concerned, than that the senate committee on 
agriculture of the forty -sixth Congress was 
composed of five lawyers and two members who 
might be classed as agriculturists? — of whom, 
however, only one remains in the same commit 
tee of the forty-seventh session. In the House, 
enough just men have been found to form about 
one-half of the corresponding committee. How 
can favorable and intelligent legislation on a 
special subject be expected of a body thus one- 
sidedly constituted? 

Forming, as they do, a sweeping majority of 
the entire population, why is it that the far- 
mers' vote is steadily given to men whose in- 
terests are not identified with theirs, and whose 
personal knowledge of the needs of the agri- 
cultural industry is limited to the most general 
and often misty ideas? The question has fre- 
quently been asked by the writer, as well as by 
others, when farmers complained of want of 
representation in the legislatures. The reply 
has not generally been clear or satisfactory, 
and it has mostly been left to the questioner to 
suggest that it is because farmers do not often 
find among their own number men sufficiently 
trained both in the science and art of agricul- 
ture and in the requirements of successful pub- 
lic life to hold their own, and effectually main- 
tain the cause of their constituents, among the 
trained men put into the same field by other 
professions; and because they find that when 
they do send a "plain, practical farn)or" to 
Congress, or to this legislature, his vote is too 
often the only manner in which his influence is 
exerted; if, indeed, amid the complexities of 
amendments to amendments, he does not uncon- 
sciously vote the wrong way. 

What agriculture needs is not half so much 
a vote in the cabinet as intelligent, profession- 
ally well-trained representatives in the legis- 
lative bodies; men qualified to be leaders in the 
agricultural as well as in the political field, by 
as thorough and liberal an education as is 
bestowed upon the representatives of the other 
professions. If the agricultural colleges should 
do no more than to educate leaders of this 
kind, they would render incalculable service 
to the cause. 

Qualifications for the Position. 
But if professional training is needed for the 
representatives of agriculture in the halls ot 
Congress, what shall we say of the qualifica- 
tions that should be a prerequisite for the of- 
fice of Commissioner of Agriculture? It is not 
enough that he should be an amiable gentleman 
and friend of the President, who has been more 
or less engaged in farming, and has some pet 
ideas or experiments in his mind. In or out of 
the cabinet, that officer should combine a thor- 
ough and comprehensive knowledge of the sci- 
ence and art of agriculture, with high adminis- 
trative capacity, and a wide acquaintance with 
the varied peculiarities and needs of the im- 
mense region that constitutes his field of action. 
In other words, he should l>e as thoroughly 
qualified, professionally, as the heads of the 
coast and geodetic or geological surveys; and 
when once found to be so, and satisfactory to 
the country, he should, like the officers just re- 
ferred to, hold his office during ' 'good behavior, " 
and without reference to political parties or 
presidential terms. It is only under such 
conditions that men ]>03sessiug the requisite 
qualifications will consent to hold the office, 
and that the benefits of an intelligent, well-con- 
sidered policy, consistently carried out, can be 
realized. Under the system thus far prevail- 
ing, the incumbents have, as a rule, been re- 
moved from office, just about the time when 

they obtained a good insight into the needs and 
proper management of the department, and be- 
came qualified to discharge their duties efficient- 
ly. The definite organization of the Department 
of Agriculture, as a technical bureau, with- 
drawn from ordinary political changes, is, of 
course, incompatible with the holding of a cabi- 
net position by its head; since each President 
must, of necesssity, be free ^to choose his ad- 
visers. By parity of reasoning, it might 
be conversely said that the hoi ling of 
a cabinet office by the head of any properly 
technical bureau is incompatible with the 
effioienoy of such department, unless the actual 
management is subjtantially left to a competent 
and efficient subordinate. But in that case the 
particular u^es of a mere figure head are not 
apparent. The leader, in fact, had better be 
also the responsible head. 

It has farther been proposed to increase the 
efficiency of the Department of Agriculture by 
enlarging its scope so as to embrace not only 
the properly agricultural industries, but also 
all Indus rial branches cognate with it. * * * 
This would almost inevitably so diffuse and 
dilute the share given to agriculture proper as 
seriously to impair the modicum of efficiency 
and usefulness tinis far attained by the depart- 
ment. * * * It is evident'chat the practical 
farmers agree with the scientific men of the 
United States in considering that there is 
ample matter within the lines of action at 
present prescribed for the Department of Agri- 
culture; and that what is needed is that this 
wide field should be mom fully and tfiiciently 

How Has the Law Been Complied With? 

It will be proper to consider this field some- 
what in detail, b >th as to the portions measur- 
ably covered heretofore, and those which have 
been slighted or omitted. 

1 1.} That portion of the work relating to the dis- 
tribution of seeds and pLinls has already been com- 
mented on above. It has been enormously over- 
done as to qu intity, improper selection, and indis- 
criminate distribution, and should undergo severe 
pruning in these respects, leaving to private enter- 
prise whatever it is manifestly likely and adequate to 
.accomplish. On the other hand, the department 
should give greatly increased attention to the intro- 
duction from foreign countries of new species and 
varieties of valuable culture plants adapted to the 
varied conditions of the different portions of the 
Union; and to this end it should be able to secure 
the assistance of consular agents abroad, not as a 
matter of individual good-will, but of duty imposed 
by the acceptance of the office — if necessary, with 
such compensation as may be needful and just. 

In this, as in other nutters, the department should 
invoke the active co-operation of the agricultural 
colleges, both in respect to information as to local 
wants and adaptations, and in effecting a judicious 
distribution of seeds and plants. 

(2.) In the collection of crop and commercial 
statistics and monthly reports of the condition of 
crops, the department has done excellent work; but 
the geographical scope of that work needs to be 
greatly extended, the number of observers and re- 
porters to be increased, and, above all, the publica- 
tion expedited so that it shall not be behind private 
enterprise in point of time and accuracy, as has here- 
tofore tooofien been the case. If the government 
printing-office cannot give ])recedence to these 
monthly reports, over other matter in hand, they 
should be printed elsewht re. 

(3 ) In the publication of treatises on agricultural 
subjects of i iimediats importance, whether newly 
written, translated, or simply republished, the policy 
of the department and the results achieved have 
been worthy ol all praise. • « • Here, also, a 
material increase of activity is called for, so as to 
place the latest results of experience and investiga- 
tion promptly within the re.ach of farmers. An 
annud report of agricultural progress everywhere, 
with references to sources, should be made a stand- 
ing feature of the general report. 

( (.) Of special work involving experiment and in- 
vestigation, that referring to entoniologieal subjects 
has been particularly useful and acceptable, especial- 
ly when that portion acconjplished by the entomo- 
logical commission during its temporary separation 
from the department is counted in, as it should be. 
* * * Its energetic prosecution is pressingly 
called for. 

(5.) The chemical work has been of a somewhat 
miscellaneous character; the means at command for 
the purpose, being inadequate to the prosecution of 
extended investigations, have been largely given to ex- 
aminations of the specimens sent to the department. 
Considering the expendiiure, however, a great deal of 
useful work has been accomplished. The investiga- 
tions of sorghums and their products, and of forage 
grasses, form valuable contributions to practical 
knowledge. It is curious that examinations of soils 
have been almost entirely excluded from the list of sub- 
jects, under a somewhat antiquated impression of the 
inutility of wasting one's effort on so complex and 
diftieult a matter. This is a particularly unfortunate 
omission in the one country in the world where it is 
ixissible to observe soils leisurely in their original 
condition, as well as under the progressive phases of 
culture without the use of manures. It has remained 
for the Census Office to take the initiative in this im- 
portant matter. ♦ ♦ « * 'I'he prosecution of 
these and related researches will of course necessi- 
t lie greatly enlarged means for chemical and phy- 
sical work. 

(6.) In connection with the more accurate defini- 
tion of the several agricultural divisions of the coun- 
try as to the soils and climates, the subject of forestry 
should receive continual and close attention, both 
as regards the naturally existing forests and timber 
supply, and their replacement and increase by tree- 
planting in timberless regions. « • » Here, 
again, the Census Office has taken a timely and important step forward, in the investigations 
placed under the charge of Professor Sargent, of 

Sxperlment Station Work. 

The second section of the act creating the 
Department of Agriculture specifies, among the 
means to be employed by the commissioner for 
the acquisition of the useful knowledge to be 

diffused by him, the making of "practical and 
scientific experiments;" in other woide, 
charges the department with the usual and 
well understood work of an agricultural exper- 
i iment station. * • * The undefined dissat- 
I isfaction that has hovered round the Depart- 
I ment of Agriculture since its inception is mainly 
. due to the fact that it has failed to appreciate 
; adequately, and to minister to, the strongly- 
felt want of the American farmer for more 
j information directly to the point, — information 
I bearing not merely upon theoretical and future 
I questions, but upon problems immediately be- 
fore him, and bearing within them the alter- 
I native of success or failure, crops or no crops. 
I In a word, the department has failed to lead, 
I and has barely even followed promptly, the 
, movement of public opinion and demand in 
I respect to agricultural questions, while some- 
j times taking vigorously in hand some single pet 
I problem, and thereby showing what might be 
I done from this central postion with a keener 
professional insight, and with broader views. 
' * * * The failure to seek and secure the act 
I ive co-operation of the agricultural colleges is 
I one of the most conspicuous omissions of the 
I Department of Agriculture. Through them it* 
I most useful influence could have been exerted, 
' and its most authentic information as to facts 
I and wants obtained, for some years, a some- 
I wha- extended account of the operations and 
condition of these colleges formed a part of 
I the report of the department; but that subject 
\ has since been left to the Bureau of K tucation,. 
1 — prtiperly, so far as the merely educational 
part is concerned, but improperly as regards the 
ignoring of the general work they have beei» 
doing in the improvement of agricultural 
methods and knowledge. To speai plainly, 
the national Department to Agriculture seemed 
to act, in a measure, as though the colleges and 
experiment stations were not in existence. 
Instead of assisting them and summing up their 
work, it ignored them sometimes even in the 
matter of distribution of seeds and department 
reports. Its traveling employees seemed at 
times to keep out of the way of the existing 
institutions, often laboriously gathering anew 
information already abundantly in the posses- 
sion of the latter. If this was done or omitted 
under the impression that the colleges or sta- 
tions were indisposed to co-operate, so much 
the more would it have been incumbent upon 
an enlightened chief of such a department to 
seek them out, and stimulate them into active 
co-operation. Except in the matter of an occa- 
sional call for a convention, of which the com- 
missioner was to be the conspicuous center, 
and whose results have not lieen very apparent, 
the colleges have had but little attention froa» 
the department at Washington. 

What a Qood Commissioner Could Do. 

All this would be at once changed were the 
commissioner to become a technical expert, re- 
sponsible not only officially to the government, 
but amenable to that rigorous and incorruptible 
tribunal constituted of his scientific and techni- 
cal compeers, and under the standing menace 
of a loss of his professional reputation, which 
no whitewashing committees, in or out of Con- 
gress, could in any manner condone or undo. 
The substitution of the opinion and judgment 
I of the republic of letters and science for that of 
, the political one would constitute a self-execu- 
j ting measure of civil-service reform which would 
I quickly sweep away the clogs and barnacles 
I that have heretofore beset the progress of the 
I departmen'; toward its highest usefulnosj. It 
j would at once place it in a position of active 
I and necessary reciprocal sympathy and co-opera- 
I tion with the agiicullural colleges and the ex- 
periment stations, and, through these, >vith the 
I real wants of every portion ol the agricultural 
domain. It would thus naturally and legiti- 
mately become the leading center of agricultural 
information and progress, gathering up all the 
disconnected threads, now scattered from the 
Atlantic to the Pacific, into a radiating net- 
work, conveying back and forth messages of 
mutual information and encouragement, by 
deed as well as by word. 

The field is a wide and magnificent one, both 
as to the opportunities it affords, and as to the 
practical importance of the results that will re- 
ward its intelligent cultivation. It is so vast 
that the proposition to enlarge the scope of 
operations of the department by charging it 
with the duties of a general "bureau of in- 
dustry" seems almost a satire upon its past 
history. Moreover, outside of the land office 
and the care of the Indian tribes (the latter, it 
is to be hoped, a subject soon to be eliminated 
from its executive responsibilities), the Depart- 
ment of the Interior would as naturally cover, 
under its general intent, a bureau of manufac- 
tures and mines as a bureau of agriculture. 

If it should be contended that the carrying 
into effect of the system outlined in the preced- 
ing pages, would necessitate too great an in- 
crease of expenditure, the answer is that if the 
present appropriation were to be tripled or 
quadrupled, it would yet bear but an insig- 
nificant proportion to the magnitude and com- 
manding importance of the interests involved, 
and would be but a fraction of the millions an- 
nually wasted upon expenditures of at least 
doubtful general utility. The country can far 
better aftord to do without a large proportion 
of the expensive party mamvuvres, investigat- 
ing committees, and "jobs" designed for the 
manufacture of political capital, than to neglect 
any longer to foster the fundamental industry, 
by giving those who exercise it, the fullest ben- 
efit of the lights that education and science caik 
bestow. EuoENE W. Hilg.\rd. 

Janoary 3, 1885] 


Junction Market, Pine, and 
Davis Sts. 


Nos. 9, 11, 13, and 15 J 





Improved Over the Buckeye and all others. 

Does Not Crack the Grain. 

9 Hoe, 7 inch, weight 625 pounds. . , 

10 Hoe, 6 inch, weight G.^O pounds. . , 

11 Hoe, 6 inch, weight (370 pounds. . , 

11 Hoe, 7 inch, weight 075 pounds. . . 

12 Hoe, 6 inch, weight 700 pounds. . , 

nor-, 00 

110 00 
115 00 
1 1 5 00 
120 00 

l.S Hoe, 7 inch, weight 725 pound.s $125 00 

15 Hoe, 7 inch, weight 800 pounds. . , . 1.50 00 
17 Hoe, 7 inch, weight 000 pounds. . . . 175 00 
19 Hoe, 7 inch, weight 1,000 pounds. . 190 00 
21 Hoe, 7 inch, weight 1,100 pounds.. . 200 00 

The Tricmpi'jjGrain Drill possesses many features of merit peculiar to it alone, to which 
we invite the caretul attention and consideration of every farmer contemplating the purchase 
of a Grain Drill. 


The Feed of a Grain Drill is its most important feature. Many Drills still use the old fogy 
and unreliable mode of regulating the quantity by change of gear- wheels, in which they vary the 
speed of the feed-wheel for every change of quantity seeded. To sow a small quantity to the 
acre, the feed-wheel revolves so slowly that the grain is fed from the feed-cup, not in a steady, 
flowing stream, but in bunches, so that the grain is not drilled in, but dropped, leaving un- 
seeded spaces between the bunches. Others, again, called "adjustable force-feed," regulates the 
quantity by moving the feed-shaft, to which the feed-wheel is attached, to increase or diminish 
the quantity desired to be sown. As this shaft has but one bearing, by means of which it is 
moved, this bearing in a short time becomes worn, and thus permitting the feed-wheels to have 
lateral motion, which causes the feed-wheel to be constantly changing its position while the drill 
is seeding; especially this is the case on hilly ground, as the shaft will always move towards the 
lowest point on a side-hill, and consequently the Drill in going one direction will sow too little, 
and returning sow too much. 

These objections are entirely obviated in the TRIUMPH. The feed-wheels of the TRI- 
UMPH are fastened permanently to the feed-shaft, and are held firmly against the end of the 
seed-cups, so that the shaft or wheels cannot the slightest lateral motion. The regulating 
cylinders are attached to a separate iron bar, that extends through all the seed-cups, and is 
moved by a screw at the end of the hopper, and can be moved either much or little as desired, 
and then firmly locked in position, thus making a perfect feed-wheel, either large or small, to 
suit the quantity desired to be sown. There is no possible chance of lateral motion, thus insur- 
ing a uniformity of quantity sown, whether the ground be hilly or level. 

6 foot. Single Gear, with 2 Horses, will seed 8 acres per diy, weight 580 lbs $100 00 

8 foot. Double Gear, with 2 Horses, will seed 15 acres per day, weight 730 lbs 125 00 

10 foot. Double Gear, with 4 Horses, will seed 25 acres per day, weight 1,010 lbs 140 00 

12 foot. Double Gear, with 4 Horses, will seed 34 acres per day, weight 1,255 lbs 160 00 

14 foot. Double Gear, with 6 Horses, will seed 40 acres per day, weight 1,400 lbs 174 00 

The most Complete and Successful Combination of Seeder and Cultivator in use, and the 
only machine known that s^ws perfectly all kinds of Grain, Flaxseed, Clover, Grass and other 
SmiU Seeds from the box. The increasing demand for these Sjeders proves beyond the shadow 
of a doubt that they are the Best and Most Reliable ever offered to the public. 

No other machine presents such an array of devices, and taken together they constitute the 
Gorham Seeder, a machine distinct and separate from all others of its class. It has stood the 
most severe tests of time and use, and is now the Standard S;eder of the United States. Its 
numerous points of excellence, unequaled regularity of sowing the different grains, and its mani- 
fest superiority over all others, have won for it this high reputation. 

Feed Set for Small Quantity. 

Feed Set for Large Quantity. 


Much complaint is justly made against Grain Drills that regulate by change of r/earmg, on 
account of their bunching and skipping — a nerious fault that manufacturers of that class of drills 
have not been able to overcome, although they have resorted to all kinds of devices in their 
feed-wheels, using zigzag, spiral and double spiral, etc., and all claiming their particular device 
as being just the one needed. Yet they have the same old complaii^t. The cause of their trouble 
is readily explained, as it is impossible to sow a constant stream with any Drill that varies the 
quantity seeded by a change in the speed of the feed-wheel. The same principle applies to Grain 
Drills as to other machinery — a principle well understood by all mechanics — there is always a 
certain vuiformil.y of tjxeil required to do the work successfully. We have kept this fact in 
view in the TRIUMI'H, and consequently its remarkable success as the most recular grain 
SOWER IN THE MARKET. Examine the TRIUMPH before you buy any of the old fogy cogwheel 
Drills, and you will be convinced that it is the Drill to buy. 


The quantity is regulated by simply turning a screw at the end of the seed hopper, which 
enlarges or diminishes the feed-wheel. The regulating cylinders being attached to an iron bir 
extending through all the seed-cups, all the feed-wheels are enlarged or diminished simultan- 
eously, and as the feed-wheel always carries out all the seed the wheel will hold, it will be 
readily seen that by increasing or diminishing the size of the wheel, any desired quantity can 
be sown. 

The gauge-plate on the back of the hopper indicates the quantity to be sown to the acre; it 
always sows the quantity indicated; there is no guesswork, as is the case with many other Drills. 

I"oxr 0±3rc-u.l£t,37S, etc , -A-cJdi'oeiS 


Weight, with Steel Bottoms, 638 lbs. Weight, with Chilled Iron Bottoms, 688 lbs. 

No. 7 c Eureka Gang Plow, with 5 16 Iron Center Steel Mold-Boards, chemically hardened. 
Cast Cast Steel Shares, with or without Land Gauge, Beams 3.U1J, with 2 extra 

Shares, 10 or 12 inch cut .$95 00 

No. 7 c Eureka Gang Plow, with Star Moline Bottoms, with or without Land Gauge, 

Beams .SixH, with 2 extra Shares, 10 or 12-inch cut 95 00 

No. 7 c Eureka Gang Plow, with Chilled Iron Bottoms, with or without Land Gauge, 

Beams S^xlJ, with 2 extra Shares, 10 or 12-inch cut, Cast Cast Steel Shares 95 00 

No. 7 c Eureka Gang Plow, with Chilled Iron Bottoms, with or without Land Gauge, 

Beams SJxlJ, with 2 extra Shares, 10 or 12-inch cut. Chilled Iron Shares 85 00 

Extra, for Beams 3^x11 per Gang 3 00 

" " " 5xli " " 10 00 

" " Bottoms cutting 14 inches " " 5 00 

" " " with Fin Cutters " " -"^ 00 

" " one Detachable Beam " " 5 00 


fAeiFie f^URAL PRESS. 

[January 3, 1885 

Wpdinill?, ttc. 







Is recognized as 


Always gives satisfaction. SIMPLE, 
STRONG and DURABLE in all parts. 
Solid Wrouffht inin frank Shaft with 
DonBbR BEARi.sos fof the Crank to 
work in, all turned and run iu adjust- 
able babbitted boxes. 

Positively Self-Regulating, 

With no coil springs, or springs of any kind. No little 
rods, Joints, levers, or anj-thing of the kind to g-et out of 
order, as sueh things do. Mills in use 6 to 12 years in 
good order now, that have never cost one cent for reinirs. 
All genuine Enterprise Mills for the Pacific Coast trade 
come only through this agency, and none, whether of 
the old or latest pattern, are genuine except those bear- 
ing the "Enterprise Co." stamp. Look out for this, as 
inferiormills are being offered with testimonials applied 
to them which were given for ours. Prices to suit the 
times. Kn 11 particulars free. Best Pumps, Feed Mills, 
etc., kept in stock. Address, 


GENERAL OFFICE AND SUPPLIES (as always before), 

San Francisco Agency-JAMES LINPORTH 
23 Main St., near Market, S. P. 



I Requires less atten- 
tion, is more durable, 
»nd less complicated 
than any other mill. 
'Ihe machinery is constructed 
on scientific principle.'', and 
I so well proportioned and 
I securcl>" fastened that break, 
age is t nil ossible. Took first 
premium at the San Mateo 
I and Santa (lara Fair of 1883. 
Agents Wantku. Corkksi'ovdkxce Solkitkd. 
BENTLEY & SMITH, Prop s & Mfrs., 
San Jose, Cal. 






Santa Clara County Agricultu- 
ral Fair in 1S79, ISSO, ISSl and 
I'^Si, and at the State Fair in 
the Most Powerful, Durable 
and Complete Machine for the 
utilization nf w ind-power e\ er 
invented. Its advantages are 
great power cunihined with 
8 mpliiity. Manufactured by 


Corner 9tli and St. James St. 
San .)o»e, Cal. P. O. Box, 758. 
A gents wanted, and 
I County Rights for sale. 


The LiRhte*t. Rtronjtp^t 
and RiLciCHt Rveuluu-'l Wind 
Eaclne In ilip i>..rlJ. Siud 
fur Ciroiiliiri M llie 

Socr^Mor* to E. C. Lcffel Jk Co. 

rOK.SE I'o w 1 l; 

and all kinii- : I'l. 


inu' Mai.liincrv built to orders 

SlBealeSt.,) p W TTDnPII? PD (Patentees* 
San Franco. )" I. W, linUuD H III), 1 Sole Prop'r. 

International Patent Bureau, 

WM . A. BELL, Manaifer, 
No. 507 Montgomery Street, 

San Fra-scisco, Cal. 


Throughout the U. S. , Canada and Europe. 
Foreign Office International Patent Bureau, 

a. nnTMAR. Hmaenr. Rarltn. Germany. 



ADDRESS '^2w>^ 


Sr| 9 Geary St. \i gSg 

^[ SAN FRANC ISCO. Cai.j^ p 

200 .A.ox*©s ixi. Olosto Oviltixratloxx ! 


Oakland, Alameda County, Cal. 



Embracing all the Leading Varieties of Apple, Pear, Peach, Plum, Prune, Apricots, Nectarines and Cherries 
Also the Largest and Most Complete Assortment of 

On the Pacific Coaat, including many CaUfoioia pioductiona of great promise. 




The Greatest Plum for Shipping Long Distances, 

Remaining Solid Longer than any other. 
Ripens in September. The Earliest in Bearing. 

The Largest Fruit. The Smallest Pit. 

The Finest Quality. The Best Shipper. 

The Most Attractive. A Regular Bearer. 

A valuable acquisition to our list of Eastern Shipping Fruits, [assessing all the merits of our best Plums, with 
added firmness and brightness of color: hence, with its immense size, it is the most profitable for market, and the 
most desirable for general use of all Plums. 

Headquarters for the 






Clematis and Flowering Plants, Small Frnits, Grapevines, Etc. 

Our Trees are grown on New Ground without Irrigation, and are 

tS" Before Purchasing elsewhere, people Intending to plant Trees will find It to their 
Interest to come and see our Stock and learn our Prices. 


The University and Telegraph Avenue Street Cars Stop at the Nuraerlee. 
la" CORRESPONDENCE SOLICITED. Address all Communications to 

472 Ninth St., Oakland. Oa). 

Comiiiiggiop Hefchaplg. 

_ ^ . 

Grangers' Business Association, 


No. 38 California St 

San Francisco. 

Consignments of OB A IN, WOOL, DAIRY PRODUCE, 
Dried Fruit, Live Stock, eta, solicited, and liberal ad- 
vances made on the same. 

Careful and prompt attention paid to orders for the 
i>urcliasing of Urain and Wool Sacks, Wagons, Agricnlt- 
'jrat liii))lenicnts, i*ro\'isions. Merchandise, and supplier 
of all kinds. 

Warehouse and Wharf: 

4.t "THE GRANGERS'." Contra Costa Co. 

Orain received on storage, for shipment, for sale on 
jonsignment. Insurance effected and liberal advancei; 
made at lowest rates. Faruierj may rely on their grain 
being closely and carefully weighed, and on having their 
other interests faithfullv attended to. 



Mt ud Eiuril immm Usrcbts, 

Ajid Wholesale dealers Id CaliforDla and Oregon Produce 
Also. Grain, Wool, Hidee, Beans. Potatoes, Cheese. 
Kggs, liutter aud Houey. 

RpIaIt Qf nroc ■ i 402 Davis Strkbt and 

Dl ll/IV OiUI Cd . \ 120 Washington St., S. F 

Prompt returns. Advance liberally on coDBignments. 




30G I>avis .St., .San Francisco, 

Consignments of Grain, Potatoee, Beane 
Fruit, Dried Fruit, Etc., Solicited. 

i^*Also want Poultry, Fggs, Hiili.'s, Pelts, Honey and 
Beeswax. Dairy Produce laPo'tly dealt in. Prompt re- 
turns made and satisfaction guaranteed. Interior orders 
carefully flUed.-Sa 



Ia^{>orter8 and 

Wholesale Grocers 

And Dealers in 



Pront St. Block, bet. Clay & Wasliington, San Francisco. 
jl^Special attention given to country traded. 
P. O. Box 1940. 

Quo. Morrow. [Established lS64.j Oio. P. HoRSOV. 




so Clay Street and 28 Commercial Street 
Sas Francisco, Cal. 


Commission Mercl\ants 




Qrain, Wool, Hides, Beans, and Potatoes. 

308 and 310 DAVIS ST., 
P. O. Box 1936. SAN FRANCISCO. 





Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange. 
SIO California St, San Francisco. 
Liberal advances made on consignments. 


Commission Merchants 


No. 76 Warren St.. 

New York. 

Rkferences: Tradesmen's National Bank, N. Y.; El- 
wauger & BarT7, Rochester, N. Y. ; C. W. Reed, Sacramento, 
CaL: A. Lusk ft Co . San Francisco CaL 


319 California St.. S. F. 



trBsigB and Twine for Sale. 

Tbia paper is printed with Ink Manufac- 
tured by Charles Eneu Johnson & Co., 500 
South 10th St., Philadelphia. Branch Offi- 
ces - 47 Rose St, New York, and 40 La Salle 
St, Chicago. Agent for the Paclflc Coast- 
Joseph H. Dorety, 629 Commercial St. S. F. 

January 3, 1885] 



The New Pears. 


, The points w herein the Lc Conte pear is claimed to 
excel all others are: 

1. Ill rapidity of ifrowth it shows a decided superiority 
over all other known varieties, not only of the pear 
family, hut of all other fruits as well, while it begins to 
bear at an a;^o at which other pear trees are mere strip- 
linj^s, fruiting at six years with ordinary care, and witli 
special care and cultivation beginning to bear at four 
years of age. 

2. In hardihood, vigor and freedom from blight, its 
claims arc even more wonderful. In thousands cf bear- 
ing trees, not a single case of blight has been developed. 

3. In point of yield its claims are more wonderful still; 
upwards of 30 bushels have been gathered from one tree 
from a single crop, and 2a bushels is not an unusual 
yield from a ten-year old tree. 

4. The size and quality of the fruit is all that could he 
expected from this phenomenal tree, while in shipping 
qualities it yields to none. Single specimens ha^e 
w(Mghed twenty-three ounces, while an average box will 
show about eight ounces per pear. The fruit, considered 
by some equal to the Bartlctt, is delicious, finely flavored, 
almost without seed or core, and entirely free from 
woody, coarse taste. With a firm, but not objectionable 
skin, its shipping (pialitics excel the Baitlett, as it does 
also in keeping. Uipe specimens were taken from the 
tree, and wilhout any special care were preserved 30 days 
in splendid condition, as exhibited at the last annual 
convention of the Ilorlicnltuial Society in San Trancisco. 

6. The ease with which the tree can be jiropagatcd is 
one of its strongest claims to popular favor. The best 
trees are produced only from cuttings, which, with care, 
will show one tree to every three cuttings, and with 
special attention ev en better yield. No other variety of 
pear can be so easilj or so rapidly grown; cuttings pro- 
dueing often six to eight feet, or even more. Growth the 
first year of sotting. 

The advertisement of C. W. Dearborn, Oakland, Cal., 
on our last page, shows that the Le Conte pear is not 
entirely new to California growers, who ha\c tested its 
merits during the past five years. 

Mr. Dearborn is offering trees on genuine Le Conte 
routs oil If, which arc said to be su)>erior to any grafted 
or budded stock. 

The Great Horse Breeding- Establish- 
ment of the World. 

One of the many wonderful enterprises the 
great West is noted for, and one which none favored 
with oppoiluii.ty should miss seeing, is the great 
breeding establishment of "Oaklawn," owned by M. 
W. Dunham, at Wayne, 111.. 35 miles west of Chi- 
cago. His importations of Percheron horses from 
France, to date, have aggregated in value the im- 
mense sum of $3,000,000, and at the present time at 
"Oaklawn," 500 head of the choicest specimens of 
that race can be seen, nearly all recorded with pedi- 
grees in full in the Percheron Stud Book of France. 



O O 3\r S XT 3Vt I O KT, 

Dronchitis, Influenza, Asthma, 

And all TIllOiAT I.l'NG T ROU lll.IiS. 
Sold i:y all Dkugcists for Fifty Cents. 
J. n. OATKS A. t"«. Proprietors, 
417 Sanoome Streft San Francisco. 

H. H. H. 

As a family remedy, we are safe in making the bold 
assertion that no liniment exists that will compare will 
the H. H. H. in curing the following diseases: 

RHEUM ATl.SM— Apply freely to the parts affected 
and take internally from 10 to 20 drops in from 2 to 3 
tahlespoonfuls of water 3 times a day. 

DIAKKHaJA-Dosc, as above. 

COLIC- Same as above, repeated every half hour 
until relieved. 

TOOTHACHK— Saturate a piece of cotton and put 
it in the tooth, repeat in 15 minutes if not relieved. 

All other aches and pains apply freely to the part9 

As a horse medicine It 's superior to any liniment ever 
apply freely so as to blister, from three to five days in 
succession, and, in four or five days, if not cured, repeat 
ES, WIND GA1.L,S, and all slight ailments, apply a 
small quantity, so as not to blister. SADDLE 
SOKES, CUTS, and all other sores where the skin is 
broken, mix the liniment, half and half, with any kind of 
oil and ap^.ly in moderation. 





This large and well-kuown villa has been leased by C. C. Wheeler, of the Winsor. It has 
been thoroughly renovated throughout. The House and Cottages are situated on large and 
beautiful grounds. The Billiard and Reading Rooms have been handsomely fitted up for ladies 
and gentlemen. In close proximity is the Perry Seminary for young ladies, the Sackett School, 
the Misses Field's Home School for Young Ladies, California Military Academy, Hopkins' 
Academy, Pagoda Hill Kindergarten, and many other Schools. Cars pass the House every 
seven minutes from Broadviray Station to State University. Ten minutes from Broadway and 
forty minutes from San Francisco. Special rates to regular boarders and families. Telephone 
communications to local points free. 

C. C. WHEELER, Proprietor. 



Warranted 5 years, satisfaction guaranteed or money refunded. Tbe 
Best, niofit EfHciciit, and Durable VVasIier iii the world. 
Has no rival, the only machine that will ji ash per/ecibj clean without rub. 
bing. Can be used in any size d tub, or shifted from one tub to another 
in a moment. So simple and easy to operate the most delicate 

' lady or child can do the work. Made of Galvanized Iron, and 

j f^y the only Washer in the world that has the Rubber Itnnils on the 
taf' KoIIers, which prevent the breaking of buttons and injury to clothes, 
ft r CWTC UfRNTCn Exclusive territory. Retail price, S8.00. 
HUCII I D WUHIl I LU Aprents" sample, $13.50. 'Also the cele. 
brated KEYSTONE WKINOER.S at Manufacturers' lowest price. 
Circulars free, We refer to editor of this pai-ier. Address ERIE WASHER CO., Erie, Pa. 

Orchard and Field Cultivator! 

N. McLEAN, - - - Patentee and Manufacturer, 

Watsonvllle, Santa Cruz County, Cal. 

Send (or Circular and Testimonials. Send for Ciroolar and Testimonials. 



Should use only the "Arm and Hammer" brand 
for Cleaning and Keeping Milk Pans Sweet and 
Clean. It is the Best for all 
Household Purposes. 

I HOC DISEASES.— The "Arm and Hammef^ 
! brand Soda and Salcratus is used with great 
I success for the prevention and cu re of HOC 
I CHOLERAanrtotherdiseases. 
t Mix with the animal's food. 


To insure obtaining only the "Arm & Hammer" brand Soda 

or Saleratus, buy it in " jiound or half pound " cartoons which 

bear our name and trade-mark, aa Inferior goods are Bomotimc.s substituted lor the "Arm & Ham- 
mer brand when bought in bulk. Ask for the "Arm & Hammer" brand SALSOOA (Washing Soda). 



21 and 23 Main St., - - San Francisco 


Heavy Automatic and Slide-valve Engines. 


And Heavy Saw-mill Machinery. 


.saner k Wood PortaWe EnsiDes aBd Boilers. 

We now offer for sale a large assortment of Everfiieeiis imd Ornamental Ti-ces, inclmling; Specimen Araiiearias 
Azaleas, Haniboos, Black Acacias, Camellias, Laurustina, Tlowttrin^- Maj;nolia^, from Layers, IMnks, Uhodoilendrons 
cti'., etc. Koses, our specialty, of which, \vc believe, we offer the larjcest and most complete stock on the Pacific 
Coast, including Standards and Half Standards. We have an immt nj-e >itni'lv <il Monterey Cypre s for hcd;;es, one, 
two and three years old; also, a large lot of Pines and Blue and Ked Gums at bed rock prices. Parties wishing ti 
purchase any of the above articles, or anything in tlic nursery line, will lind it to tlicir profit and advanta-^e to call 
an'l examine our stock and prices. Descriptive Cataloi^iic on aitplication. San Paliln Ilnrse Cars pass two blocli 
fioni Nursery. Address, or call on GILL. Nurseryman, 

Twenty-ci{ihth Street, near San Pablo Avenue, Oakland, Cal. 


Restorative Pills. 


A Specific for Exhausted Vitality, Physical 
Debility, Wasted Forces, etc. 

Approved by the Academy of Medicine, Paris, and by 
medical celebrities of tlie world. AaB.N'is for California 
and the i'aciflo States: 

J. G. STEELE & CO.. 
835 Market St., (Palace Hotel) San Francisco, Cal. 
Sent by mail or express anywhere. 
I'UICES REDUCED.- Box of SO, SI1.25: of 300, S2.00 
of 200, $3.50; of 400, Sd.OO. Piepaiatory Pills, $2.00. 
£Sf Send for Circular. 



This old and roliablc firm is now locatod at their 
New Building, 
Number 750 Mission Street, San Francinco, 
This immense structure is 50x160 feet, four stories and 
basement. The first and second stories are used as sale- 
rooms for a new and select class of goods of latest designs 
and patterns. Parties wishing to furnish a house will save 
from 15 to 25 per cent by purchasing their goods here. 




' Tor simplicity and durability it is the only rcl!?-» 
bl; (iate now in use. No complex machinery aboi-.l: 
it. By a simple )^vcr it is thrown off the center of 
gravity, and opens and closes itself by its own 
wciRht. A child six years old can open and close 
it sitting in a buggy. 

Jt is THH Gate when driving a skittish horse of 
young colt, or when ladies do their own driving. 
Ko Fancy Residence should be without them, and 
every Farmer should have tl:em where there is a 
Gate used. He will save time, Ijcsides taking the 
chances of his team leaving him while closing the 
old common Catc. 

These Gates arc almost ns cheap as any common 
Farm Gate, They are durable, never get out of 
order, and will hist a lifetunc. 

ISend for Circular giving reference and price list. 
J?. O. Box 88, LivERMO'.i-, Alameda Co., Cal. 
Or Jamrs Stanlhv, Mission San Jose, do 

County rights for sale, apply to John Avlward. 

3>a" ct t i o ix ^ 1 

"^raH* Mark ' 


Perfectly Wonderful How Quick This 
Medicine Cures Flesh Wounds. 

The BEST SPAVIN CURE in the Market. 

No fanner or Stock Rai.qer shou'd be without it. I 
will guarantee it to do all I claim for it, and refund the 
inonej' should it fail. 

LANGLY & MICHAELS, Wlu.losalc Ag'ts, San Francisco. 
Fur full particulars and special contracts, address 


StocKton, Cal. 



Four-H.-iiid Trt-asuro. — lust out. ('oUcction of the 
best I'iano Duets, by famous coinposeri'; ceiierallv 
quite oasy, and a sood and entertain illy book for all 
homes where there are two piano players. 

Min.str«l .Songs— Old and New.— Immensely popu- 
lar. All the best Minstrel, Plabtation, and Jubilee 

Musical Favorite. ^ 

Gems of Strauss. ^ Piano Misic. 

Oems of tlie IJanro. I 

Oeius of Ii^nglisli Soug. | 

Beauties of S.aered .Song. . \'ocai, Mrsic. 

Franz's Allium of Songs, j 

The above eight books are uniform in binding; each 
contains 200 to 250 sheet mu-ic size pages, and each costs, 
in Cnards, $2; f'loth. $>.M; Uilt, §3. 
.Students' Life in .Song. SI. 50. 
Khynifs and Tunes. Boards, SI. 25; Cloth, $1.50; 

Si. 00; Gilt, .?2.00. 
Norway Music Album. Boards, $2 5ii; Cloth, 

Gilt, $4.00. 

Also 20 Volumes of Musical Literature, attractive, well 
bound, and interesting, among which are Hitter's .Stu- 
dent's History of Music, $2.10, and the Lives of 
tbe various Great Masters of Music. 

Also, many Christmas Carols. 

t-eiid foi lists Any book mailed for the retail price. 


867 Broadway, New York 

C. H. Dl'rsON&CO., 


200,000 Resisting Vines 

Seedlings and Rooted Vines. 


Of Wine and Table Varieties. 







Knight's New Book Sent Free. Address 
15 East Third St., Cincinnati, Ohio. 



Patent ,Straw-IIurning 




All MndR of second hand Portable Engines (Straw and 
Wood Burning) for sale and to rent on reasonable terms. 


San Jobs, Oal. 



A l*ei'f*H't .System <»f Dress Cutting. 
Okhck-224 Stockton Street, San Francisco. 

i^Patterns cut to mcasuie. Uccelved diploma at 
Mechanics' Institute Fair, 18S3. 



[Janqaby 3, 1885 

[-[qf^s:is \md Cattle. 

R(.giNt,.rc<l in the A. J. C. C and A. O. 0. C, 


25 lb8. 

Jersey Belle of Scltv, 

4i OZ3. of Butter .;. . .l- . . i 

A grandsou of above cow is now in use iu the Yerlia Bueua 
This herd won allthe herd prizes forlS82. Since tlieu have been 
added young animals from Mr. Pierce's v^iluahle herds Kast. 
He now lias Ji^rsey Bullc of Scituate. Co.jmassie, Mary Ann 
of fit Lainliert, Parmer's Gloiy ami Kurotas strains; also 
large aelectiima from the Islands, without regard to cost. 
He has iuU^est iu Ka^iteru herds of 21)0. at the head of which 
Btand only living sou of Jersey Bi-ll..', Romeo dc Bouair (874 'I 
Mary Ann s liloodl. and I'iersou. the Lest show bull iu Amer- 
ica. These bulls are valued at *10,U0Oi ach. 

HENKY PIKRCK. San Francisco. 


Thoroughbred and Graded Short Horns 

At San Mateo Bancho, San Mateo, Cal. 

Aiipl.v on i.iemisi s to fS. V. CiOOlHIirE, or 

623 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 

Of Short Horn Cattle and Dairy Caws 

Catalogues and Prices on application to 

Baden Station, . . - San Mateo Ur 


For Sale at our Farm at Mountain Vie'w 

From our Thoroughbred Berkshire Boar and Sow, 
which we imported from England in loSO. Pigs from Im- 
ported Boar anil Sow, *2i tacli; from Imported Boar and 
Thoroughbred Sow, tlO to 8'20. Our Imported Pigs are as 
nice Piga as there arc in the State. Address : 

I. J. TRUMAN, San Francisco, Cal. 


My Berlishires are Thoroughbred, and selcetcd with 
great care from the best herds of importeil stock in the 
United States and Canada, ami fur indi\idual merit, can- 
not be e.veelled. My breeding stock are recorded in the 
"American Derkshire Record, ' where none but pme-bred 
Hogs are admitted. Pigs sold at reasonable rates. Cor- 
respondence solicited. JOHN RIDER, Eigliteenth 
ami A Streets, Sacramento City, Cal. 


ELIAS GALLUP, Hanford Tulare, Co., Cal. 

Breeder of pure bred Poland China Pigs of the Black 
Beauty, Black Bess, Bismarck, and other noted families. 
Imported boars King of Bonny View and Cold Dust at head 
of the herd. Stock recorded iu A. P. C. R. Pigs sold at 
reasonable rates. Corresitondence solicited. Address as above. 


Part ies desiring thoroughbred pi^'s of this breed can ob- 
tain them at reasonable rates of F. Wakehani, breeder 
and importer of thnrnuglibred stock. These pigs, exhibit- 
ed by Mr. VVakeham, took first premium at the Los An- 
geles fair, and are guaran ecd pure blood. For tcrmsand 
prires address F. WAKEHAM, 

Ncw|)ort, Los Angeles County, Cal. 

O— A first i^l.ass lodging hotel, containing tab rooms; ' 
water and gas in each room; no better beds in the world; | 
no guest allowed to use the linen once used by another; 
a large reading-room; hi>t and cold water; baths free; 
price of room per ni;,'ht, DOc. and 75c.; per week, from $2 
upward; open all night. At Ferries take Omnibus Linr I 
direct to boUK. K. QUOHES, Proprietor. * 


Brahmas, Langshans, Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks. 

Toulouse Geese, Rouen and Pekin Ducks. 

Bronze and Wild Turkeys. 

.M\ l .mK are colonized on different farms and have ample range. Eggs from such fo>vls are more l ertain to 
batch tlcm those confined in small yards. I ha\e now on hand, for sale, a large lot to select from, of this year's hatch. 
<y Send -i-cent stamp for t'lKci LAR and I'hp k List to R. Q. HEAD, Napa, Cal. 

ilHeip PonltTf 








r.'irtkular attention is ralle»l to my new 


For young Chickens, Turke.v a, etc 

INCUBATORS~of all Varieties. 

Wir*' for I'liultry Viirtls. <'oo|m. .fft-ul 

:i»4l ^'r;;4'ls«l»l4* <'tiopi»oi*H, Aih4*ll. I*«»i*k 
S4>i'ni»H. .>l4><liriii4'H. 
4'aj;4-*>. WAV. 



At Stalls |-2 and :i> Center Market, corner Inipont and 
Sutter Streets, San Frunclsc<,, Cal. 

Also the Celebrated M&LTESE CATS. 


Poultry Association 


Of this Society will be held 

.\T . . . . 


Cor. Stockton & Geary Sts., San Francisco. 

.... KRciM TIIK 

19th to the 24th of January next, 


^yEntry List positively closes .laniiary I'dh. 

For Premium Lists and an.i further infoiniuti n. ad 
rlr^^s the Secretary, 


Box 1771, San Francisco. 

L. H. 

(■'. F. 

Se.vd Koii Pkick List. 

Mrstiox Tims P.M'KR 

Importer and Breeder ot choice Poultry — Langshans, 
Light I3rahnias, Partridge Cochins, Plymouth Hoi ks. A 
trio of Langshans, imported direct from Oroad'B Yard, 
England. Eggs and young stock for sale. Send for far- 
ther information. 

mouth Hocks, Light Brah- 
: ).as, Langshans, Brown Leg 
horns, B. B. 11. Game Bantams, 
Pearl Oninens, Homer Antwerp 

J. N. LUND, 

Cor Wchsier .\v. ,S: Booth Sts. 
r. O. Eo.\ 118. 


Proprietors of the 


Locate.l at FKENCIl CAMI'. 
Prix< ii *i. Okkick— Masonic Temple, Stockton. Cal 




Seiiil 'J cent 8tani|> foi 


Fruit Vale, Alameda County, Cal. 

• loughhri^d Fowls. Fggs and Fowls for sale. Brown 
and White Leghorns, si per setting. Flyniouth Itock, 
White Face, Black Spanish and Hoiidaiis, Light and 
Dark Brahmas, Partridge and Buff Cochins, *1.S0 per 
setting; Langshans, -^'i per settine: I'ekin Ducks, #1 per 
setting. Money to accompany order. Address, R. DU- 
BERNET, P. O. Box 75, Bkookltn, Alameda Co., Cal. 


Headquarters for Pure Langshans — the 
Great Egg Producers. 
Earl.v Chicks for sale — single pairs, trios or pens. 
Also, a few choice Light Brahmas and Pl.\ mouth Rocks. 
Stock large, ttrong and vigorous. Kggs will hatch, 
SI.OU per 13. 

Prultvale, Alameda Co., Cal. 
tVVisitora take horse cars at Oakland. 

Booth's Sure Death Squirrel Poison 

For Squirrels, Gophers, Birds, Mice, Etc. 

^Endorsed l,y the Orange and Fanners wherever used "fliS 
Tlie Clieappst and Itest. 
Put up in I'ponnd. 6 p'lund, and .''i gallon tins. 
Kvery Can Warranted. 
This Poison has hien on the market less than two ycAU, \et 
in this short time it has gained a reputation of "Sure Death," 
ei|ualed by none. Bj its merits alone, with very little advertising, 
it is now used e\tenti\ely all over the Pacific Coast, as well as in 
Australia and New Zealand. 



Patented Jan. 23d, 1383. 

For Sale hy all Wholesale and iSctail Dealers. 

A. R. BOOTH, San Louis Obispo, Cal. 

Suet-iiil Tc-riim oil (^iiai)titii'!' in Bulk. 

|By 4V////am Croz/erM Peter Henderson. 

Just i.srvueil. A iifw work of 400 pas^m, 
|c(iiii&inii)K 235 llluMtratlotta. Sent pu^i- 

A<,K\m.S U .t^TKO. PETFR HFNDERSON A CO., 3& A 37 Coi tUndt Street, N<w York. 



1884. Two Gold Medals this Year.- 1884. 

The l'gT.\Li\\n has leil tot'R VKAKK in siicx.TSsion . 

3 Gold Medals, 1 Silver Medal, and 14 
other Premiums. 

No other l.vri BAToR in the United States can hIiow the 
record the l'KT.\Ll'5I.V can. i^-Senil (or full Descrip- 
tive (ircular, No. !). Address 

P. o. liox lit Petaluma, Cal. 


Self-Kegulat inj; and Turiitni;;. Trays 

turn all the Eggs instantly. Send for Circular. 

CUTTING & ROBIN3<1N. Aeenta, 
P. o. Box 7, Stockton, Cal. 




Fri,m up. Send 
for descriptive price list. 

TliorouKhbi^ Poultrj 
and Kggi. 
lOU Broadway, 
Oakland. 0ml 


Price Reduced to 


Twenty gallons of fluid 
nuxed with cold water will 
make l,2uO gallons of Dip. 
It is superior to all Dips and Drwwings for Scab Id 
Sheep; is certain in effect; is eaailv mixed, and is applied 
in a cold st.ate. Unlike sulphur or tohacco, or other 
uois'inous Dij«, it increases the growth of the wool, stim- 
lates the fleece, and greatl) adds t" the yolk. It destroys 
all \ ermin. It is cflicacious for almost every disease (in- 
ternal and external) sheep are suhject to. 


BELL & CO . 

San Francisco. CaL 

Ualvert'8 Carbolic 


•a p«r Gallon. 

After dipping the Bbeep, le ooc- 
ful for preeervlng wet hides, de- 
stroying t. e vine pegt. and tor 
wheat dreasinga and dislnfoctlnn 
purposes, etc. T. W. JACKSON, 
8. P.. Sole Asent tor Padflc Coast. 



Free from Poison. Prepared 

by the Italian Oovenimt-Dt 

Co. Curee thoroughly the 

remedy known. Reliable teeti* 
QQonialB at our odioe. 

For particulars ^ply to ' 
0HA8. DXnaBNBB dO k CO.. Bole A^anta. 814 Heart— nto 


Oculist and Aurist, 

969 Broadway, Room 51, 

Hours: 9 to 12 A. M.: 1 to 3 p. m. 


Lumber Company. 


No. 1310 Second Street, near M. 


Corner Twelfth and J Streets, 

OC Comie Transparent £ 2:i (no i alike) Chrumo L'anlii 
uaiuc on, lOi. rresent (rti A. lliues, faiwville, M 

January 3, 1885] 


Lapd? l^or ?ale apd Jo Let. 



Of Fresno and Tulare Counties. 


Fruit, Vine, Alfalfa, and Grain Lands, 


LOCATION.— The lands of the 76 Land and Water 
Company are located in Fresno and Tulare Counties, Cal- 

WATER.- Tliese lands are irrigated hy the 76 Canal, 
which takes its water out of King's River, above all 
ditches, is :00 feet wide on bottom, with capacity to irri- 
gate 220,000 acres of land. 

QUi.LITy. — The soil varies in character, among 
which are the celebrated Red Land, White Ash or Pumice, 
Sandy and Clayey Loam and Dry Bojf. 

ADAPTATION.— Grapes (wine and raisin), all va- 
rieties of Fruit, Alfalfa, Corn, Potatoes, Wheat, Barley, 
Broom Corn, etc., all of which can be produced in im- 
mense quantities. 

HEALTH.- One of the most healthy locations in the 
State; summer days warm, but not oppressive; ni^'hts 

LEASING.— Lands with water, for terms of years 
or cash or portion of crop. 

PRICES.- From $10 to $40 per acre, with permanent 
Water Riglit included. Colony Lots, in tracts of 20 acres 
each, adapted to Fruit and Vines, within one mile of Rail- 
road Station at Traver, at $40 per acre, with permanent 
Water Rights. 

TERMS.— One-fourth cash; balance in three years; 
interest, 8 per cent [ler aniiimi. 

TITLE.- I'erfect. U. S. Patent. 

VALUES.— Lands are rapidly inhaiicing in value, 
and no better opportunity can be found for safe invest- 

iSS'Tor further particulars and pamphlet, address 

ISlltclioixoi- eft? B«-lx.oi-, 

Agents 76 Land and Water Co., 

Traver, Tulare Co., Cal. 

New and Valuable Fruits! 


Now for sale for the first time, at $1 each 
or 6 for $5. 

This is a fine Ornamental Plant, bearing fine 
fruit all the year round. Also: 

PITAYA, the Climbing Cactus, producing very fine 
Fruit and Flowere. 

ANONA, the 0\iatemala Cu<itard Apple, ver> line Havor 
and \e\y hardy. 

PEAK-FORMED GUAVA, largest and best for .lellius. 



Central American Tropical Nursery 


One thousand acres of VINEYARD. ORCHARD ANL 
ALFALFA LAND in Fresno Coimty, neat the town of 
Fresno, at $15 per acre, as a whole, or $30 per acre in 
subdivisions. Apply to 


402 Kearny St., S. F. 


Wltliovit Irrlg;allon, 

Free by mail, specimen mimber of "The Californian Real 
EsXwAt Excfutnue artd Mart," tuW of reliable iuformation on 
Ate, productions, etc.. of 


Address. "EXCHANGE AND MART." Santa Cruz, CaL 


^ r ■ ^ To \ ounjJT. old, rich or poor. 

r Si>^Wx^ ^ -scxcs.-ston dniKKinK, 

J rr ^^ALf:.- ~ — . \ Mii.i i-iirc yciiir»i-If witb 

llllliNK'S i\cv/ Iinprovi'd) 
i:i.'cti-ic licit. Klcctncilvis 
Life, iilid :l A/r.i of It Is Dis- 
lusciiiid Dc atli. Tliuusaiids 
irslify to its pt icolcsH value. 

f sii.iKKI cures reported In 18S!, 

M'liolc I'ainily can wear isainc Itelt. Ciirct witliotit medi- 
cine, Pains in the Buck, Hips, Head or Limbs. Nervous 
Debility, Ltinibajjo, (General Debility. lilienniatism, Par- 
alVNls, NenralKla. Sciatica, Disease of Kitliieys, Spinal 
Diseases, Torpid Liver, Coiit, Astlinui. Heart Disease, 
Dyspepsia, Constipation, Kryaipelas. liidiRestlon, Kup- 
tiire. Catarrh, Piles, I'^pilepsv. .\},'iie, Diaiietes. Send stamp 
for Pamphlet. W. J. EOENE, 702 Market St., San Tran- 
cisco, Cal. Inventor, Proprietor anil .Manufacturer. 


aPositivcIy furpfl in (iO d.i.vs hy 
^l»r. llurne'H Klvctro-JllHiriiotie 
lti*lt-TruHH, t-Dii I billed. Guiwmi 
t. c.i the uiily Olio in tho woj^U 
..^^ pcnenil iriK a < onlimious Kln-trh-t' 
•tic cyin-ffiit. Scieiitiflc. Powi rtiil. Di 
nmfortiitilf nn4l EtfcctiTC in r-m int 
ture. Price Kf<hic<-(i. .■"»()(» cured in m:1. Send for i) t 
TOSfc Market Stklet, San Fican< isco. 



•7^ nnn tons capacity, ni^ nnn 

( t-J,\J\J\J storage at Lowest Rates. ' 

CAL. DRY UUVK CU., Props.— OtHce 318 Cal. St., room. 3. 



experience, found that the JUDSON POWDER especially, is the best adapted to REMOVE 
STUMPS and TREES. t ^> f 

FROM 5 TO 20 POUNDS OF THIS POWDER will always bring any sized stump or tree with 
roots clear oijt of the ground. The EXPENSE IS LESS THAN ONE-HALF the cost of Grubbing. 

In most instances. Giant Powder, or any other "Hi«h Explosive," is too uick, and ordinary Blasting Powder 
not strong enough. 

i»"For particulars how to use the same, apply to 

BANDMANN, NIELSEN & CO., General Agents 




'Clod Crusher, 
and Leveler. 

The "ACME" subjects the soil to the action of a .Steel Crusher and Leveler, and to the Cutting, 
Liftiiisr. Turiiiug procesr of dovblc. gangs of CA.ST STEEL COULTERS, the peculiar shape and arrange- 
nicnt "f which gi\e iininen»e oittiiiR power. Thus the three operations of crushing Iumi;s, levelin" 
off the ground and thoroughly pulverizing the soil arc performed at the same time. The entire ab- 
sence of .Spikes or Siiring Teeth avoids pulling up rubbish. It is esiiecially adapted to inverted sod and hard 
clay, where other Harrows utterly fail; works jierfectly on light soil, and is the only Harrow that cuts over the 
entire surface of the ground. We make a variety of sizes, 3 to 15 feet wi<le. 

The " ACME " is in practical use in nearly e\'ery Agricultural County on the Pacific Coast, and has proved itself 
to he just the tool for use in VINEYARDS, ORCHARDS, and GRAIN FIELDS. 

SS'Send. for Pamphlet containing Thousands of Testimonials from 48 different States 
and Territories. 

Manufactory and Principal OiQce, Millington, N. J. 
N. B.— Pamphlet " TILLAGE IS MANURE, and Oiiier Es8AY,s," sent free to parties who name this paper. 

Geo. Bull & Co., 21 and 23 Main St., San Francisco; G. B. Adams & Son, San Gabriel, 
Cal.; Staver & Walker, Portland, Or., and Walla Walla, W. T. 




3,ooo iKT tjsje: : 

Something New, Shaw Slip-Share Gang Plow. Send for Circulars 


S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Avenue, San Francisco. 

ia- Free CoaCh to and from the Houae. J. W. BECKER, Proprietor. 

breeders' birectory. 

six lines or less in this Directory at 50c. a line per month 



1 lb. boxes, 40 cts.; 3 lb. boxes, 41; 10 lb. boxes, 82.50; 
25 lb. boxes, S5. This is the only preparation in the 
world that will positively prevent every disease of poul 
try and make hens lay. Ask your grocer or druggist for 
it. B. F. Wellington, Prop'r, 425 Washington St., S. F. 

CUTTING & ROBINSON, P. O. Box 7, Stockton, 
Cal,, Importers and Breeders of all kinds of Land and 
Water Fowls. Send 2.cent stamp for Circular. 

GEO. B. BAYLEY, 1317 Castro St., Oakland, Im- 
porter and Breeder of all the best known and moat 
profitable Land and Water Fowls, and manufacturer 
of Poultry Appliances in great variety. Send stamp 
for Circular. 

MRS. L. J. WATKINS. San Jose, Cal. Pure bred 
Fancy Poultry. White and Brown Leghorns, Plymouth 
Rooks, Langshans and Houdans. Eggs and Fowle. 

H . STODDARD, Santa Barbara, breeder of pure Dark 
Brahnias, "Philander Williams" strain; also Peaeocks. 

MRS. M. E. NEWHALL, San Jose. White and 
Brown Leghorns, Langshans, Plymouth Rocks, Light 
Brahnias, Pekin Ducks and Bronze Turkeys. 

T. D. MORRIS, Sonoma, Cal. l\iolouse and Embden 
Geese, Bronze and W. Holland Turkeys, and all leading 
varieties of Thoroughbred Poultry. 

W. C. DAMON, Napa, Cal. Pure White Leghorns a 
specialty. Fowls, $2; eggs, 10 cents each. 

D. D. BRIGGS, Los Oatos, Cal., importer anil breeder 
of Langshans, W. F. Bl. Spanish, Bl. Hamburgs, B. B. 
R. Red and White Pile, and Golden Duck Wing Games, 
Bl. Samatra's, Malay's, Golden Poland's, Pekin and 
Muscovy Ducks. Circulars free. 

SMITH'S POULTRY YARDS, Blanding avenue, 
bet. Everett and Broadway, Alameda, Cal. Address, 
Chas. W. Smith, P. O. Box 57, Oakland, Cal. 

Cal. Thoroughbred Poultry and Eggs for sale. Also 

O. J. ALBEE, Santa Clara, Cal., Box 229, Breeder of 
Thoroughbred Poultry. 


further information address I. P. Clarke, Mayfield, Cal. 


p. J. SHAFTER, Olema, Cal. Breeder of fine Jerseys 

J. R. ROSE, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., Cal. Breeder 
of Thoroughbred Devoiis, Roadsters and Draft Horses. 

Station, S. F. & N. P. R. R. P. O., Penn's Grove 
Sonoma Co., Cal. Wilfred Page, Manager. Breeders 
of Short Horn Cattle, English Draft Horses, Spanish Me- 
rino Sheep and Berkshire Swine. 

MRS. M. E. BRADLEY, San Jose, Cal. Brecdei 
of recorded thoroughbred Short Horn Cattle and Berk- 
shire Hogs. A choice lot of young stock for sale. 

PETER SAXE & SON, Lick House, San FranciBOO, 
Cal. Importers and Breeders, for past 14 years, of 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

J. A. BREWER, Centcrvillo, Alameda Co., Cal. 
Short Hi>rns and Grades. Concspondence solicited. 

SYLVESTER SCOTT, Cloverdale, Sonoma Co. 
Cal. , breeder of Thoroughbred Short Horns. 

GEORGE BEMENT, Redwood City, San Mateo Co., 
Cal. Breeder of Ayrshire Cattle, Southdown Sheep and 
Berkshire Hogs. All kinds of stock for sale. 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Thorough 
bred Poultry, Cattle and Hogs. Write for circular. 

SEE H. PIERCE'S Jersey advertisem't in this paper 


J. D. ENAS, Sunnyside, Napa, Cal., breeds Pure 
Italian Queens. No foul brood. Comb Foundation, 
Extractors, etc. "Cook's Manual of the Apiary." 

HICKS' HIVE— The best movable frame hive in use. 
Also all kinds of Apiarian supplies. "North American 
Beekeepers' Guide." Send for Circulars and price list, 
yueen Bees, etc. C. B. Whiting, 42 Merchants' Ex., S. F. 

WM. MUTH-RASMUSSEN, Independence, Inyo 
County, Cal., dealer in Honey, Comb l-oundation, and 
Italian yuecns in season. Bcc-hive and frame ma- 
terial sawed to order. 


L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and breeder 
of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Red Duroo 
and Berkshire Swine High graded Rams for sale. 

JULIUS WEYAND, breeder of pure blooded An- 
gora Goats, Little Stony, Colusa Co., Cal. 


JOHN RIDER, Sacramento, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My stock of Hogs are all 
recorded in the American Berkshire Record. 

TYLER BEACH, San Jose, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 

oiiuhhred Berkflhiren. 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Tlioroughbred 
Poland-China and Berkshire Pigs. Circulars free. 

will sfiid ynnn wnfcli or a chain 
IIV Jl A 11. (Ill KXI'KKSS. C. O. D.,to bo 
i xHiiiliird tirloic imyin^any money 

""■I I snti-lnctory.retuincdat 

OIIrcxiu'Tl^^r, AV(! inaiiufuctuio all 
our u.ilrlii->; .-itid save you 30 per 
(•int. (VitiiloKilo or 260 iitylos free. 
Kv. i v « iit. h W.-inanted. Address 


I'lTTS.lUliliU, PA. ' 

On Farms at Lowest Rates. 


408 Montgomery St, San FiancifCOi 


[Janoary 3, 1885 

Mar ket J^ Efot^T 

No . ■'. - L ur n;.-.i.ons»re for Wednesday, notiaturdaj 
tt.e d»t e wr.ich the paper bears. 

Weekly Market Review. 


San Francisco, Dec. 30, 1884. 

But lilllo is usually expected of the week between 
the holidays in the way of trade and this week is no 
disappointment. There has been a little fluctuation 
in some articles but nothing very marked or extended . 
The latest from abroad concerning wheat is favor- 
able, as follows: 

LlVF.POOl , Dec. 30. - -W'EiKAT— Strong. Califor- 
nia spot lots' 6i I id to 7s ul; off coast, 35($£6s 6d; 
just shipped, 35!> 6d; nearly due, 35s cargoes off 
coaat, held higner; on passage, firmer and held 
higher; English country markets, turn dearer, 
French quiet; W'heit in I'aris, quiet; Flour, steady. 

London Agricultural Seed Trade. 
IReportml l)V Jmix Sinw « Sl)^8,Socd Merchants). 

The market for firm seeds continues without .any 
feature of interest, just now tlieie is no consumptive 
sowing demand whatever, and all speculations is for 
the time in ab-yance. ICiiglish clover seed is in 
jibundant supply and is obl.iinable at rates lower 
thin have prevailed for many years. Other descrip- 
tions are this season aUo exceedingly cheap. For 
bird seeds the sale is small and quotations tend 
downwards. Blue jiease and H.aricot beans move 
off slowly at unchanged prices. Kinseed is firmer. 
'I he high rates demanded for spring tares hinder 

J7 Mart Lane, London, 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

New York. Dec. 28.- There does not appcir to 
be much change in the general characteristici of the 
market for domestic lleeces. Holders of stock ex- 
press Ihenisolves quite willing to carry on the basis 
of old valuations, and this is the season of the year 
productive of dull tr.ide in all classes of merchamiise 
and until the holid.ay influence passes .-iway no mar- 
kets secure a really lair test. Impressions, however, 
.seem to be that buyers w ill make no objection to thi 
cjrrent cost of desir.ible wool, and if the goods 
market develops any more promising features, tin- 
demand for material is likely to improve. Even on 
low grades, a good word is spoken, owing to reduced 
and better controlled stocks. All things considered. 
It been a f.iir week, though in one or two cas-s 
the movement reported includes some back tran.'- ic- 
tions not until now made public. Carpet wool is ^l^)^v 
and unchanged. S.ales include 23,000 
pounds of spring California, at iB^ iB^ cents; 35,- 

000 scoured, at 41(1' 50 cents. 

New York Hop Trade. 
New York, Dec. 2S. — With business suspended 
abroad and no advices from that quarter, sliippers 
did nothing. Home-trade buyers were scarce as 
well, seemingly not having recovered from their 
holiday indulgence. .Sellers were around, bat did 
not attempt to do anything. In short, there was 
r«illy no market, and prices were wholly nominal. 
Picific Coast, crjp of 1884, fair to choice I2@i5 

Foreign Review. 
London, Dec. :9 — The Miirk Liine Express^ 
in its weekly review o. the llrilish grain trade, says; 
The weather during the week was dry, and autumn 
sown wheat obtained a good start and is in e.\cel- 
lent condition. There is no pro5ix?ct of values im- 
proving. I he trade during the week was a httle 
^ l onger, owing to the small deliveries. The sales 

01 Englisli whejit during the week w: s 59,793 quar- 
ters at 3ts 5d per quarie- ag i 1st 50,820 quarters at 
393 during the corresponding week of list year. 
Foreign wlieat merely retained the demand last re- 
ported. Tleactiv.ty in immediate and for future 
months was unexi)ecled, while the receipts of wheat 
f :)1 oT, th JSC of flour increased. The trade in off- 
coast cargoes was light. .Six cargoes arrived, one 
was sold, three were withdrawn, four remained and 
aVo it ten were due. Flour was dearer, barley steady, 
m ii<e s;arce and oats fiim. 

Bags Nothing new has been developed in this 
line during the week. Rates for Calcutta Wheat 
Bigs are ste.ady at 5Ji@5'/4c for the importation of 
1384; Wcol Bigs. 35^400; Potato Gunnies, 
lO'/^ feiic. 

B.\RLEY Barley is in fair condition but i.s being 
done. Choice feed is quotable at 95c, while <)2K'C \^ 
c'.l cin be reidily obtained for .stock that will guide 
as No. I. Brewing is quiet at about the old rrfiige. 
Call business .at the moming session w.«s lively, sales 
were: Buyer season--<joo tons. $i.o85<; 1,100, 
$1.08%'; 100. $i.o8.V4; 1,000, Si. 08. Seller season - 
500 tons, 95c; 100, 94 ^4C. Buyer, 1884 — 100 tons, 
93^c; 100, 94c; 100, 94Kc; 200, 94)ic ^ cll, 

BEANS— The market is still very quiet. Holders 
are not pressing the slock forward and there is a dis- 
position to await developments. The range of prices 
is a little lower tnan last week. 

CORN— Com is about the same as last week. 
White corn is perhaps a little lower and lirge yellow 
a little higher, but the difference is not grcMt. 

DAIRY PKODLCK— The weather has enabled 
the demand to clean the visible butter supply up well 
and prices are firm. Cheese is selling well. 

EGGS — Receipts are moderate but prices have 
shided off a llllle-2(jc per do/., for fresh ranch 

FEED— Hay is still unsetiled at the following 
range: Alfalf i, $8.50^' $12 50; Wheat, $12 @$iO, 
Oat, $9(ai$i5; Barley. $8(a,Si2; Mi.\ed, $7(a,$io V 
ton. Concerning the outlook in Bian the Bulletin 

On the last day of 1884 the Bran deal will come to 
a close. Prices to-day are, and for months past 
have been, abnorin.dly high. We have no direct 
means of knowing how mucii Bran the syndic t" 
have had delivered to them during the late specula- 
tive d mI, nor are we aware as to how many shorts 
are yet to be settled There is little doubt, how- 
ever, that between 3.000 and 4,000 tons aro in w ire- 
house in the hands of these operators, which will be 
early put or the New Year market. The above 
.quantity is said to be a larger amount of Bran than 

was .-^ver before stored in this city, and in order to 
work it off in competition with the constant product 
of mills, very low prices will likely rule in the near 
future, as compared with the rates that prevail at the 

FRESH ME.\T — Our list shows a slight advance 
in beef. Other meats are unchanged. 

FRUIT. — Some choice Newtown pippins (worm- 
less) are bringing as high as $2 per box, while there 
is a mass of poor apples selling cheap. A few pears 
still remain, but the market is well cleaned up for 
the season. Oranges seem to be abundant. River- 
side brand is starting in in advance, as last year. 

HOPS — There does'nt appear to be anything 
hopeful in Hops at present; nominal rates remains 
at I2@isc }^ lb. 

OATS — Oats are dull and quiet and some holders 
arc retiring from the market to aw.ail an improve- 

ONIONS — Onions are a shade lower but very 
little changed in disposition. 

POT.ATOES — Receipts have been reduced and 
rates are higher this weci;. Reports of river floods 
have raised Red Potatoes. 

PROVTSIO.NS — The decline continues in Bacon 
and Hams, and these supplies are now lower than 
for a long period. 

POULTRY AND GAME— Prices have improved 
this week al! .around, but especially in Turkeys and 

VEGETABLES— Marrow Fat Squash :s much re- 
duced this week. 

WOOL — Sales during the week have been 
quite free and cov. r considerable amounts of Wool, 
but r.ates have remained low. Holders have evi- 
dently become desirous to and realize the amount to 
carry over the year has been considerably reduced. 

WHEAT. — Wheat is in belter tone, though prices 
are about the s;ime as last week. There is a better 
disposition to deal. Perhaps values have advarced 
about 2M cents per ctl so far. On call this morning 
business was unusually active. There was liberal 
buying, but Ihe demand was fairly met. Prices were 
fully one cent per cental higher than yesterday. 

Buyer season — 1.600 tons, $1.37; 2,100, $i.37;'8; 
2,000, $i.37K: 400. 5i.37H: 700, %\.y7%. 

Buyer season, city — 200 tons, St.33tj; 400, 
S1.38K; 100. $1.38/8. 

Buyer, 1834— 200 tons. $i.26J^ per ctl. 

Domestic Produce. 


Wkonksdat. Dei:. 31J. 1884. 

Chile.. 7i@ 8 


m 6 

M 1 


Almonda, bdahl. 7 

Soft sbifU VI m li 

Brazil 11 (a - 

PecauH 13J@ — 

I'eauiitA 5 (a 6 

Fillwrts 14 - 


New, *i 11, 1 @ Ij 

Early Uoie. 6C (d 75 

t'utfoy Cove I UO (<» 

Petaluma U J (ft 1 00 

Tomales — @ — 

Kivtr teds r,i <<^ »u 

Uiuuboldt — «• — 

do Kidney ... — (* — 
do PeachUow. — (j$ — 

Jersey Hlue 1 lo ^ 

Chile SO ^ 

do OreitoD... 1 10 (<* t>5 

Peerlesi 1 (,U 1 K 

Salt Lake — ta — 

Sweet ctl .1(1 ^ 1 50 


Hens, doi. 7 00 '.1 110 

Boosters ti 00 ((« i UO 

14.', Ducks, tame.. 

do. Teal .... 
071- do. Mallard 
30 Geefto, pair. . . 


Rayo.ctl 2 50 ,^ 3 00 

Butter 1 25 (08 1 50 

Castor 4 00 (rf — 

I I'ea 1 75 (d 1 90 

Bed 2 lO t,« S! 

Piuk 1 75 (a 1 874 

Large Wliite.... 3 10 (ffl — 
.SmaU White.... \ 3h tg \ K 

Lima 1 75 iq 1 '.lu 

Fid Peas.blk eye 2 50 a 2 75 

do green 2 75 S 3 00 


Southern 3 @ 

Northern 4 ® 


California 4 @ 

tiermau 6i((* 



Cal. fre.«h roll. tt>. 24'a 

do Kaucy br'uda 2S (tf 

Pickle roll 24 (g 

Pirkiu, new £0 @ 

Ka.steru 15 @ 

New York — @ 


Cheese, Cal , lb.. 11(8 

Cal., ranch, doz.. 35 (^ 

do, store 35 (it 

Ducks 20 @ 

(Jre^ou — @ — 

Kastem, byex.. 27S§ 30 
Pickled here.... — (^ — 

Utah 30 @ 32! 


Bran, ton IS 50 @l!i 50 

Commeal 27 50 @ 

Hay » 00 c«li; 00 

Middlings 17 50 lal'J 00 

Oil Cake Meal . 30 00 ^32 50 

Straw, bale 40 @ 1)5 

Extra, City .Mi Ms 4 15 (3 4 SO 
do Co'utry Milbi 3 75 (tt 4 25 

tjupertine. 2 00 C<* 3 50 

Beef.lstiiual., lb 8 




.Spriug Lamb.... 
Pork, nudres.'tt.-d. 



Barley, feed, otL 85 ® 
do lirewiug. . 1 02ird 1 121 

Chevalier 1 20 1^ 1 jo 

do Coast... 1 10 1 20 

Buckwheat 1 70 1 SO 

Com. White.... 1 07SS 1 10 

Yfillnw 1 10 (S I 15 

Small Round. 1 15 3 1 20 
Oatii, choice .... 1 30 (rt 1 40 I Millet, Ocmian. 

do No. 1 1 25 (fe 1 35 ' do ('oiiimon. 

do No. 2 1 12iu« 1 15 Mustard, white.. 

lo black 1 10 i(i 1 15 Biowu 


. 3 .'•U (« 4 50 

7 00 9 00 

75 (e? — 

2 50 (S -- 

2 25 @ 2 ? ■ 

7 % 

6 @ 




WUd Gray, doi 3 00 _ 
■yVTiite do. . . 1 .50 ® 

Turkeys. lb V3 (g 

do Dressed. . i4 ^ 
tail and wiug.. 
Snipe, Eng., doz. 
do ComjioQ.. 

Quail 1 00 @ 1 25 

Rabbits 1 00 @ 1 25 

Hare 2 00 @ 2 25 

Venistm — (<S — 

Cal. Bacou, 

Heavy, lb 



Extra Light .. 


Cal. .Smoked Beef 


Hams, Cal 

do Eastern.. 


Alfalfa 12! a 

do Chile — (S 


Clover red 

10 @ 

(4 2 
50 <g> 


14 (<« 

15 @ 

15 <A 

4 m 

4 I" 

■White 45 (* 

Cotton . 



(talian RycOrass 
Perennial . 

Rye 1 UiCLf 1 25 

Wheat, No. \... l\Ztft. \ i!7i 
do No. 2... 1 2Ji * 1 23 
Choice milling 1 2i '. ja ' 

Dry 164(a 

Wet salted 7S@ 


Beeswax, lb -'* @ 

Houey iu (x>mb. 6 % 
Extracted, light. — (it 
do dark. 4 @ 

Oregon — @ 

California. 12i@ 

Wash. Ter — @ — 

Old Hops — @ — 


Red - @ - 

Silverskin 50 @ 1 85 


Walnuts. Cal. lb 9 


Rape. . 

Ky. Blue Grass.. 

90 at 

25 m 

25 m 
'7 % 

2 & 

20 (i 

2d quality 16 @ 

Sweet V. ti 

Orchard 20 

Red Top 15 


Lawn 30 _ 

Mesqnit 10 @ 

Timothy 6 (g 


Crude, 11. 5J @ 

Keflued HiCg 

SPHINU— 1884. 
Eastern Oregon. 15 @ 

FALL 1884. 
Northern free . , 10 (rf 
do defective.. 9 It' 
Mountain ttfx. . 
San Jnaiiuiii. ,, 
South tloast — 

75 (!« 

8 & 

10 (.e 

6 (d 
6 t/e 

Fruits and Vegetables, 



Apples, box 50 2 01 

Bananas, bunch. 1 50 (rt 3 oil 
(Jocoauuts, 100.. 6 00 liT 7 00 
(Jraulmries, bbl.18 OC (s25 00 

Limes, .Mex 10 CO Call 00 

do I'dl. box ... 1 00 (a C 00 
Lemous, Cal.,bx 1 25 1 75 
do .Sicily, box. 6 00 % — 
do Australian. — @ — 
Oranges, Cal.,bx 1 50 (^ 3 0<] 



30. 1884 






Pears, sliced.... 


do whole . . . . 






do pitted.... 







do Fitnch 

.. 7 


Raisins, Cal. bx. 

1 60 


do halves .... 


do Tahiti, bx 3 25 (3 3 SO 

do Mexioau.M 10 00 S22 00 

do Panama... — M 1 (JO 

Pears, box 1 00 S 2 (10 

Per.simni.ius. bv. 50 'i 1 00 

Pineapples, doz. 4 50 (jr 5 00 

I^oiuegraiiatesbx 75 1 00 

(.Quinces ?5 (» 50 

Strawberries, ch 7 00 C<rl2 00 


Apples, sliced, lb 3 (S 3) 

do evaporated. i'» (d 7 

do quartered .. 2 (<i 3 

Apricots 10 (^ 12J 

Blackberries.... 10 @ 12.1 

Citron iH&i 30« 

Dates 9 (S 10 

Figs, pressed.... 4(8 5 

Figs, loose 3 @ 4i 

Nectariues 11 <a 12 

do quarters.. — & — 
do eighths... — ^ — 

New raised 1 90 «' 2 25 

Zante (.'urrants. 8 10.^ 

Artichokes, doz. 30 (d — 

Beets, ctl 50 S 00 

Cabba«e,100lbB. 50 @ 

Carrots, sk 40 @ 

Cauliflower, doz. 30 @ 

tJelery, doz 50 ® 

jGariic, lb 5 @ 

Lettuce, doz.... 10 
Mushrooms, lb... 8 @ 
Okra, dry, lb... 3U (8 

Parsnips, ctl 1 OO (S 

Poppers, dry 11>. . . 15 @ 
S()uash, Marrow 

fat, ton 6;C0 fiS 

do,Hiilil. d.bx,15 CO O 
Turuipe, ctl.... 60 @ 

The Light-Running and Popular 



. . . . IS . . . 

Absolutely Free from Annoyances 


Bona Fide Guarantee for 
Five Years. 


In Every County on the Pacific Coast. 

<yFor Information and Terms address 



108 & 110 Post St., San Francisco. 



n'II.t,l.lM KNARK A <'0. 

t^os. 204 and 206 West Baltimore Streer, 
Baltimore. No. 112 Fifth Avenue, N. V 


Wyuiidottos, Light Brahmas, 
VlyniouMi Hocks, lirowri aiul 
Wl i <• I-t'ifhorns, Lan;^stiaijs. 
i'iirii idtif Cochins, Ruff Ctn-h- 
inc, lloiuiaii.i. Silver S|»aii^le(l 
Huinburj,'s, W. F. B. Spanish, 
and I'ekin I)iu'ks and Bronze 
Turkeys— a TiU II. yoblcr. My 
fowls are raissd on 7 difTerent 
T inns, thereby making them 
hcaltiiv a'ld vigorous. Catu- 
illOS. WAlti., BriK'liton, Tal. 


- Tin;- 


nv^ tlic Climate, Ileallh, Fniit Lanil!", llmiipa. in Scini 
'J'ropic Cnliforiiia. ami tin' I'rolits of Fruit Culture in thi» 
woiridt;rful laud, iiioliulln;; piuiplilet, by :i(l(lre»sin^ 
L M. HOLT, Riverside, Cal., 
Sec'\ Sail HeriiurJino luiiiii„'ration As-sociation. 


The .\niiual Mi;etini{ of tliv St«x-kholJers o( tlw 
Grani<ers' Hank of California for tlie election of Directoni 
and tlio tr.iiis%ct:oii of siR-li other huslDcss as may come 
Ucloro the incotiiiir, will he held on Tuesday, the ISth 
ilay of January, ISSS. at 1 o'clock r. ¥., at the office of 
the Rank, loriier California and Battery Streets, Sail 
Francisco, Cal. 

FUANK Mcmullen, Secrotatj-. 

The Latest Improved Exterminator 

PATKNTKI) Nov. 20, IS^r^. 


Will not fall over. Complete 
wcig^lig less than 16 lbs. Dura- 
ble and effective. Having fire 
chamber 14 inches at base, it 
raises a largjr amount of smoke 
In a given time than any other 
Kxtenninator in use. 

\on. For Circulars and informa- 
Hlirs Perry. Cal. 

V,i < of refi'n'iK 
tion, addre8!i 



Hatches Eggs Better than a Hen. 

13'Seiid Stamp for iLLrsTRATRn Circi'lar to 

GEO. B. BAYLET, Manufacturer, 
1317 Castro St, Oakland, Cal. 
N. B. — A la%'e line of Poultry A| iiliam eii, sui h as Wire 
Netting, Bone .Mi|l8, ChoppiiiK MachiiirK, cte.. for mlc 
at the Low RKT RATKt. 


Grape Cuttings 

- AM) 


Of nearly all the |iriiK'i|>al varieties of (irapea for UEH 
\VI\F-S and t;ihle use, including' 

HAMBURU, Etc., also, LENUIR, ilERBEMOHT and 

Cutting's lieiiifrniadc from our own viiieyanls, and past 
experience in handliiiK and nhippin^', giiamnteeii frenh 
and perfect (Juttiitirs to purchasers. 

Prices furnistied on application. liediiction i;iv«n on 
largu orders. B. T. PIERCE, 

Santa Clam, CU. 

BEST wjlsh: 

.F'li: .. 


One pound of Lye to one grallon of Water. 


FoK Salr bv 

202 California St, San Francisco. 

N'. B. — In M ritins for prices state iniinlier of c.ises (IS 
pounds each) rcqiiircil. 


The Rising Sun Bal<ing Powder. 

.Maiiufactiircil !ijm1 m.UI fiiily l.j 
T. H. OOOK cfc CO.. 

Big Tree Store, 


Strictly Pure. No Adulteration. 

No Starch. .\o Ainnioiiia. No Chalk. No Aluui. 
Pure t rcaiii of aii>l Pi-iarh. of Soda. 
Send for our "Crocery Herald and Consumers' Uuide. 

Corner 8th and J Streets. Saetamento, Cal. 

San Francisco Savings Union, 

f>32 Oallfomla Street, cor. Webb. 

For the half year cndinjc with I>eccmher 31, 18.14, a 
dividend has hcen ileclared at the rate of four and thirty 
two one-buiidredths (4 32 100) pc otnt per annum on 
term deposits, and three and six tenths (S 6 10) per cent 
[ler annum on ordinary deposits, free of taxes, jiayable 
on and after Friday, .Faniia'v 2, IKS.'i, 

I.O\ EI.L WHITE, Cashier. 

D. N. & O. A. HAWLEY, 

J>«1 to so? M4KKKT HTKKET. N. V. 

SPLKKUiu!— Latest Style chromo cards, name, 10c. Pre- 
mium with 3 packs. F. B. PARDEE, New UaveD.Ct. 

The German Savings and Loan 

For the half year ending IJeceuilier I8S4, \, tv H >ar.l 
o' Directors of the tlerman Saving's anil Loan Socief.i has 
Ueclared a dii ideiid on term deposits at the rate of 'foui 
and thirty-two onc-huiidredths (4 32100) per cent pet 
annum, and on ordinary deposits at the rate of three and 
fcix tenths (3 6 10) per cent per annum, and payahic on 
anil after the 2d day of .laniiury, issf,. Iiv order 

i.Kii. I.FI-li:, Secretary. 


RANSOME, 204 Uonteoinerv St.. S. F. Send for Circula 

Akoill's Liver Pills cure rbeaiuatism and hsadacbe. 

Jandary 3, 1885] 



W. E. ChamberiiAin, Jr 


Returned to now buiUlint;, tnrmer location, 320 Post 
street, where students have all tlie ad\anta^c8 of elej^ant 
halls, new furniture, first-class facilities, and a full corps 
of experienced teachers. 


Ladies admitted into all departments. Ua.v and Even- 
in;; S(.'ssions during the entire year. 
t^L'tM, or send for f'TRCi'i.Aii to 







REV, H. E, JEWETT, Principal, 


TUESDAY, - - JANUARY 6th, 1885. 

JL Da\' S 'bo'il for Youn^ Men and Boys, 1534 Mission 
St , San I'raneisco. Prepares for Colle;;o and University. 
Easter Term opens Monday, .January 5, 1885. Refers to 
Win. F. Balicock, Esq., Col. E. E. Eyre, .Joseph Pownin^f, 
Esq., Oen. L. II. Allen, Will. T. Coleman, Esq., Geo. W. 
Gihlis, Esq. i^For information, address, Kev. E. B. 
SPALDING, Rector. 



DIPLOMA of Mcchani's' Institute Fair, 1S84, awarded 
to this (N)lle^'e. 

"On I- Colles:" T/Kilger," contains full particulars 
rctrardin;; tlie L'uIIe^re J'ei'artiucnts, Co. uses of Study 
Terms, etc., .Sfini tor a Copy. 


(Boarding and Da.^ ) 


Takes first rank for tborougbin' 
and ability uf its teacliers; als«) 
for bome cart. 

Itiisiness, Classical, and 
V- ni;^ltsli Departments. 

'I lic next term will commence Mon 
tlay, .January 5th, 1885. 

Send for Catalogue to 

D. P. SACKETT, A. M., Principal, 



geeds, Wapt3, ttc. 


For Drying on an Exten.slve Scale all kinds of truits and Vegetables, Hops, Wool, 
Lumber, and all Fabrics, Substances and Articles 
that require drying. 


Ever invented that makes a better Kaisin than can possibly be made by solar heat. Its capacity 
is such as to enable the raisiu-maker to handle a large crop successfully, and insures him against 
loss on account of wet or unfavorable weather. As a Fruit Diier it has no fi)Ual. It will dry 
all kinds of Fruit perfectly and in as short time as possible. It can be constructed to contain 
from one to one hundred tons at a charge, and works eijually well on a large or small scale. 
J^TSeni) Koli ClKi iiLAK. Address 


420 Montgomery Street, ... San Francisco, Cal.' 



No. (i25 Sixth Street, ) 
San Fkancwco, Dec. 1!), 18S4. J 

For the purpose of protecting my friends and the public from investing in Uay Kick- 
ers or Stackers, which infringe the " AciUe" Stacker and Rake Patents, I hereby give 
formal notice that I have purchased of the Acmc Hav Harvester Compiny, of Peoria, 
Illinois, all the original and bottom Patents for Stacking Hay and Grain on the 

following plan and principle, namely : 

A Platform or Toothed Rack for Receiving Hay from a Rake for the Pur- 
pose of Being Elevated. 

I commenced the manufacture of these celebrated labor-saving machines last season, 
and have made such improvements as I found were re(iuired to adapt them to the wants of 
this Coast. I have invested a large capital in their manufacture, and am now prepared 
to supply this Coast, guaranteeine satisfaction to purchasers. 

I have no fear of competition from piratical imitators, but right is right, and I 
would only exhibit weakness insteail of sound business principles if I did not maintain 
my rights and, at the same time, protect my customers from possible imposition and loss. 

The Patents establishing my title to the above claim are numbered and dated as 
follows : 

No. lW),r)42, dated November 187."). 
No. 180,007, dated January 0, 1877. 
No. l<l4,.-)!)2, dated August 28, 1877. 

No. 20.3,:{''2, dated May 7, 1878. 
No. 276,089, dated May 1, 18.S3. 
No. 270,(i7:^, dated May 1, lS8;i. 

Catalogue mailed to all applicants. 

8I2&8I4 N. 4th St., St. Louis, Mo. 

Name this Paper. 


100,000 Rooted Vines; also. Cuttings 
from Acres Bearing Vines; also, Ror ted 
Zinfandels. Muscatels, Empereur, etc.. etc. 


Woodland, Cal. 

Rooted Trots and CuttingB for sale in lots to suit pur- 
chasers, at the 

Five miles west of Santa Clara, on the Saratoga Avenue. 

Apply to LUDOVICO GADDI, on tlie premises, or to 
A. T. MARVIN, 516 California St., S. F. 


chauehc iioir, Chauche grls (eray Riesling), Meunier, 
Teiiiturier, tor sjile at moderate prices in lots to suit. 

Glcuwood, Santa Cruz Co., Cal. 


I Willow for sale. 



Hay ard Grain Stacker and Loader, and 

Byron Jackson's Improved Rake and Buck Combined. 

John Hannay's Nursery. 



Prom 5 to 7 feet high . 

80,000 Peach, 20.000 Pear, 

50.000 Aprico\ 10,000 Apple, 
8,000 Yellow Egg Plum, 
7,000 Cherry, Black Tartarian, and Na 

poleon, Biggareau (ir Koyal Anne), 
Hungarian, Italian, and Silver Prunes; and Plums. 
Almond-, Figs, (Quinces. Pomegranates, etc. CB'Spei-iai 
inducements are offered to those who buy in large quan- 
tities. Address JOHN HANNAY, 

San Jose, Cal. 



Mann, Haas, Wealthy, Lord Nelson, and Hyde's King 

Souvenir du Congres and Keiffcr Pears. 

Hyiies Surprise, Lady Palmerston, Jones' Seedling, 
Poole's Large Yellow and Wager Peaches. 

s;iva's Koning Claudie, Walling and Japin Plums. 

Early Lamaurie, Golden Bigarreau and Sehmidfs Big- 
garreau Cherries. 

St. Ambroise, Eureka and Blaek Aprieots. 

Victoria and Hivers' Orange Ncetariiies. 

Large stoek of American Sweet and Japanese Mammoth 
Chestnuts. Hansell liaspberry, oaiiicst and best Kay's 
Prolific (Jurrant, large and productive. ffS'Cboice Stock 
and Low Prices. Address 


Ntwcastle, Oal. 


TUG (C ni AkicT ID ]] HOLLOW steel standard 
NEW rLANtl Jn" -HORSE hoe,- 

As lately Introduced, has no equal in tliu world. Usexcelli'iil 
work ill the field has distanced that of all ooinpciilors. It is. 
in some sections, doing in one passage, the work ol I'our or 
five old-style iuipleiu cuts, and in others suiicrccdiug the cum- 
bersome and exnetisive two-hor^e tools. The *' PLANET 
are the newest and best, liglitest and stron;;esi Known. Tiiere 
arc 7 distinct tools, each witli s[>ecial merits, no two alike or 
the same juice; all prac-tical and lalior-saviiuf. Let no 
]''arnier or (iardeiKT I'ail to sliKlv up during the winter 
evenings our CATA i,(KJr K. which gives reduced 

prices, careful and exact en;;ravinics of these ditfercnt 
machines, and sti<-h Uc-criplioiis as will enable tlie r<'a<Icr to 
judge correcllv ol'lbiir iiiciils. 'I'hirlv jimkcs and Forty 
(■ugraviiigs. Free (call. ( ■urrr.<|ii,iiiliiic'c xilii-iliMl. 

SI Al I rU £ rn manufacturers. I27an(l 129 

Catalogues and Handsome Cards free to all. Machines Delivered 
Freight Paid to any Railroad Station or Steamer Landing. 

Old MachlBes laken ii Exchange. "HOUSEHOLDS" repaired Tree lor 5 years. 

( <i/cc('«,wr to MA UK .SHELDON.) 
9. 11 ana 13 FIRST ST., - - SAN FRANCISCO. 
General Agent for the Popular Favorite of the Kasteru States, 




Will be mailci 

to all applicants Y riE.El'^'Q 

rnd to customers of last year without 
orderingit. It contains iFlustrations, prices, 
descriptions and directions fur planting all 
I'egetablf and Mower SEEDS, Bt'I.US, etc. 


Liiyest Sl<i..k in the United States. Prices on app ica- 
tion. Address 


Bloomington, lUiaois. 

City Salesrooms, 634 Market street, opp. site Palace Hotel, 

Tblephonii 320, 


For Sale-500,000 Grape Cuttings. 

Warfanted free from e\erv disease, consistinj^ of the fol- 
lowinj^ fine \arieties: Matero, Melbeck Cara^^an, (ire- 
nache, Zinfandel, Charbono, Trousseau, Blaek Prince, 
l-'ranken, Reislin^-. Mevoise, Rose Peru, Muscat of Alex- 
andria, at the Lowest Market Price. Address 
J. C. MERITHE'W, Viticulturist, 

Copeteno, Santa Clara Co., Cal. 

K Ci A I S«l TIIKUX >uksi;kies. 

PEACH TREES suited to all sections. 

Angle Trees. 'Mra Imi'^ kii>|.iiiL; 

Kieffer & Le Conte Pears. 

c r\ III, I, I. im; ..fall uiminor 

l^a:; \l IfSKK^ > riK K < IIKAI',/ n 
;i€i'J <<rit|»<' \'iiies. Smiill 
;5y l''i'iiil. and oiljcr plants by mall. 

:Y sii-|.a-rd ca'.aloqiic showing' how 
" ' "ijil \vh:il to phuil. wilh much 
alnalih' iiil'iirm.-ilion, KitfK. 
RANDOLPH PETERS, Wllminqtan, Delawart. 


KsrAULlSlIED l.N 1S&.''. 

I offer for sale, at reasonable rates, a general assort- 
ment of Fruit Trees, non-irrigated, vigorous, clean and 
healthy. Piioes lurnished on application. Address, 



Petaluma, Cal. 



Splendid Stock of Fruit and Ornamental 

Trees to Planters and the Trade, 
Consisting' in part of OraM;;e, Leinoii, Lime, Olive, Vi'f, 
PoniegTanatc, Apiile, Peach, Pear, Prune, etc. We ninke 
a specialty of .Seini-Tfopio Trees and I'laiits. 
I'RICK List Fukk. Address 

THOS. A. GAREY, Agent. 
P. O. Box Vil. Lioa Angeles, Cal. 


The larjjest and finest Trees in the State of their aKO 
by Warranted free of all in.sccts, and true to name. 

Noctarinei, Peaches and Aprit^ots a tpecialty. Myers' 
Early Apricot, the earliest hi the State. Uodd'a Necta- 
rine, the latest in the State. Prices reasonable. Send 
for Catalei;uu and Price List. 


Visalia, California. 

A lar^'e (iuantit\- of <'hci'i'\ Seetllinu:s; also a lar;.;'c lot of 
first and second i|ualit\ .^pple S^i ihin-a, for bviddinii and 
graftini;, ready for dulivcrv. Send for prices ami samples. 

,J. T. ilOGUE, Oakland, Cal. 

MRS. J. G. MAXWELL. Quincy, Plumas 
County, Cal., furnishes California Pitcher 
Plants (Dnrliniiliiiiki CuUfornica), 50 cents each; 
Wnshiiiittoi. Lilies (native, pure white), 20 cents; Scented 
FeroB, Id cents. I'uiitaKB added. 


f AeiFie f^URAL J^HtSS. 

[January 3, 1885 

geeil?, Wa|il3, ttc. 


Cuthbert or Queen of the Market 


^eed?, t^lapts, tie. 

^eeds, t^lapts, tie. 

If You Want to Save Money and avoid a life of trouble, buy Trees Free from Scale. 

Finn anil Lusrfous, stands travel finely, bears imnicnfel.i , 
anil has two troj s a veur. Also the SHAKI'I.ESS 
.STKAWBKKKY, (ireat Hearer and Largest Straw- 
iK-r.y Grown. I'KR'KS -Cuthbert lUsiiberries, #1 per 
dozen; Cuthbert Itosiiberrifs, 44 per 10"; Sharpless 
Strawberries, 50 cents per dozen; Sharpless Strawberries, 
(■2 per 100. 

L. U. McCANN. Santa Cruz, Cal. 

Del Monte Vineyard and Nursery 

M. DENICKE, Proprietor, 
Fresno, Fresno County, - - California. 

Cuttings and Koots 


GrowTi without Irrigation, and lArjfe, Healthy Grcwth^j' 

CLARKT— Mataro, Grenacbe, Cari^nanc, Cabernet, 
Malhec, Teinturier, Zinfandel, Le Xair, etc 

BUUfJUNDY -I'inots, Trousseau, Mennier, I'hissard. 

PORT Tinto Cao, Amarillo, Mourisco, Bartardo, Tau- 
rij^a, Morretto. 

WniTE - Sanvijjnon Verte, Colnnibar, Folle Blandie, 
Burj^er, Sultana, Coryuths, Muscats. 

RESISTANT— Riparia, Californica. 

Prices very moderate. 




375,000 TREES. 1,000,000 R''OTED VINES. 

Apples, Pears, Peaches, Apricots, Nectarines, Krench and IIun;;ar'an Prunes, Pluuis, Fiys 
and Cherries. Cypress, Gums, Acacias, Urnaracntal Shrubs, Greenhouse PlantiL 

2,000 of the Genuine Smyrna Fi^, imported from the Mediterranean, and proven in Cali- 
fornia this season. Sixty \arietics of (irajies, rooted and cuttings, including all the l>est Wine 
and Raisin varieties- Catalogue free. 

■W. 3VE. 

O. B0.\ 175. 

Fresno, California. 

(/> Tl 

Kieffer's Hybrid. Le Conte and P. Barry Pears, at Reasonable Prices. 


fine assortment of 



Apples, Pea'-s. Peaches, Plums, Prunes, 
Apricots, Ctierr'es, Quinces, Etc., Etc., 

Of the Best Varieties f r Market Canning .and Drying. 

Also, Rooted Grapes, currants, fioosetierries, etc. My 

treei arc well grown, clean sni healthy, taken up with 

care and pai.-ktd for shipment to anv | art of the country. 

A good co'lei tion of Ornamental Treci, Ilose^i, Shrubbery, 

Green House Plants, etc. 

Nursery atd OIHce— Corn' r of Twelfth Street and 

Btrrycssa R?ad, San Jose, C'al. 


Send in your Orders Early. 


A. CLEVELAND anil J. LVTLE, Prop's. 
OiTiCK— 912 Broadway, - Oakland, Cal. 



Apple, Pear, I'eacli, Plum, French Prune, Aprirr.ts, 
Cherries, etc , and the Rarest Table Fruits. 4^*Ta|»an 
PluiuH. For Sale in Lar^e or Small T..ot8. 

^^Write for prices and furthur information. 


Folic Blanche, West's Prolific, Fiber Zagos, Verdal 
Muscatel, Gordo Blanco, and other prime varieties 

In lots to suit, carefully packed ami on board cars, 
healthy, well rooted vices, an<l all true to name. 

Apply to 


Madera, Fresno Co , Cal. 



Los Gatos, Santa Clara County, California. 

I offer the public a general assortment of Fnit Trees, 
a good stock of Figs, English Walnuts, 12,000 Petite 
Prunes on Almonil (very large). Peaches, Apples, Pears, 
and Plums, etc. All without scale-hug or any other 
insect pest. Stone Fruit Trees raised wilbout irrigation. 


Los Gatos, Satita Clara Co. , Cal. 


1 oflfer the trade tliis yeason a lari;e and general asHort- 
ment of Fruit and Ornamental Trees, and Sntill Fruits. 
My Trees are healthy, stalky and well grown. Address, 
S. NEWHALL. San Jose Cal. 



I have a choi .e lot of Bartlett Pears, Petite Prunes, Cher- 
ries, Apples, Apricots, Plums, Nectacj^ies, (ira|>ovines 
etc., all grown without irrigation, free from scale and 
other injurious iii.^ects. Guaranteed varieties, and bed- 
rock prices, t'atalogues mailed on application. Address 

I 'lomcnt-s, San .lonriikiii Co , Cal. 


All Kinds of Field and Garden Seeds, at Reduced Prices, in Large Quantities. 

Alfalfa, Red and White Clover; Italian and English Rye Grass; Blue (Irass, Lawn, Orchard; 
Mcsnuite, Red Top and Timothy Seed; Califoruia Forest and Evergreen Tree Seeds. 
Also, Fruit and Ornamental Trees, at Lowest Prices. 

A Large Quantity of Evergreen Millet Seed on Hand. Also about 20,000 lbs. Australian 

Rye Grass, to be Sold Low. 


Nos. 409 and 411 Davis St., - - - San Francisco, Cal. 



Relief for the People. 


NO BKi in{o\vN-sT«»M; KKo>T in;T\vi:i:N n{oi>r< am> con.xi .mkk. no 


In order to inirodui e our new -"id iinpriivrii -.^'i'lLi*.."!' m-'kc llic follim im; unprp< tdentcd offer 

er X > 
I one luife I'-i 

WELCOME OATS '"i:s!::i:r 55 cents. \^'; 



• ImnroM'd 
F.hpIj Green < liLtcr 

17 packets, 

price, bcliiff ^ l.5i». Hi. r- r. i|.t ..r :».-, < t-. in i>-i-'.«-" i^.i.n.^ ..r iii7.ii,; , w»"wiH (i. ml one p kt 
anil iiiii.r..\..l -..ds :— M'lveM ISeanM, a kji. " t--. .1 l.i i.. Ii-- tli.> l« st Lean that rtows 
Early IUoodTurnil> Beet. Kurly 4»xlie»rt 1 ul,liu|;c. • :irli<--t aii.l l.t^t tnr fumilvusr. 
Cucumber, ismxl for |.ickl' s or ru<:iiiiil" rs. ]:urly Montana SuKur Corn, 'lc.«ia<-.llv 'tli-- »■ 

cnrr. in the wiirlil. New I'rriK'luul Lettuce, i. iiilrr ami rrup from sjiriuK uuill tall. Scalv Hark Watrrmrlon. 
rmiri ly n.-»; larcc as llje (ail.aii Dn. cii: l« u< r .lualili : k.-. |.* !:™,.l riiri.slnia«. Honey How Oreen Citron, ii aaiiM' 
otlhc- Saiiilwi. l. l.~lar;.l<: the- suitU-.I a-i 1 lhi..,r.-.l ii,, 1..., in the »..rl.l. New Italian Onion, ii.ilil lla^nr. 

Brows fnim wM to TFiij;h S i»ouii.l ^, Imprnvi'd NiiKur ]*arMnlp. f>ol(lcn l^awn Munffo. lar-*-. rniir. h swi-rt ; mo^i 
lipautiful pippcr OCT fiH-n. Imnrowd Knrlv l our >^<'urU'l I{Hil>«h. IVrfert (irm tiqaaah. vTcHU-nt flavor, 
C0O.I forNuiiiiin r.iroinl. ru.r. I Iv ne«ton-K >!■« fiiv..rll<- Tomato. Ih'- larL. -i , f.-,rli.-l. snu-.tlii-l. nioM .nli,l. and 
Om-i Cav..r..| i....,at.. <-v.r i„ir...l.:. I. Karly striip.I.enI' 'rnrnln. Sample p:.. k.-t of ih- True I.ramlnc Com. 
a.,,1 aln-o.ouiicc,'a.k.i..fCEl>JUINE V E LCO M E O A T S. ■»'"■'■ ".M 1.. > >• .a-., fi.r a5eent. aiia.k.,: a,„l 
frnni one a-iinnce packet wi re Eroun A'ti nouncU of line oat«. and Irom one >lng:le eraln ?» larKC, 
f'ull-hruderf •■tulk«. IN ALL I T l'A« KK TS Volt .•„-, < KNTS OK TWO <'OI.I.E< "rlONK KOK #I.OO. 

A PR0P08ITI0N. ;';.^ri;';i;;;;rt,::r":,a:^::;^';:Mn:';:;:.;^^l 12 packets of choice flower 

seeds for 30 cents;~i:;l^''w::i^i;:JC;^^ 

tin-, niixf^l. l*ortitlu(-cu. I'hlox Orurauntlll, nil t>rii:tit culnr.^^. mwcet WIlllHiam mixtd. duiil.l.-. V«-rbcnu». 
il' cliuicc ''"lor^. ^«-w Ivy Li-ut' Cy ikrcHH \ Inc, Zlnniup^ t-xira 1ari:u, douhh-. imcvt tirltitii colors, in all |^ 
p'ktn for iSO ctiu, or two c.illc tians for &0 <'ti». Our llhii<tralc^ ainl Dc'W-Tiiiiive Catalogu.^ ac-ointmnn;* 
Ctebordr. Addrtvt gAMUEL WILSON, i^'^ firow.r. Mwhonlc-vllle, Back* Co., P». 
' (tj'Mom-y llrdtT* BTid I'untul Nwtcn pftyablc at Itoy lento wn, Pa. 




1852.; PRYAL'S NURSERY!;i88*. 


20,000 o e: n. n. Y T n: E js : 

Select Assortment, one year old, of Leading Varieties. 
New and Rare Plums and Prunes. TIid Nm city or ChOmt Japan Pluin (uwned exclusively by inc), 
the jjreatest sliippin);; and cannin;; plum in tlie wurld; snrpasee> tlie Kc'sey .lapan IMuin. It is a free bearer and is 
prolitable fi>r market and (,'eneral use. Twenty-five v.iriet es of Apples; all pnidiietive sorts, well urowu and free 
froni disease. Thirty \arietie8 of I'luins. Tears, Teaches, Apricots, Nectarines, and (Quinces in variety. Lari;e stock 
of Small Kruits, e mhraeinn all the valuable varieties of liaspbcrry. Blackberry, CJon.seberry, Strawberry, and Cur- 
rant plants. M\ stock ia well grown, without irrijjation, and I challenge any Nursery in the state to produce trees 
as fine as mine arc and sell them as cheap as 1 do. .\ri (mixrr.prfg«nling) A:jents eiiipli^i/etl .' Nursery on College 
avenue. Home Nursery, Pryal's avenue, between Tagoda Hill and Temescal I'reek. Address 

A. D- PBYAli, Post Office, North Temescal, Cal. 

^ SEED t 

SEED Warranted to Crow, 

or or<ler rffilled uratl**. I h ive- s..i<l 
k^a nillllnti rurmcrH and itHrdenernii 

^ctaMe aiui rlowcr stc»l u. ..ver 
If United Stales, j>crhaps som? 
hether thev are rcliaMe. Mr. 
*.l Troy. writes me : *■ H<.r K6 yearn 
Willi you. I have lived in low4, Missouri. tolura«in. 
s, and no matter wli«t the soil .-rt liiii.itc. the result 
,s ihe f tinr. In wit :— rellvloualv honeMt and 
riiis is kind «.f sce<l I nisc and m-11. Hc*,ides 
Mluiidiird vurlctU"*. I ' arcfully ttM tvcry year 
1 Ircd-i '.f new -.t-ct ' .1 it , .Hi'l . .,l,ilt.^;u.j the fc« prove tn be 
T ..My d,-,it.iM ■ Tht llubhiird ni l Mnrbli-livnd Squimn. Marble- 
u'ud Corn. Miirbli-ht-ad iuhbnei-. 4Milu Potato. Kt llpoe Beet. 
.11. if which I W IS the '(ri^iinal prwluc cr. .irc v iine of thL-m. M y Cat.doirue 
for ifw?, ncnt free to nil. _ ^ ^ v.-l.l . 

JA^IKS J. H. GKKGORY, (Seed Grower), Marblehead, Mass. 



Oregon Champion Gooseberries. 

Most prfilifif known; finest flavor; best for cunnintr. 
Full assortment of FKl'IT TRKES at T>(>weKt R.ites. 

Also MVRABOl.AX I Li vi I' mus. 

San Leandro, Alameda Co., Cal. 

100,000 Rooted Vines & Cuttings 

At very Low Trices at the OAK SIIAliK I'lil lT COM- 
PANY, Davisville, Cal, of tlie following varieties: Zin- 
fandel, Muscatel, Sultana, Kmperor, Tokay, and Cornc- 
chon. WEBSTER TREAT, Mana-rrr, 

DavlBville, Cal, 


Successor to W. B. WEST, of Stockton Nursery, 



at .^l.iiO cacli; uls" the true I'rniie tl'-Ageii, ira- 
lii.rtVd direct, at .'ill cents e.tch. Special prices given to 
l arties desirinj; laru'e "rders. 

A full line of nursery stock is still kejit, and is entirely 
free from insect pc-t. 


(C'TrtuM* iiiclfolia) 
$1 per pound. About .SOO plants from one pound of seed. 
I'hylloxera-proof Cuttings, from *l per l,OU(i. 
Seedlini!*, #10 per 1,000; Rooted Cuttiiii,'s, suTi per I.IKX); 
Sccl. from p. r «.. QOATE8 & TOOL. 

Napa, Oal. 

geedj;, Wapts, tic. 

H. H. BERGER & CO., 

Importers of and Dealers in 



Camphor Trees, Tcrsinimons, 

Caitiellias, H;inilions, 

Ornamental Trees and 
Shrubs, etc., etc. 


317 Wa8liinRtonSt.,S. F. 
p. o. BOX, 1301. 

James Hannay's Nurseries 


50,000 French Prunes, 30,000 Apricots, 

20,000 Peaches. All on Teach 
Also, 10,000 Apples. 20,000 Pears, and a gen- 
eral variety of other trees. 

All of these Trees arc of the best known varieties, 
grown without irrigation and have made a very large 
and fine growth. Address 


San Jose, Cal. 



San Jose, - - . California. 

Fifti thou'-find French Trnne trees, from h to 10 ft. high; 
IO,0uil first-c ass Apricot trees; J.tKK) Kgg Plum trees; 
10,001) Teach tree^, assorted kinds; 5,ono Pear trees, a«- 
sortod kinds; 4,(100 Cherry trees; 10,fiOO Apple trees, as- 
sortcil kinds, and general nursery stock, will t>c sold by 
W. n. OWE.VS & CO. at prices which defy coin)>etition. 
Buyers are invited to examine trees and compare prices 
before purcha-sing. 

NURSERY DEPOT- 161 and 103 South First street. 

OFFICE Room 13, Martin's Block. 



All fresh, healthy, hardy stock; transplanted in boxes 
M\2'2 inches. Blue Gum Trees, 10 to 1.^ inches high, at 
sTJ.oo per l.iKXI. A box of 100 Trees will be sent to any 
;i'ldiess on receipt of #l..')0 in stamps. Red tium Trees, 
all straight, 1 to -J feet, at !<17."«i jier 1,000, or *2.nO per 
loo. Ukrge, straight sacked Blue Cnnis at low rates. 
.Mc.nterey Cypress, t to 6 inches high, at S14.0<1 pur 1,000, 
or $I..'iO per box; 6 to 10 inch at SI6.10 p»r l,fmo. or *1 T.'. 
per 111": (transplanted in larger apace) 10 to l.'i inches at 
.va on per InO; l.'i to 2" inches at $4 oO jier 100; 20 to 24 
inches at ! K) per loo: 2 to 3 feet at *7.(iO per lOi). Seed- 
lings, :f to inches, at #.',.(«) per KX). Italian cypress, HI 
lo l.'i inches, of 70 trees per box, at $2.iKl jicr Imx. Mon- 
terey i'iues. 6 to 10 inches, of 70 trees per box, at :it2.00 
per box. ITiis year's crop of Blue, Red, or Gray Uuin, or 
Monterey or Italian i/ypress seeds at low rates. Fend P. 
O. money orders or notes to (lEO. R. BaILEY, Park 
Nurseries, Berkeley, Cal. 


O. O. GOODRICH, Proprietor, 
Ciflers this season a Large and Fine stock of 


At Reduced Rates. 

Tench Trees of all leading varieties a specialty. Parties 
« ishing to purchase will find it to their interest to com 
iiiunicate with me. iiVPrice List and Catalogue sent on 

Sacramento, Cal. 



30,000 Choice Bartlett and Winter .\elis Trees; 
15.000 extra large Apple Trees; also good Peach, 
Trune, Plum, Apricot, Nectarine, Fig, English Walnut, 
Cherry, Black Walnut, Chestnut and Orange Trees. A 
good "stock of Rooted Sultana Grapevines and other 
rooted grapcv,nes, and a large stock of Small Fruits, 
Plant«, Monterey C'yiiress, Blue Gum Plants and every- 
thing kept in a Nursery, including Plants, Shrubbery, 
Flowers, etc. Trees, Planls, etc., Frke rROM I-VSECrs, 
ETC . Send for Price List and Catalogue. 


P. 0. Box 304. Los Angeles, Cat 


Raised at the Layliodie Nurseries, in the foothills, 
without irrigation. Sound and thrifty, and free from 
pests. French Prune, Oregon Silver Prune, German 
Prune, .Moor|iark Apricot, Bartlett and Winter Nellis 
Tears. In lots to suit- Liberal discount to the trade. 


San Jose, Cal. 


Parties intending to plant largely will do well to corre- 
spond with or come and see the undersigned. Has large 
and very fine Stock of KeifTer's Hybrid. Bartlett, 
W. Nellis, aiul other lca«liiig varieties, at lowest 
Wholesale Prices. Also Walnuts of several va- 
rieties, Freiieh Prunes, and a general assortment of 
well-grown Nursery Stock. Address 

W E SIBT.RY, Orarisre, Cal. 

January 3, 1885] 

pAeiFie r,ural press. 

?ee(l3, l^lapt?, ttc. 

^eed?, Wapt3, ttc. 

19th YEAR. 

190 ACRES. 


The Largest and Most Complete Stock on the Pacific Coast. 


Magnolias, Palms, Roses, Clematis, Etc., Etc. 

Trees are well grown by experienced men on new soil, and are 

An inspection is solicited. All those intending to plant Trees will find it to their 
interest to com;: and examine our stock and inform themselves of our prices. 


Is now ready, containing many new and rare varieties never offered before on this Coast, of 





12 Varieties of Olives. 

No. I— Fruits, Grapevines, Olives, etc., 4 Cents. 
No. II.— Ornamental Trees, Evergreens, and Plants, 4 Cents, 
No. III.— New Roses and Clematis, gratis. 




500,000 TliES 5 





Catalooubs on Application'. 


419 & 421 Sansome St., S. P. 



For sale in lots to suit, a large and well assorted stock, healthy and free from insects, em- 
bracing all the leading varieties of Apple, Pear, Peach, Apricot, Nectarine, Plum, Prune 
Cherry, etc. 

Eieffer's Hybrid, Le Conte and P. Barry Pears. Kelsey's Japan Plum. 

Rooted (irapevines and Apple Seedlings. A fine stock of the elegant rapid-growing Orna- 
mental TKXAS UMBRELLA TREK. New Catalogue and Price List on application. 





Timothy, Clcer, Flax, Hungarian, Millet, Hei lop. 
Bho Cta:s, Lim Grass, Or:liaid Orass, Bird Seeds, to. 

Office, 115 Kinzie St.- 

I04. lo6. io8 & no Michigan St CHICAGO. ILL., 

115, 117 & 119 Kinzic .St. 


I^rixlt Treoei. JSlxficlo Trees. d-i-^vioo-vzlncs. 

yiialitv anil growth o( stock unsurpassed. No Irrigration. No Insect PentM. No Miltlew. Miiir 
Peach, <»Ial»tcr Plum, Kelsey Japan Plum. McCoivan'» Clinp^ Pi-acli, MarBhall'.s SeoillinK, 
or Red Bellflowe.t Applo, Kentish Col> Filbert, I'ricparturiens Walnut, Pecans, Chestnuts, etc., 
are amonifs our novelties for this season. Kiparia and other Resistant Grapevine .Stock. 

^ Napa City. c;iU. 

?eei]3, Wapt?, ttc. Jeed?, Wants, ttc. 

con, 11.00 CollecllOl Of Iff aflfl SCiRCE SEEDS. 

In order to induce every one to give our 
seeds a trial, we will send by mail, post- 
paid, on riceipt of SI 00, one package 
each of the following choice varieties : 
Scaly BpltU Watei melon, a choice new 
Eastern melon; Cuban Queen Water- 
melon, the largest of all ; (prize melons 
have weighed from 80 to 100 lbs.) ; l^ar^^c 
Passion Lettuce, the best large head let- 
tuce; ISIack-st^etied Simpson Lettin e, 
an excellent curled variety; fclipse Beet, 
new, early Blood Beet ; California- Mam- 
moth Yellow Onion, the largest of the 
yellow onion; Cox's Karly .Spring Cab- 
l>Mg:e,the early cabbage of the San Fran- 
cisco gardeners: Karly Snowball Caiil- 
iflowei; <;elery, new golden heart; Cu- 
cumber, white spine; I'arsley, extra 
curled; .Squash, Perfect Gem, yield very 
large--as many as 2i squashes have been 
product (1 on a single vine ; Hollow Crown 
Parsnip, an improved long sugar }>arsnip; 
Cox's helccted Flat JIutch Cabbage, 
the finest of all the large lato varieties; 
Danvers Hall-long Carrot, the best fc r 
tableuse; Onion, Early Italian Red ; Hub- 
baril .Squash; Early Scarlet Turnip 
Kadish ; Turnip, Purpk-tup Munich; Spinach, prickly seeded; Muskmelon, Large Netted Nut- 
meg; Tomato, selected Trophy; Welcome Oats, the heaviest, handsonaest, and most productive 
known. No alteration can bo made in collection. Sinylo packets at catalogue prices. COX'S Seed 
Catalogue for 18S.>, mailed free on application. It contains description and price of Vegetable, 
Flower, Grass, Clover and Tree Seeds, Australian Tree and Shrub Seeds, Japanese Plants and Trees, 
Tree Seeds (native of Pacific Coast), Fruit Trees and small Fruit. 

THos. A. COX & co.?szr;'i?;z;i.rK=;;K-SAN francisco.I 



O olloction. 



13 I=»«-cls.ets for- SO Oexxts ! 

Our Flower Seeds are cr|nally as fine in c|uality as our Vege- 
table Seeds, and we desire to have every lover of Flowers give 
them a trial this season. We will, for 50 cents in stamps or sil- 
ver, i^end one picket of each of the following popular vaiieties: 
P-ansy, choice mixed; Petuni,a hybrida, fine mixed; Can- 
terbury liells, fitiest mixed; Marigold, French and 
African mixed; Portulaca, finemixed; I.,obelia, fine mixed; 
Mignonette, sweet scented; Verbena, choice mixed; 
Stoi^ks, (Icrman, ten weeks; Nasturtium, tall mixed; 
Sweet William, choice nuxed; Cliin.a Pink, all colors; WallHower, choice mixed; Asters, mixed 
varieties; Carnation, fine German mixed. At our regular Catalogue prices these varieties amount to $1.2.5, 
hut we will mail this collection to any address for 50 Cents. Our Seeds arc carefully grown and warranted 
pure .T,nd true ti) name. ^g"Oar Debcrh'Tive SKf:u Catalogue mailed free on application. 

THOMAS A. COX & CO., 409 Sansome Street, SAN FRANCISCO. 


Importer, Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 
A LAUtiK STOCK OK AlSlUiHAN PKKKNNIAL hlK (iUASS at Kcdufded Kales. 


Timothy and Orchard Crass, Kentucky Blue Grass, Hungarian Millet Grass, Red 
Toji, etc., etc. Also a Largo ami Choice Collection of 

3;".irC.TTii' -(auX«a'x> on3^a^-l^v.]v^:E]^a'TA.IJ t'^^hs^ 

fl-:g"Budding and Pruning Knives, Greenhouse Syringes, Hedge and Pole Shears. 

(P. 0.80x 2059.) THOS. MEHERIN, 516 Battery St., S. F. 

tfSrPrice List Mailed on Application."^ 



We have gre.xtly enlarged our C.VPITAI. NURSERIES, and are now enabled to furnish to the Tr.ade the 
finest and lar'est stock of'' Fruit, .Shade and Ornamental Trees, Slirubs, Flowering Plants, Grape 
and other roots to be found on the Pacilic Coast, which we will sell at the lowest market rates. 

Besides the leading Standard Fruits, we have a large number of new and r.are kmds of great promise. We will 
furnish the widely advertised (Kclscv) .Japanese Plum at halt the price usually asked. This is true of other 
new and choice Fruits, etc. Wo have propagated and distributed many new and choice varieties, and will continue 

to do so at whatever cost. . „ ■ „, i 1 j . ,n- i- 

Stitson, Bo(|Uier, Twenty-ounce Cling, tdwards Cling, French 

The New Pacific White Fig. Climax and Markley Apple 

We call especial attention U> the following 
Cling, Blood Leaf Muir and WJicatla'ul Peaches, 
and other varieties named in our Catalosue. 


Embraces every description of PicM, <Jardcn, Floiver, and Tr<-e Seeds. Our long experience in this line 
enables us to know just what is best adapted for cultivation and for profit. Our Seeds are Fresh, Reliable, and 
their gerniinatingipiality well tested before (.ffering for f-ale. , ■ w • 

o\ir .SEKI> and TREE CATAI-0<;IIE for 188u, with its beautiful lithograph cover and plates, is 
the finest ever |]ubli8hed on the coast, and will be an ornament to any jiarlor table. Those Catalogues we furnish 
free, on application, to arncme rei|uiring Seeds and Trees. 


Is very extensive. This is ronstantl,\ filled wi h 'he best the market allords, of Green, Ma(^hine, and Sun Dried and 
Canned Fruits, etc.. Nuts, Honey, ,aiid General Kami Produce. ,, . , ■ ^ . 

Bein" so closely identilicd with the interest of the producer and grower, we are able to know and meet their 
wants inlurnishing Seeds or Trees best for cultivation and profit. Orders filled with dispatch. Coiisignmonts 
.„d correspondence solicited. ^ ^ STRONG & CO.. 

Cor. Front and J Sts., Sacramento, Cal. 


E'l-osixo Olty, OaI., 

Offers this season for sale an uuexcellod stock of well-grown, healthy anil insect-free FRUIT TREES, such as 
I'eirs, Ajiples, Peaches, .\pricots, y\iinces. Cherries, etc.; also the White Adriatic, the only genuine Fig of 
conim'eree; the PapcrsheU PomcRranate, etc. A full assoitiucnt of Ornamental Trees and Shrubbery. The 
Abyssinian IJanana, the largest and handsomest of all Ornamental Plants. Rooted Grapevines tor 
Claret and sherry; imported kinds, such as Palomino, Poradilla, Caliernet Sauvignon, Mataro, Pedro Ximenes; 
also .Sabal Kanski, the Imperial Table (Jrape of Russia, etc. 

RoseKrciwiiiK a .Specialt.y, our stock consisting of only the very choicest and most select varieties, true 
to label and description. Send for Catalogue and scikntiucai.i.v arkanoeu "Guide to Roseculture," 

anSTAV RISEN, Fresno City, Cal. 


f«=^Ai^iF'e RURAL PRESS 

[January 3, 1885 


Vigorous, Early Bearing, Higiily Productive Trees. Handsome, Finely Flavored, Good Shipping and Canning Fruit. 

Grows from Cuttings. Free from Blight. Wonderful in Growth. 


3>J'o C3rX-n.rtG<A ia.ox- Sxiclclocl iStocls.. 

Tested in California During Five 
Years Past. 


.SKitAsToi'OL, Cal., Xov. 24, 1883. 
Dear Sik: I have fruited the Le Coiite for three years. It is 
a beautiful grower and a great bearer. I have canued it for two 
years, and know it is superior to any other pear I have ever seen; 
keeps as firm a.x when it went in the can; never gets slushy and 
soft in can. A. CRAWFORD. 

C(ii,r.MBiA, Cal., Nov. "23, IS84. 
My Dkah .Siu; — If I had forty acres I should cultivate no other 
pears than Le Coute and Kieffer, except for home use and variety 
I regrafted to these every pear tree on my place except Birtlett au.l 
Winter Nelis. J. WINCHESTER. 

l>Aici.AND, Cal., Oct. 10, 18S1. 
C. ir. J)i irhhi-ii, J'Jki/. — Dear Sir: The one-year-old I.' 
Coute trees I purchased from you last year were set iij my orchard, 
where trees of all varieties had been set for one and two years, aiid 
their growth has been so vigorous and rapid that they now pt|u:il ii. 
size any trees in the orchard. I am thoroughly i: uvinc. d rii • 

Le Conte is a marvel of vigor and growth, and preferable to aii_\ 
other pear for soils impossible to irrigate. Yours very truly 

Fl; \ NK C. JORDAN. 

1 am prepared to supply Genuine Le Conte Roots, all sizes 
Testimon[als. Address 



The Only Pear Tree Not 
Subject to Blight. 


Oakland, Cal., Dec. 23, 1884. 

I 'EAR Sir; — Am much pleased with quality and size of Le 
Conte pear, and think the flavor fully equal to the Bartlett, and for 
shipping think the fruit much better. I expect to set out more 
trees the coming spring. E. HICHAM, 

Manager Wheeler & Wilson, ^I'f'g Co. 

It shows excellent shipping qualities, having a strong skin, and 
very firm flesh, in which the decay caused by a bruise seems to 
make slow progress. When ready for use, the lleah is juicy, 
sprightly, and of agreeable flavor. It is recommended as a stock 
on which to work other kinds of pears. It is not particalar as to 
soil, so that it be well drained, but a fair mixture of clay or a clay 
subsoil peems to favor its development. In some places it produces 
a second crop of smaller, but good fruit, ripening about Christmas. 
The pear is also stated to be suited to canning and drying, so that 
it need not go begging if a large quantity is pfo<Uu;ed. .Mlowing 
for the favorable judgment of its friends, the variety is certainly 
worthy of a thorough tria,i in California. — Pro/. C. II. /''i lixK,; in 
CitUinilors' Guide. 

We had a splendid crop of fruit this year — our 12-year-old trees 
giving us 2.) to .'W bushels of pears flt for shipping purposes. I 
think the Le Conte the best bearer known, and free from all dis- 
eases. I nnver saw a worn; in a single pear. 

Sept. 7, 1884. T. E. BLACKSHEAR. 

[See Readinu Notice on .v.notiier pahk.] 

old. Send for DascRiriivE Circular and 





The following are a few of the TESTIMOMIALS Recently Received from Purchasers of my Engine 

AuLixaTos Farm, Davisvillk, Mar. 24, 18*4 
Joseph Enriijlit -DKiR Sir: Yuitr lutter, writtrn sci loiii; 
ago, hatl ijeeii iniHi'laoed ami tml.v cii yesterday wag lir*»ii'„'li't 
to my nutiee. I hope I will nut he ti»o late for the piir|tose 
for which ytni Jcsireil my btatcment. I can only say that 
your new style KririKht water {,'iates anil lire wall, as placiil 
in my ennine last season, ^'ave me complete Hatisfaetiun. I 
found them to he of immense aih'antrtife in the i-apid j^encra- 
tion of steum. They arc wonderful iinprovuincnt)« over the 
old style of Krate hit.", a!i they ne»er heat through, nor arc 
"cliiikei-s" formed >ii>on them. 1 cheerfully recoinmend them 
to all threshin? men. Yours truly, 11. M. I,.\Kl'E, 

farmer, Sacramento, Speaker of the Assemhly anil ex- 
President of the State .Aifricultnnil Society. 

3Vr«i,y T, XSVO, 

v\MK . . . 

Moi'.vTAi.N ViKW, Mar. 2.'), 1SS4. 
Jmeph K/iriV/A* -Dmit Sir- The enjjinc whicli we boug-ht 
of yon irave the best of satUiaetion and rannot be beat. I 
have been in the threshiit;.' bu^iiier<s for many years, and aU<> 
haiidlin); enfrines, but ycun-s bets any that 1 have ever 
han<lled. 1 recommend it to be the be«t in the world, except- 
ingnone. Vouis truly, 'JlloUMtKUUEU 4: UONAllf K. 

BisoiiAMTox, Mar. 0, 1SS4. 
Jnsi-ph Knritiht — I>kar Sir: Yours of Feb. 58th is received, 
asking; how I likcil the engine you i»old me last year, ami iii 
reply I would vaj that your enj^ine yave perfect satisfaction 
ill everv respect It did all that \ ou elaimcil for it, I do not 
want any bi Iter engine. H. II McKINSTKY. 

lioBEViLLR, .Tilly 17, 1868. 

Ji.^./ili K:ir,>ihi l)K\R Sir: I take pleasure In statin); 
that the engine I b nifht from y<ni this s»-a^^•n is .ill that 
t was recnhun"iided to Ih-. and am well plcattiil with tiiv u:i\' 
it mo\cs e\erythin(,' that 1 attach lo it. It moves otf vcr\ 
sinii"»th and easy in every way. and hauls one hor-c casic't 
than the one I iiuil Last year, on nccount of its » i,lc tiro in 
soft ground. I am also much pleased witn your patent oil . 
cups, as they ilo rcpiire so much atturitimi in oilinj;, antl, - 
in fact, I thijik it is the most complete lield i inc that I ever ~ . 
saw at work, lies, uelfulU yours, i;i !i;i.L) BROS. 1 

iii.NuiiA.MroN, March 6, 1804. | 
Jn>,ph Knrifl Rkar Sik:, In rei'anl to you r in.piiry, the enuine we bonuht of you last season, works to 
perfection. We had no In.uble in keeping up steal.,; It Rave all the ,K,wer we needed to run a 40 ne ".parato? 
an.l grain cleanerand derrick fork hoist. I can with conHdeiicc reooi, mend it to any one who intends hnviii"- a i 
engine. Yours ti-uly, F. K. DODtJK sil.\ 

Sr. JoH.\8. Colusa Co., Cal., Mar. 8, 1884. 
.Inni'iih Kiiriiili'—Dr.Kn Sir: In answer to jour request 
.asking how 1 liked I onr eni,'ine I hnuL'ht last year, I would 
say that I likeil it well, and am well pleased witli it. I took 
it out in tie flchl just as it came from y(uir shop, and com- 
menced threshing with a 4rt-ineh I'itt's sejMirator, and ran 80 
days, and nc\er lost fi\'e ininntcs during the uhole run, 
whether for repairs nr steam. I believ e it woiUd pull another 
thresher, it runs SI) liuht and easy. One hundred pounds is 
the most J ever used, and that only in the morning, while it 
is damp. >tinety pounds is enough in any ordinary dry 
threshing. It is no trouble to lire; a boy can tire it. it steauis 
sri easy. I can start a fire in the morning and l>o threshing In 
twenty-five minutes with ease, and not oidy that, but every- 
thing seems tu be in propurtiiin and v. ell put together, and 
runs like a new tniggj- wheel. I will \enture to say that the 
uNpeiise of repairing my engiiie this spiing will not exceed 
si2u, anil I wiiulil suggest tn all tbrishing men in need of an 
engine, t.o buy one of \ our 0x20, the same as I ha\e, for f 
feel confident that they «rc g'ling to be the leading engines in 
the harvest Holds i-f California. Yours rcspoctfiillj . 


[lAVisviLLR.'Mar. l.'i, 18S4. 
JoMjih Enright Dkar Sir: 1 feel under many obligations 
to Ton for the engine you sent me last June. It filled the 
bill, and 1 found it better than you even told me it WMi I 
found no straw that I could not nnke all the steam with I 
needed to run a 40-iiieb lironsnn Titl's thresher and Nash U 
Cult's cleaner; attached, a'so, .lackson's feeder with long ele- 
vator. Your water grates I think a BUdess and a help in 
raising steam. Yours respectfully, U. J. i;LTilKl£. 

IlA.sroRU, Tulare Co., July 1«, 1SS2. 
Joseph E nriiiht -Dr.kK Sir: 1 take pleasure in certifying 
that I used, the past spa.son, a 2ii-horsc power steam tbiesh- 
ing engine, of Mr. Josc]<h Kiiright's patent, and that the same 
is very easy to Are, and giving nic ample power to run a 40- 
inch separator. Itiat I ran theenglne lo2 days, ncwfrcni the 
shop, vi'ithout lia\ iiig til ex|>eiid one cent for repairs, and I 
hereby assert that I do not think theie can be any better 
engine made for threshing purposes. 

Sali.nas Cirv, .Monterey Co., Feb. 1, 18S2. 

Joneph L'liiljht DcAii sm: The engine I purchased fro. n you in 1881 gave me very great satisfaction. I 
never had any trouble » ith it whatever, and it fired easier than any engine I ever saw, besides having any amount 
of power Yours, very resi.ectfully, " MICHAEL LYNX. 

F»tont T^tor Bricis^o Wetll ^nd W«.toi- Ora^tes. 

TOOISL I-rtEMIXJ3Vt J!LT STATE r-^IIt, 1002 and 1003. 

Address aU Communications to CTOSEI^H: EITKiIGI-iaiT San Jose. California. 

Vol. XXIX— No, 2.] 


{ $3 a Year, in Advance 

\ SiNULE CoriES, 10 Cth. 

A Famous Holstein Family. 

We give on this page an engraving of mem- 
bers of the Aaggie family, of Holstein, vphich 
is a reduced copy of an elegant drawing re- 
cently made by Cecil Taliner of cattle belonging 
to the well-known breeders and importers, 
Smiths k ['owell, of Syracuse, N. Y. The 
drawing was mentioned first in the Ri kal of 
November 22d, 1884. 

All breeds of cattle have their popular and 
favorite families, 
which are in do- 
II land and are 
sought by pro- 
gressive breeders 
and those wish- 
ing to found 
herds of the best 
quality. Holstein 
breeders are fall- 
ing into line with 
all other breeders 
in this respect. 
A few years ago 
buyers seemed 
satisfied if a Hol- 
stein was import- 
ed and recorded. 
This stage, which 
marks an early 
period in the es- 
tablishment of all 
new breeds, has 
now been pa;;sed 
by breeders of 
Hol.steins in near- 
ly all sections of 
the country. The 
inquiries now are 
" What is it's 
pedigree?" "To 
what family does 
the animal be- 
long ':" " From 
what noted an- 
cestors did it 
spring?" " What 
ate their rec- 
ords ?" By re- 
viewing the his- 
tory of the vari- 
ous breeds, both 

of horses and MEMBERS OP 

cattle, it will be obser\ed that after this 
point has been reached the progress in the 
development of the breed has been much more 
rapid. With the pedigree, history, and the 
actual performance of the ancestors of an ani- 
mal or family by which to judge, the intelli- 
gent beginner can start hisherdunderstandingly. 
He can avail himself of all the advancement 
made by the older breeders, who have spent 
years of toil and study in developing and per- 
fecting, at great cost, the families which have 
proven a success. Holstein Ijreeders are begin- 
ning to be alive to the advantage to be gained 
by starting right with animals of known and 
superior breeding. This fact was apparent at 
the recent Holstein sale at Chicago, when the 
bull calf Cuba was ottered by D. 15. 
Whipple, and was struck off at $810. 
The great contrast between the price which 
this calf brought, and the other animals 
offered at the same sale, led to inquiry 
from Mr. Whipple for the pedigree of the calf, 

thinkijig it might disclose the secret which 
would explain why such i difference was made 
in prices at the same sale. It was found that 
Cuba was sired by Neptune, one of the bulls at 
the head of the lakeside herd, and the only 

year-old, she gave m,.')7;i pounds, 15 ounce.s of [ year's milking, 
milk in one year. Aaggie Kathleen, which has Hne a herd 
given this season, the first year after importa- 
tion, 10,.)00 pounds, four ounces in eight months 
to Dec. Kith ult. In the middle of the group is 

These bulls are fit to head so 
accompanies them. In this 
herd are also the cows Aaggie Kathleen and 
Miss Nanna. The former is one of the famous 
Aaggie family, and is one of the group shown 

son of Aaggie (!(01 ), the first cow that ever made I the bull calf, Aaggie May's Horace, sired by j in the engraving. She has given this season, 
a record of 18,000 lbs. of milk in a year, and ■ Neptune and out of Aaggie May. I the first after importation, and before she was 

he is full brotlier to Aaggie 'Id, the only cow i The engraving which we give this week has j thoroughly acclimated, 10,.'500 pounds, 4 ounces 
with a two-year-old record of 17,740 lbs. in a | additional local iu'erest to Californians, because ! in eight months and seven days to December 
year. He is also related to the other famous | a carload of Holsteins, including one of the cows ; 1st. She will, doubtless, m the favorable 
Aaggies, whose milk records were given in the ' depicted by the artist, has been bought by ' climate of Southern California, make a record 
==^^=ss^m=^mr js=^ - ' - • among the best. 

Miss Nanna, al- 
though from no 
famous family, is 
a young cow of 
unusual beauty 
and quality, and 
will prove a prize 
to her new 

There is also a 
veiy choice bull 
calf of the Aag- 
gie strain. ".\ag- 
gie, Idaline 4th'.s, 
lloland," winner 
of the first prize 
at the New York 
State Fair in 
1884. The bal 
ance of the herd 
consists of heifer 
calves of very 
high breeding, 
four or five Am- 
erican bred and 
the others im- 
ported this sea- 
son. The latter 
are just out of 
quarantine, and 
consequently not 
yet in high cou- 
ilition. Five of 
these calves are 
of the "Aaggie 
Family'" and two 
of the "Art is 

Another inter- 
esting item in the 
Holstein connec- 
tion is that Mr. 
of Smiths & Pow' 
the winter in Los 


KuH.\r. of .July Ul, and November -J--', 1884. 

The bull Neptune is the noble animal sliown 
on the right of the engraving on this page. 
The other members of the famous group are as 
follows: Aaggie, whose milk record of 18,004 
pounds, 15 ounces, in a year, stood for a long 
time unequalled. Aaggie Uosa, which gave (II 
pounds in a day in Holland, as a fi ve-yeai old, 
and the following season, the first after impor- 
tation, gave U>,I5(i pounds, 10 ounces, in a 
! year. Aaggie May, which gave, as a three- 
' year-oid, 0,8H5 pounds, six ounces, in seven 
! months and 1!) days, the first season after im- 
portation, and, as a three-year-old, has given 57 
pounds, i;{ ounces in a day, and 7,042 pounds 
in five months and l.'{ days. Aaggie Beauty 
second, which gave, as a two-year old, i),()42 
pounds, three ounces, in 1 1 mouths and seven 
days, and made seven pounds, 15.^ ounces of 
butter in one week. Aaggie Beauty, which 
made, as a three-year-old, 10 pounds, three 
ounces of Imttcr in one week, and, as a four- 


.Mr. V. F. Underbill, of Santa Barbara, 
lot consists of the following named and de- 
scribed animals: The first t.) be mentioned is 
the imported bull Strathmore (2.'iCI4), also called 
Benjamin (N. H. B., 268). He is large, straight, 
and very sciuarc and stylish, and of most 
superior breeding. His sire was tlie district 
bull of Van Huisen, whose dam has a milk record ' 
of 80 pounds, (i ounces in a day. Strathmore's 
dam ^larie, a fine five-year -old cow, that has 
record of 82:'j pounds in a day, and his grand- 
dam was a fine, large cow, with a record of 82 
pounds in a day. The other bull, Duke of 
Medina (28.")3), is a very higlily bred bull, trac- 
ing to tome of the deepest milkers of this deep- 
est milking breed, among which we can mention 
such cows as Kcho, which gave in two successive 
years 18, 1 20 pounds, 8 ounce3and2H, 775 pounds, 
8 ounces, per year; Harriet Ann, 12,840 pounds; 
Milk Maid, 14,700; Dowager, 12,081 
pounds, 8 ounces ; Crown I'rinceas, 14,027 
pounds: Aegis, 10,82:) pounds — each in one 


The C. A. Powell, of the firm 

ell, proposes to spend 
Angeles and is about completing 
ments for shipping another carload of stock to 
this State. We shall be glad to welcome to 
California a gentleman who has achieved such 
an honorable name in the line he has chosen. 


Wool ? Why not ? Have we not land enough ? 
Have we not sufficient range of soil and cli- 
mate? Jf wc can compete with otlier nations 
in raising wheat and corn, beef, pork and 
cheese, why cannot we raise wool enough for 
home consumption? I'eter Henderson cannot 
afford to raise wheat on his land, but it would 
be absurd for him to assert that wheat cannot 
be raised with profit in the United States. There 
are farmers on high-priced land that cannot af- 
ford to keep sheep for wool alone, but they 
should not assert that it cannot be made a 
profitable business in the United States, 



[January 10, 1885 


Northern Santa Barbara County. 

KlMTiius J'liKs.s: This couuty, like other 
parts of the State, has been favored with genial 
rains, and there is still every indication of its 
continuance. In fact, since "77, we have seen 
no failure of crops, and even then the failure 
was not a total one all over. 

I am sorry to note in IVofessor Jlilgird's 
excellent work on "The Resources of (.'alifor- 
iiia," in giving a description of this county, 
though he pays a fair tribute to the southern 
and southwestern part of the county, the 
vicinity of Santa Barbara town and the Lonipoc 
regions and intervening country, he passes by 
northern part of the county almost un- 
noticed. The Santa Maria valley and adjoin- 
ing nie-sas (bench lands) are mentioned as mere 
grazing land. This was a fact ten years aao, 
but since then things are entirely altered. The 
greater part of the S^nta .Maria and f/>s Alamos 
valleyshave been put into grain, from which in 
cludiug the Santa Vnez valley, about a million 
sacks of grain have been shipped this season. 
But the main shipping poinis are the Pismo 
f.andiiig and Port Harfonl (through a narrow- 
gauge railroad terminating at that point i, both 
in Sin Luis Obispo county, which I should 
judge receives credit for the grain shipped, in- 
stead of Sinta liarbara county. But even then, 
it is not as a grain-growing country that most 
of the land is at its best. Wherever suthciently 
sheltered from the ocean fruit and vines thrive 
well. Little, or but Uttle, has been put into 
fruit, but wherever grown sufliciently inland, 
and with but the ordinary degree of cultiva- 
tion, it has jiroved a success. 

Around the hills, and the upper lands gen- 
erally, tliere are similar climatic conditions 
met with in the Santa Cruz hills, or around 
the bay counties (sheltered from the lireezesi, 
with the advantages of less frost. 

The soil varies, from the sandy river bottom 
soil of the Santa JMaria valley, with its 
different gradations into the sandy loam, to the 
red or to the sandy clays of the mesas, and 
from the rich .alluvium of the narrow ravines 
and canyons — running into the main valley — to 
the gravelly adobe, clay or sand, or to the 
rockier steeps. In the Los Alamos valley and 
tributary land the soil partakes more of the 
adohc, and is superior for raising wheat; other 
places are better adapted for vegetable, sum 
mer crops generally and small and large fruits. 

It is not my object to give a description of 
this part of the county occasionally set forth in 
our local papers, but to call attention to its re- 
sources, the people themselves often not recog- 
nizing the available productiveness of the soil. 
An almost defunct railroad land claim and 
large-floated Mexican grants cut out large tracts 
of land, which otherwise would be available to 
settlers, the same evil hindering large settle- 
ments in other counties of the State; still, 
there are good parcels of land that can be 
bought at reasonable rates adapted for various 
agricultural purposes, especially for fruit and 
vine. L. H. Blociim.^n . 

Sniilit Marin. 

I Prof. Hilgard's Kepartdoes not claim to be a 
perfect or complete description of the State: in 
fact, the text itself deplores the lack of infor- 
mation on many important sections. If every 
oue who finds his region slighted or overlooked 
will indicate th ' fact and send descriptive notes, 
as Mr. HlocOimin has done, the information 
will till imp!)rtant gaps which now may e.xist. 
Kich one owes it to his neighborhood to do 
this, and we are always glad to print such 
letters in the Huk.\i..— Eds. PiiKss.j 

Northern California Notes. 

Ki'iTdKs 1'kks.-.: After another long silence 
1 seat myself with a limited pencil (as Pat 
said) between my fingers, a dirty, greasy sheet 
of paper on the bottom of my gold pan, which 
is resting on my knees upside down, and, like 
a tardy school boy, proceed to h,T.nd in my ex- 
cuse. Well, you see it's about this way : Last 
July my esteemed parents came up from Ander- 
.son, Shasta county, to pay the "baby" (that 
last is myself) a visit, take the annual fall 
hunt, camp out, eat fat venison, trout, drink 
pure, cold water, enjoy themselves and get fat. 
While mother, aged 7-'!, remained at the cabin, 
father, aged (17, and myself went back iu'o the 
mountains, slew the noble buck and lierce 
bruin, inotlcusive grouse and harmless trout, for 
six weeks. To make a short story long, we 
killed thirty odil bucks, three bear, jerked a 
large (juantity of line meat, and enjoyed our- 
selves hugely until about the Ist of September. 
I then concluded to pay a Hying visit to Delta,, 
the new terminus of the (Jrcgon and California 
Kailroad, thirty-eight miles north of Redding, in 
Shasta county, and have remained in this 
county, hunting, trapping and prospecting. So 
you see I liad but a poor chance to write. 
Thinking I'd return soon, and not wishing to 
damage the Ki i:.\i. any more than I could help 
(as I file all the numbers), I gave a friend per- 
mission to take then) out of the oilicc, read and 

preserve them for me until my return. So I 
have not seen a copy for several months. 

During my trip I have visited considerable 
of Shasta and Trinity county unsettled lands, 
for the last ten days we have had a continued 
storm. I've seen no one but my partner for 
three weeks. No papers, being confined to the 
cabin most of the time during the storm; and I 
tell you what, it's getting monotonous. \\ e 
are about twenty-two miles from l!?ddingand 
four miles from the railroad, on a high range. 
We get a beautiful view of the .Sacramento 
river and valley whenever it is clear. The 
river and .ill the small streams are very high, 
and from the appearances of the valley I pre- 
dict a huge Hood. We had 18 inches of snow, 
which was washed oH' by a warm, steady rain, 
which still continues. Every little gulch, 
ravine and creek is a small river aud roaring 
torrent. .Many are past fording. 

1 ri thi; not very distant future, when n-uili- 
ir iril the tide of emigration takes its way, 
thousands of acres in Shasta, Trinity and Sis- 
kiyou counties, that are to day vacant wild 
lands, furnishing food and retreat for wild ani- 
mals only, "will blossom like the rose," and 
make many happy little homes. 

It is a huge mistake about the mineral re- 
sources of these three counties being ex- 
hausted, as the future will tell. But parties 
coming here looking for mines, stock ranges or 
land, must not expect to find them in sight of 
the railroad or stage roads. They don't pro- 
pose to leave their mountain haunts, where for 
.ages they've been secure from the ravages of 
man, and come down on the level plains .and 
locate each passenger on a fine farm or bonanza. 
They propose to be sought after and found. 

R. I). Nr.NNALl.V. 

lla, Shaiila Co. , ( 'al. 

Merced Valley. 

Kiiniiu^ Pkkss: — I see very little in the 
Ri K.M. Pkk,-*.s about the Merced valley, while 
in truth we have some of the finest orchards 
and vineyards in the State. Our soil is rich 
river bottom, capalde of raising almost every- 
thing in the way of fruits, nuts and vines. I 
have 1 ,'JOO acres under irrigation, which is too 
rich for grain, therefore I am putting it in al- 
falfa, fruit and vines as rapidly a.s possible. 1 
am sorry others who are well fixed are not do- 
ing the same, as it would insure a cannery and 
wineries. There is only one of the latter at 
Snelling, which is nin by an Italian who buys 
lip all the grapes, at about one third or one 
half the price paid in other parts of the State. 
It is rumored the Merced canal which is taken 
out of the river above Saelling, is to be colon- 
ized by Frenchmen who will go extensively into 
grape growing; there are certainly superior 
prospects in the valley and couuty just now. 

SmUhlil, Oil. MeRcKI.. 

I We would like to hear much more from this 
part of the .State, and hope our correspondent 
will undertake the description. Many parts of 
the State are little heard of, simply because 
residents neglect to inform us of what they and 
their neighbors are doing. — Ens. I'rkks.] 

Wintering Bees. 

EmroKs Press: This is a subject of grave 
importance to Eastern bee-keepers, and as yet 
one of the unsolved problems in the science of 
apiculture. Many different methods have been 
tried, such as cellar-wintering, chaff packing, 
burying, etc., but what works well in one 
season often proves disastrous in the next, and 
as no two seasons are exactly alike, it has so far 
been impossible to lay down any certain rules 
which would insure success every time. Tem- 
jwrature, moisture, exposure to cold winds, 
ventilation, food, confinement, quietude or 
disturbance, all, no doubt, are important fac- 
tors in the success or failure of bringing the 
bees through the win'er. .Some of the most 
practical and intelligent bee keepers are con- 
ducting experiments and devoting thought, 
time and money to solve the problem, and it is 
to be hoped that their laudable efforts may ere 
long be crowned with success. But although 
we here in 


1)0 not have such ditliculties to contend with, 
it is by no means certain that our bees will 
winter without any care or attention at all. 
Who has not in the spring foiind some of his 
hives, from which the bees had mysteriously 
disappeared during the winter, peiluips leaving 
combs full ot honey, which had escaped the in- 
(|uisitiveness of prying robber-bees ; others, in 
which the apparently vigorous colony of last 
summer had dwindled down to a mere handful ; 
or even some, in which the bees were still in 
death, ranged between ami occupying the 
empty combs, after having eaten the last drop 
of honey in f.ict, starved to death ? This has 
been one of the saddest sights to me on first 
going through the apiary of the spring. There 
may be circumstances when the bee-keeper can 
not help or foresee such a state of affairs, but as 
a general thing he can prevent any serious loss 
by some careful forethought and preparation 
The first thing to look after is the 


If she is old and gives out during the winter 
or early spring, the colony will dwindle, until 
they are unable to protect themselves and their 
stores against cold or robbers. The bee- 
keeper should, therefore, carefully watch the 
((ueen during the fall, and if there is any doubt 
of her prolilicness, she should be superseded 
in time. Better still, if tlie bee-keeper keeps a 
record of the age of his (jueens, he can always 
know when it may be expected that a queen 
will give out, and replace her at the most con- 
venient time. .Some (jueens are longer-lived, 
more vigorous and more prolific than others, 
and such should, of course, be allowed to do 
service as long as they prove useful. But the 
general run of queens will not last more than 
thrae years; during the second year they are 
usually in their prime. 

Next after the queen, the bee-keeper should 
look to the 


By some practice and experience he can tell, 
by lifting the hive, if it contains honey enough 
to last until spring. Hut some colonies will use 
up their stores faster than others, and a sup- 
ply of well-filled combs should be reserved in 
the fall, to be given to such colonies, which on 
examination in early spring prove to have run 
short of honey. If not supplied in time, they 
will surely starve before new honey i.s to be had 
from the (lowers. Bees do not hibernate in this 
climate, but are ever ready to fly, when the 
genial warmth of the sun coaxes them outdoors. 
They therefore eat more proportionally than do 
bees in a colder clime; but as they have frequent 
opportunities for flight, this constant eating 
does not injure them as it would, if they were 
confined to the hive for several months. For 
the same reason, the quality of the food i:. not 
important. In the Eastern and Northern States, 
bees will not winter on a poor ijuality of honey, 
on honey-dew, or on juices gathered from fruit, 
cider-mills, etc. .Some cf the bee-keepers there, 
even e.vtract all of the honey, and feed sugar- 
syrup, to be sure that the bees have perfectly 
wholesome winter food. litre, I have fre 
quently seen them carried over a whole year of 
drought and scarcity, on what they could get 
from grapes, peaches, figs and other injured or 
decaying fruit. Bee-keepers have hauled load 
after of grapes to their mountain apiaries, 
crushed the grapes, and thus kept their bees 
alive until next year. Others would, when 
allowed to do so, move their bees to the vicinity 
of orchards and vineyards, perhaps paying for 
the fruit crop to re-imburse the owner. As the 
periods of confinement by cold or rain never 
last more than a few days or a couple of weeks 
at the most, dysentery or bee-diarrhea is un- 
known here. 

The Hive 

Should be tight and capable of retaining the 
heat, generated by the bees. The cover should 
be looked after, that it does not leak. Any 
cracks or openings, caused by warping or 
winding of the cover, should be caulked with 
strips of cloth, a stone, weighing from "20 
to '2.") pounds, should be placed on the cover to 
prevent it from being blown off by hard winds. 
The entrance should be contracted to one inch 
in width, to be again gradually enlarged in the 
spring, until, at the approach of swarming- 
time, the entrance-blocks are entirely removed 
from all hives in which the colonies are of 
normal strength. I prefer to have the hives 

Close to the Ground. 

As the entrance is then more readily gained by 
bees that may fall to the ground by being 
chilled in win'er, or fatigued by a long flight 
in summer. It is also a prevention of loss of 
the c|uecn, where clipping is pr.acticed, and 
and where the bee-keeper perhaps not always 
can be on hand at the time when a swarm 


Are useful in winter, but in the summer time ! 
prefer to have a light breeze blowing over the 
apiary. It temperi the heat and prevents the 
combs from melting down. 

During winter the liives should have the 

Full Benefit of the .Sun. 

And should therefore never stand under ever- 
green trees. If permanent sheds are used they 
should be so arranged that the roof can be 
taken ofT during the winter. 
Watch should be kept that 


does not get started in the apiary. i)n fine, 
sunshiny days, when the bees are flying, there 
will always be some prying around to find some 
unprotected hive where they can gratify their 
desire for adding to their own stores at the ex- 
pense of others, well knowing that it is useless 
to look to Nature for food at this time of the 
year. If any hive is found being robljed, the 
safest remedy is to move it to a dark cellar .ind 
leave it there until the excitement has subsided, 
or until the weather turns cold enough to con- 
fine the bees to their hives. If a cellar is not 
available, the robbed colony may be carried to 
some other place at a distance from the apiary, 
where it will be safe from the depredations of 
robber-bees. It is generally impracticable to 
close up the hive for the purpose of excluding 
the robbers, and incurs more danger by the 
consequent excitement, heat and possible 
smothering of the confined colony, than to let 
them fight it out between themselves. All in- 
ducements to such behavior, .as old combs, 
scraps of honey or even the refuse, thrown out 

of the sun-strainer, should therefore be gathered 
up .and put out of the reach of the bees on ap- 
proach of winter. 

By following this course the bee-keeper will 
generally — unforeseen circumstances exceptcil 
— find his colonies populous and active in the 
spring, aud will not have to mourn the loss of 
one half or more of his apiary, and buy bees by 
the pound to re-stock his depopulated hivog, as 
is often the case in colder localities. 

\Vm. Muth Rasmi .S.SE.N-. 

ImUpindeuee, Cat. 

Report of the Honey Industry of Los 
Angeles County. 

liiiiToRs Press: — Although the last season 
has been one of California's "good years" for 
honey, I have succeeded in obtaining a very 
small report, that is from but few bee-keepers. 
On the l.">th of last August I sent to the bee- 
keepers of this county, upwards of i'lO blanks 
•asking for reports. Up to this diite there has 
been but fourteen of them returned. Why it 
is so many of them refuse to send their reports, 
I do not know unless it is because they dislike 
to have their names "in the paper." In my 
report of l.SS'2-:i I published no names whatever; 
this year I have given the initials only. If 
they object to this (and will so state on the 
next blank they receive), I will not give their 
name or initials. Some few have been very 
prompt in filling and returning the blanks, 
others have been a little slow in so doing. I do 
not wish to find fault with any one but state 
this as my reason for waiting until this date 
before making the report, so as to get all that 
was possible. Below is the report: 






^ ac 

: S 
■ a 

X C 
Z 3 




■ B. 

; 3 

; o 


■ n 

: 5" 

■ Ji 


■ a 

: 5' 

■ o 

■ 15 

: 3. 

; 7 

• o 

. 3 

■ n 

• cr 

.Mr. S. S., Saiit'iAni ... 




Mr. T. B. .1., Silverado.. 





Mr. (;. W. T.. Santa Aiii 






Mr. H. T. M., TuBtin ... 





Mr. .I..I..T\i.«tin 





Mr. W .s. v.. Iniirte... 





Mr. W. M., Baimini,' 




Mr. S.K.C'. Santa Monica 





Mr. J. M. S.. Los An;,'elc8 



.Mr. H. II , .Ir, C'Diupton 




Mr. li. H.. Newhall 

11. ■> 




Mr. G. I.. Duarte 





.Mr. W. B., Ituarte 






Mr. M. D. B., Duarte . 

not statu! 







The assessor's books (I write from memory), 
show that there were S,7">() stands of bees in 
Los Angeles county, March I, 1.S84, while I 
have succeeded in getting any account of only 
l,.S27 of that number. I would ask of the bee- 
keepers of this county, that they keep a record 
of their bees, honey and wax ; and next fall if they 
should receive a blank, to be kind enough to 
fill it out and return it to me. W. W. 

JJwirle, Dec. Jo, 

II[he 'V'ineyard. 

Putting Up Raisins. 

No doubt the methods which diO'crent raisin 
packers adopt will be interesting to all others 
in the business, and perhaps to outsiders. We 
find in the Kiverside /Vi-sn an account of the 
way liussell *: Cover operate and (juote as fol- 

The Packing House 

Is a single-story, frame structure, built as an 
extention of an adobe house. Within the pack- 
ing room, which constituted the main compirt- 
ment, there were some IS or "20 people at work. 
Women and girls were employed in sorting at a 
bench along one side of the room, and Chinamen 
along the other side. At one end of the com- 
partment there were sweat boxes filled with rai- 
sins aud piled in high tiers. At the other end 
the press was at work, reducing forms of raisins 
to the proper bulk for packing. In the middle 
of the room stood a broad table, where two men 
were employed. They emptied one of the 
sweat boxes on the table, and hastily sorting 
the contents, placed all the desirable bunches 
in small boxes at hand. Each box, standing on 
a scale, was removed by an assistant as soon as 
it scored five pounds. It was then passed over 
to one of the packers at a side bench, together 
with a ' form" or box, the size of a raisin box, 
and which had been already provided with the 
necessary papers for inclosing a layer of raisins. 
The packer raised the Hap of the paper on all 
sides of the form and proceeded to pack therein 
the five pounds of raisins provided for the pur- 
pose. The object in packing seemed to lie the 
rejection of all loose and imperfect raisins, all 
ungainly stems, and the placing of the raisins 
so that the stems would come beneath and only 
the berries be exposed to view. The bottom 
layer of a box is sorted with as much care aud 
filled with as good raisins as the top layer. 
That is a point where Russell it Cover claim an 
advantage over some packers. 

Pressing and Boxing. 

The " form," when properly filled, is handed 
to the man at the press, who proceeds to place 

January 10, 1885] 

pAeiFie I^URAL pHESS= 

over the raisins a cover fitting snugly inside the 
form, and the whole is placed under a wooden 
arm and compressed by the upward action of a 
treadle. This done, the form is accurately ad- 
justed'over a packing box, and with a quick 
jerk tiie sliding bottom of the box is drawn out. 
This allows the compressed layer of raisins, 
with its paper wrapping, to drop into the pack- 
ing box. Kach box contains four layers of five 
pounds each, making net twenty pounds of rai- 
sins. The nailing on of the lid, and the placing 
of a stencil brmd on the top and on each end, 
completes the operation of packing. 

Mr. Cover stated that the women and girls 
are more expert in sorting than the Chinamen. 
All. however, are paid the same wages — $1.2.5 
per day. A system of registry has lately been 
inaugurated, by which they can tell the work 
done by each packer. Eighteen boxes a day is 
about the average work. The tally-board ena- 
•bles the firm to discriminate between the fast 
and the slow hands, and those that do not bring 
up a fair average are commended to other fields 
of usefulness. This method materially reduces 
the average expense of packing. 

Various Grades. 

Five grades of raisins are packed: London 
Layers (the best). Layers (ordinary). Loose 
Muscatelles. Muscatels. Seedless. All of the 
loose grapes rejected by the sorters and all of the 
straggling, ungainly bunches are run through a 
fanning-mill where the coarser stems are shaken 
and blown out. The raisins pass next through a 
"huller," where the little short stem adhering 
to each berry is broken ofi'. In the fanning- 
mill process the small raisins are separated from 
the large ones. The small grade consists al- 
most wholly of the little grapes found at the 
ends of bunches, and they are almost invari- 
ably without seeds. The Seedless brand of rai- 
sins command as good a price as the London 


One of the nice points to be observed about 
the packing of raisins is their proper curing in 
the sweat boxes. Under existing methods the 
raisins are brought to the packing house by pro- 
ducers as soon as gathered from the trays in the 
field. The packers place the sweat boxes in a 
cool place, piling one box on top of another as 
tightly as they can be made to fit together. A 
sweating process then begins, by which consid- 
erable heat and moisture are generated. This 
lasts anywhere from four to six weeks, and, 
when completed, the berries are perfectly cured 
and the stems rendered flexible so that they do 
not break in handling and pressing. When 
raisins are allowed to become toi dry in the 
field, they do not go into the proper sweat in 
the boxes without artificial treatment, and the 
quality is never so good therefor. 

A Few Hints to Producers. 

Raisin growers, if they choose to exercise a 
little care in the matter of picking and drying, 
can do much toward raising the standard of 
their products, and, in the enhanced price, they 
will be fully rewarded. Mr. Cover advises the 
sorting of grapes into two grades as they are 
picked. AH the full, perfect, evenly-ripened 
bunches should be placed together, and the 
cuUings on separate trays. The process of dry- 
ing is much facilitated by placing the trays 
against the vines with an angle of inclination of 
about ."50 degrees toward the south. The rays 
of the sun thus fall more directly on the fruit, 
making a difference of 10 degrees on the tray, 
as compared with the temperature when lying 
Hat on the ground. This has been proved by 
actual experiment. Another advantage of in- 
clining the tray is, that should there be a rain- 
fall during the process of drying, the water 
will run off with the least possible injury to the 
fruit. Grapes dry better when the trays are 
left in the vineyard than when removed to an 
open drying ground. The secret of this is sup- 
posed to lie in the fact that a certain percent- 
age of heat is gained in refraction from the 
vines during 'he day, and radiation at 

The Drying. 

The length of time that grapes must be left 
out to dry depends so much upon the condition 
of the weather and a thousand circumstances 
that no fixed period can be set for it. A prac- 
tical examination of the fruit will alone deter- 
mine when it should be placed in the sweat 
boxes. Four to six weeks is the usual time 
that grapes are left out. Sometimes this period 
is greatly prolonged by a continuance of dry 
weather, when it is found that the raisins can- 
not be removed without breaking the stems. 
This is an unfortunate state of affairs, as the 
fruit is constantly deteriorating- the size of 
the berry reducing and the bloom fading away, 
never to return. Then it is that the grower 
longs for a foggy day. 

Mr. Cover thinks that the best results can 
be obtained by taking the grapes up a little 
green, and then allowing them to remain in the 
sweat boxes about six weeks. The sweating 
process is thus rendered more pronounced, and 
the perfection of the raisin enhanced accord- 
ingly. He would urge upon growers, also, the 
observance of the utmost cleanliness in hand- 
ling fruit, so that the sweat boxes shall be free 
from sand or other refuse, and the berries un- 
contaminated . 

In their own vineyards Ilussell & Cover have 
adopted all of the improved methods here sug- 
gested, and they know from practical tests 
that there are great advantages to be gained 

The Coming Poultry Show. 

We trust no one will forget the second annual 
exhibition of the California Poultry Associa- 
tion, to be held in the Wigwam, corner of 
( ieary and Stockton streets, San Francisco, on 
.January 19th to ■24th, 1885, both days inclu- 
sive, from 10 A. >i. to 10 p. m. daily. 

The pamphlet containing the rules and pre- 
mium-list for the exhibition is one of the hand- 
somest publications of the kind we have ever 
seen. It should be sent for to D. H. Everett, 
secretary. Box 1771, San Francisco, by every 
one who has fowls which he thinks fit to 
exhibit. The list of premiums, both regular 
and special, is very full, and a very interesting 
contest is foreshadowed. The entries close on 
•January 15th, so intending exhibitors should 
communicate with the secretary at once. The 
society issues in its pamphlet an address to the 
public, which contains so many points of 
general interest that we publish it in full, as 
follows : 

A Word to the Public. 

In issuing the premium list of their second 
annual Exhibition, the California Poultry 
Association return cordial thanks to those 
public spirited fanciers who have aided us sub- 
stantially in our efforts to enlarge and stimulate 
the interests of fine poultry, pigeons and pets, 
by giving an exhibition of the best specimens 
of the American breeders' skill, on this coast. 
There is no disputing the fact that such ex- 
hibitions are the life of the wide-spread interest 
in pure bred fowls and pets. No one capable 
of admiring our feathered friends, can visit a 
first-class exhibition without becoming, sooner 
or later, a pronounced fancier. It is therefore 
the duty of every breeder, to make exhibitions 
as attractive as possible, by sending his best 
specimens to compete for the prizes offered, and 
thus show the general public what can be ac- 
complished by skillful breeding. It is because 
that public is so great, influential and cosmo- 
politan in its character, in San Francisco, that 
we respectfully urge fanciers in all parts of the 
country to send their birds to our exhibition, 
showing not only the people of California, but 
visitors from all over the world, that are always 
in our great city, what American fanciers are 
doing in the way of breeding birds unsurpassed 
in beauty and value. 

We call especial attention to the fact, that 
our show will be held just previous to the open- 
ing of the spring season, when eggs and stock 
are most in demand, and San Francisco is second 
to no city as a market for fine stock at good 
prices — exhibitors at previous shows having al- 
ways reported extraordinarily large sales as a I'e- 
sult of the exhibition. All awards will be given 
by able and honest judges, and no pains will 
be spared to please all that may exhibit with 
us or come to our show, .January 19th to 24th 
inclusive, 1885. 

We wish to call special attention to the fact, 
that our Association offers no regular cash 
prizes. Exhibiting is not directly a money 
making operation, and our best fanciers do not 
so regard it. To them, the pleasure, the honor 
ai'd the advertisement in winning, are worth 
vastly more than the paltry cash prize usually 
offered, and so often never paid. 

We propose to make expenses to exhibitors so 
much lighter than usual at first-class shows, 
that the saving to the whole will be much 
greater than the loss to the two or three winners 
— those who get the reputation and who can 
afford to let the cash prize go. 

In the place of the usu.xl prizes, the ."Oiiety 
will give colored cards, designating the pi izos 
won; and more than all, a score card filled out 
by as good judges as can be found of ever\ 
(iualified bird exhibited, whether winning a 
prize or not. 

"The true theory upon which poultry ex- 
liibitions are held, is that tliey are given for 
the advancement of the whole poultry interest, 
and exhibitors and breeders are much more in- 
terested in this than any society is. Then come 
out fanciers, with your birds, in force, ani let 
us give pure bred poultry a tremendous impe- 
tus in its onward march." 

The Exhibition Hall. 

The wigwam is situated at the corner of f Jeary 
and Stockton streets, and is located in the heart 
of the city, the location being all that can be 
desired. Being so well-known both in the city 
and out, an exhibition at the Wigwam is sure 
to attract many visitors that would not think 
of attending a show of the sort in a remote 
quarter of the city -and those undecided 
whether to exhibit or not should give the above 
facts due weight in favor of entering specimens, 
and individually making the finest possible dis- 

The Length of the Show. 

We trust no one intending to exhibit birds 
at San Francisco, will be deterred from so do- 
ing because of the length of time in which the 
show will be held. Past experience has de- 
monstrated that it is almost impossible to have 
specimens shipped to the show, exhibited three 
or four days, and then returned to owners, all 
in one week, except from near-by points. As 
a conse(|uence, there has been much complaint 
of fowls lying over Sunday in express offices. 

when they would be much better off in the 

The three largest shows in the country this 
year — Toledo, Indianapolis, and New York — 
in order to bcghi and clour the cxhihiiton, the 
first of the week, include Sunday in their ddtes. 
As a matter of fact, if the birds are properly 
careil for, as they will be at San Francisco, it 
makes little difl'erence to them during the 
winter season whether the show is held four or 
six days. 

We would also call special attention to the 
necessity of sending entries early and correctly, 
in order that they may be properly catalog -led. 
We shall issue a fine catalogue, which will be 
of permanent value, as an advertisement, to 
every exhibitor, whether he takes a prize or 
not. All the entries, name of exhibitor, P. 0. 
address, sale price of birds, etc., will be inserted 
free of charge, and thousands of the books sold 
to visitors. Make your entries on or before 
.January 15th, and they will go in the cata- 

If you are in doubt whether to exhibit at San 
Francisco or not, decide to do so, and our word 
for it, no matter whether you come from the 
west, south, east or north, you will not regret 
sending your best birds to the Wigwam, .Jan- 
uary 19th to 24th, 1885. 


The Express Companies have kinilly offered 
to return, free of charge, all specimens for the 
exhibition that have been prepaid one way over 
their lines, provided they are returned to the 
original sender: \Vells, Fargo & Co., the North- 
ern Express Company, and Whitney & Co., 
being included. Exhibitors- must fully prepay 
transportation of their birds to the show, and 
free return cards for the same will be furnished 
by the secretary. Entries positively close .Jan- 
uary loth, 1885. The hall will be open for the 
reception of specimens Saturday and Sunday, 
.January 17th and 18th, 1885, and all birds 
must be delivered before 10 o'clock a. m. on 
Monday, .January 19th. The judgment will 
begin Tuesday, January 20th, at 12 m. 

Examinations of Tule, Marsh and Al- 
kali Soils. 

University Experiment Station Bulletin 
No 28. 

Tule and Marsh Soils. 

It should be remembered that the tules of 
California are of two distinct kiuJs, viz.: the 
land of the salt or tide-water lands, and those 
which are not now reached by saline tide water, 
or fresh-water tules. (Jf the samples examined, 
No. 720, from Roberts' Island, belongs to the 
latter class, while the other two are of the salt- 
marsh character, as is shown by their high con- 
tents of soda. 

No. 720. — Sedhiii ni .^oilfroiii Jiolx r/s' Idaiiil, 
San Joaquin county. Sent by Mr. J. W. l<'er- 
ris, of Stockton, on behalf of the Glasgow Land 
and Improvement Co. The sample is slate- 
eo'ored when dry, darkens gi'eatly in wett' ig, 
and shows visibly the remnants of vegetation 
contained in it. The coarser part of this was 
ta-km out by sifting before analysis. It is of 
fine texture, with very little coarse sand, all 
passing through the sieve of 1-50 inch meshes. 
On heating it gives off a peaty odor, and be- 
comes quite light colored and somewhat coher- 
ent, showing a considerable auiount of clay in 
i s mass. 

No. 213. — Soil from Xando Mrado'cs, near 
San Pafael, Marin county. Sent on behalf of 
the same interes!s by Mr. Christensen, the local 
=tiperintendent. This soil is of a whitish-gray 
.11-, and contains many streaks of vegetable re- 
mains intermixed by the plow, it having been 
plowed once; appears to be more sandy than 
the Roberts' Island soil. Here, also, the unde- 
composed vegetable remains were removed by 
the 1 -.50 inch sieve, the analysis representing 
the fine earth passing through. The soil is of a 
slightly brackish taste, and yields to water a 
somewhat brownish tint, showing that it is in 
an acid condition, as usual in such soils. The 
analysis resulted as shown in the table below 

No. 720~TI LR SOILS. 

KllllRin s' \ll\ ATI! 


Solulilo Silica il.l.S J 24.0.5 t ' 

Potash .6:i 1.34 

Soda .26 1.80 

Lin.c -43 .<sr 

Magnesia , 2. IS 2.7" 

lir. Oxiile of Maiig.vnesc .05 .14 

Peroxide of Iron 10.01 .';.21 

Alumina V.I.K) i:i.20 

Pliosiilioiic Acid .06 .07 

Suliiluiric Acid .o:) .24 

Water and Oryanic Matter 10. .M W.U 

Total IW.66 10(1. 4.'! 

Ilmims 2.:!6 l..''i4 

Available Inorganic .■'>7 

Ilvffi'oscdp. Moisture 10.44 17. OS 

Alisorlicil at 17' C .it C 

Taking into consideration the differences in 
location and condition, the two soils are not us 
unlike each other as might have been expected. 
The Novate soil shows by its high percentage 
of alkalies and of sulphuriv; acid (chlorine was 
not determined), the presence of the ingredients 
of sea water. Its potash percentage is extraor- 
dinarily high. Lime is in full supply, but phos- 

phoric acid is only in moderate proportions, as 
in most California soils. Humus is, of course, 
in abundant supply, but is in an acid condition, 
requiring :eration, and woald doubtless also be 
benefited by the use of some lime or marl. The 
high absorption of moisture is largely due to 
the presence of so much vegetable matter. 

The Roberts' Island soil, being thoroughly 
leached by fresh water, has less of potash 
as well as of soda, but still a full supply 
of the former. In lime it falls below 
the soils of the valley at large, much of it hav- 
ing, doubtless, been washed away in solution: 
and an addition of lime to the soil would doubt- 
less be effective in moderating the "runuing- 
to-weed" which is noticeable in these lands, 
and is explained by the heavy supply of active 
humus, and therefore of nitrogen. But the 
phosphates are again only in somewhat scanty 
supply, and will doubtless be the first want felt 
in cultivation. For the present these lands are 
understood to be profusely fertile, sometimes 
embarrassing the farmer by the heavy stalks 
of the grain, in regard to the coarseness of his 

No. 787. — Mfir.ih .<oil from Uri:.~ly Idaiid, 
Sacramento County, sent by Mr. Warren Dut- 
ton for examination as to its being sufficiently 
substantial to become a soil when cultivated. 
The soil resembles that from Novato meadows, 
but contains a much larger proportion of vege- 
table matter, anil is very spongy. After drying 
at 100' it lost 29.7 per cent on ignition, show- 
ing that the surface to the depth to which the 
plow can reach is composed to the extent of 
nearly one-third of it.'-: weight, and quite half of 
its bulk, of undecomposed vegetable substance. 
It is, therefore, almost too much of a "muck" 
to be directly available for cultivation in its 
present condition. 

Alkali S(tlit from tin "ir/ri -i/rass land" near 
N'isalia, Tulare county. Leached from a sam- 
ple taken in the wooded flats two miles west of 
Visalia (soil No. 585; see Report Coll. of Agr. 
for 1882, P. 2(i). This soil is a very productive 
one, and the analysis shows unusually high 
percentages of potash, lime and phosphoric 
acid. It being quite light in texture, the alkali 
does not interfere with its tillage, although the 
black rings it leaves upon evaporation of pud- 
dles of water standing on the soil show that it 
contains a large amount of carbonate of soda. 
The soil was extracted with water, which dis- 
solved 1 .20 per cent of its weight. On ignition 
it lost about twe-fifths, or ..50 of organic matter 
(dissolved humus); and of the remaining .7li per 
cent, .51 was again soluble in water, leaving .25 
of insoluble residue consisting mainly of car- 
bonate of lime, with a little magnesia, as well as 
some iron and alumina (perhaps simply a little 

The soluble part, the ■';ilkali" proper, was 
composed as follows; 


Per rent. 

C'arliiJiiati- nf Soda 4.'i.:i 

Carbiiiiiti- of Potash 13.S 

Chloride iif Sodium (rciniinon salt) 4.4 

Sulpluite of .M.T,;;ne9ia (lOpsiiiii salt) 8.1 

Tri phosphate of Soda 10.4 

Sulphate of .Soda ((ilaiiber's salt) l.'i.4 


It thus appears that of the soluble part of 
this alkali, nearly two- thirds (64.1 percent) 
consists of carbonates, which therefore in the 
original s lil would constitute .:V> per cent of 
the weight of tlie soil, including nearly .10 of 
potassic cai'onatc (saleratus). The total of 
potash found in the original soil is 1.224 per 
cent, a veiy unusually high percentage. It is 
therefore quite clear that no potash manures 
will be needed in this soil for a generation at 
least; and so long as phosphate of soda circu- 
lates in the soil water, no bone meal will be 
called for. When this soil shall have been freed 
from its alkaline carbonates by the use of gyp 
sum, it must become one of the most profusely 
fertile in the State. 

Alhiliiir Kf!ori:-:( riiri , horn aoi\ on Kern Is- 
land, sent by Mr. Isaac I^). llumford, Jiakers- 
i-'eld, February 27th, 1 88:?, The crust yields 
to water 21. 15 per cent, of soluble salts, the 
solution upon evaporation and ignition of the 

residue gives: 

Per I'ent. 

Again Soluble -'M.IH 

Insoluble 1-"" 

Organic Matter and Water 3.34 

The soluble part is composed as follows: 

Sulphate of Soda "0.61 

C'ailionate of Soda 14.82 

Chloride of Scidiuni 4.13 

Sulphate of Potash 4.72 

Carbonate of Ma'jncsia 4.5 

Total Soluble "4.73 


Carbonate of Lime uS 

Carbonate of Magnesia 17 

Sulphate ot Lime 08 

Iron Oxide and Alumina 32 


Total Insoluble l."0 

This "alkali" is accordingly of the milder 

sort, containing only a relatively small propor- 
tion of the noxious carbonate of soda. This 
explains why the crops on Kern Island can suc- 
ceed in spots on which, at times, the white 
efllorescence can be bodily scooped ofi'. Yet 
the transformation of the carbonate of soda, 
by the use of gypsum ou the soil, would bo an 
undoubted improvement. E. W.>. 

The San Dieiio Society of natural history 
has received an addition to its herbarium of 
700 species of southern and lower Californian 
plants. This series of plants will be known as 
the Oicutt herbarium. 



[Jandary hi, ]S8'> 

^-g-:' \Vu liave but one co-operative bank conducted 

I^TATRONS of OUSB/fNDRY. | by our O.der in the State, which has been in 

^ • " I successful operation for over two years,. Wc 

Correspondence on Omnve prhu-iples and work and re- have still another system of co operation, that 

* ■•- - - • has proven very satisfactory to the membership 

in the State, known as the " ordering system." 

ports of transactions of BUbor.iinatc tirainre> nr. 
fully solicited for this dcpartnicjit 

The National Grange. 

Reports from the Difterent Staics- 

It cousists in the State Kxecutivc Commit' ee 
niakin^ business arrangements with reliable 
wholesale houses and manufacturers for the 
benefit of the entire membership of the < »rder 
We continue our sketch of the proceedings of in every State or Nationality, where all orders 
^. . • f iu V f,- r rv,...,^ •urifli for supplies under the seal of the Subordinate 

the recent session of the National .range, with j,^. ^^^j^ ^„^,, .^g^i^, 

some items of progress in the ditterent States, , .j,,hoiei,aie prices, in whole or broken packages, 

rather more in detail than those which we gave or single implement, to suit any individual pur- 

in our outline of the secretary's report for the chaser. This has proven a very satisfactory 

vear We do not give aM the States reporting ; arrangement for weak Cranges, as any member 
year, u c no ui i. fci c . i s , ^^^^ j^^jj |,g,jj,(,t ^y^j. trade regu- 

at this time»but select several which presented ' j^tions without the risk or investment of a 

the most interesting reports: : single iloll ir or delay of an liour in waiting on 

others to join him in his order. 

S. T. Goi LTi:k, Master: 1 am pleased to be 

M assachusetts. 

able to report, that while our pi ogress in the As the next meeting of the National ( i range 
revival of the work of our Order has not come w ill be held in Boston, the report from the 
up to the measure of our desiPes, we have luaile commonwealth of Massachusetts has especial 
some advancement. During the year two dor- interest. 

mant (iranges have been aroused from their .1 \\ik>. DkaI'KK, Master; In submitting the 
lethargy, and have resumed work, and bid fair annual rejwrt of the condition of the Order in 
to be prosperous and usefid. The attendance at ; Massachusetts, I will state in brief that fully 
our State (Jrange last month was larger and three-fourths of our ( u-anges are in a very pros- 
characterized by more earnestness of purpose perous condition. The average attendance at 
and enthusiasm than for many years past. I had the meetings has been larger than ever before, 
the pleasure of conferring the l-'ifth Uegree on The educational work of our Order has shown 
I'JS I'atrons. Our organ, VVk ( '(dijui nin Pnhdii, ^ marked improvement, and the increase in 
has been enlarged and improved. Its circula- - membership is c|uite satisfactory . Ournumerical 
tion has been increased and its influence ex- strength lias been increased by the organization 
tended. One great fault, that has been enibar of seven (Granges, two new district «iranges, 
rassing and injurious in its effects, has been and a net gain of .MS members, or over I'O per 
neglect on the part of the otliocrs of subonlinate cent, increase upon our former ineii'.bership. 
t irangesto send in their reports promptly at AH but four of our • Iranges reported last year, 
the close of each i|uarter. Same improvement and the financial status of our loc:il < Irangcs, as 
inthis regard has been made. Our financial i well as that of the State ( i range, is very satis 
condition is also improved. factory. In our educational work some of the 

The report of the secretary of our State i ( Irauges have discussed the ((uestions sent out 
^ Jrange, in October, 18S:!, showed a balance in ! by the National (irange l^ecturer, while others 
the treasury over liabilities of ninety nine dol- { have worked up programs of ii erary exer- 
lars an<l forty-one cents |?<'.lil 41*. The report i ejgcs and entertainments to suit the varied 
of th;it oHicer in October, 1SS4, shows a balance i tastes of tlieir members. In on; field work we 
of five hundred and sixty-six dollars and forty- find thai an occasional vi.sit by the Master of 
eight cents (.i::)!)!; fSi. 'j'he increase in our i the S'ate (irange at the meetingsin the diO'crent 
numerical strength has not been so gratifying, sections of the State has {»oved beiiclicial, as it 
While we have been initiating numbers anil re- shows to the members that the State ( Grange 
ceiving back into our fellowship who had has an interest in their prosperity. In our 
fallen away, the htalthy growth of the tree has I advance work of organizing (iranges, we find a 
required the lopping off of the branches. Wc great need of some kind of < Grange tracts for 
believe that, notwithstanding the numl«r of | wide-spread circulation aniouK the farmers, and 
our members in good standing is only sliL-lit'y I I am so forcibly impressed with this need I am 
increjised, our Order is stronger and hcalihici ■ | -.1 to suggest that the National < Iraiige should, 
and in better working order to-day thin it hius ^ tlirougl: an clficient committee, gather iind 
been for many years in the past. ; publ sh in some cheap tract form brief reports 

Much remains undone which ought to be done, of thewui k of the Order, the history of our 
yet we arc gratified by the achievements that | organiz.ition uiu\ its application to the long felt 
have crowned the effort tliat has been made, needs of the Anitiicu farmer. I wish to note 
and are hopeful for the future. brietiy one item of general interest to the ( Irder, 

I to show how much may be done by united 
Oregon. ^ efl'ort, and our Order acijuit themselves with 

Our sister State on the North reports as i honor and credit to the fraternity, 
follows; I The city of Worcester, the second in size 

R. I'. lloisE, Master: .Xs it will not be con- i a::d importance in our State, recently cele- 
venient for me to attend tlie coming session of brated the bi centennial of its settlement, and 
the National Orange, I send the following > among other features was a most magnificent 
report: Since our last annual session we have i military and civic parade, in which nearly all 
been prosperous in this State, and our numbers , the organizations in the city participated. The 
have increased. ^\ e are now enileavoriug to : local < I range joined with them, and was reprc- 
establisli u system of co-operative tire insur- ; sented by 1*20 brothers, mounted and uniformly 
auce, which will, if accomplished, save our 1 dressed, with badges and appropriate banners, 
farmers a large amount in the aggregate, as j and seven cars, each drawn by four horses, 
many of them now insure in the Stock t'om-j Three of these cars were devoted to Flora, 
panics. We have some co-operative stores j I'omona, and Ceres, and were tastefully de- 
which are doing w> ll, and helping to extend signed and arranged with flowers, fruits and 
Grange influence. What our farmers need is ; grain, each having emblems appropriate to the 
more knowledge of matters of common business; j official position represented. The four other 
that is, how to buy and sell, and the prices of cars were allegorical representations of the four 
the commodities in which they deal, also, more degrees of the Order, as well as the several 
accurate know ledge of the workings and exac- | stages of agricultural industry. The first rep- 
tions of the Transportation Companies. Much resented pioneer life, the second sred time and 
has been done during tlie last few years to , the tending of Howers, the third a harvest 
enlighten tliem on these subjects, through lec- ; scene, and the fourth a farmer s comfortable 
tures and the Orange Tress. home. Kmblems appropriate to the degree, as 

■ well as the names of the ilegree, were inscribed 
Penrsylvania. , on each car. In beauty of design and taste dis- 

LeiiNauI) KlfiiNK, Master; I take pleasure in ( played in the arrangement of these cars the 
reporting that there is some improvement in ' results reached were far in excess of our 
the condition of the Order in Pennsylvania j greatest expectations, and in a procession nearly 
since my last report. Kighteen Oranges have : four miles in length, and an audience estimated 
been organized and a few dormant Oranges re- | at over 7">,000 people, the Patrons of Hus- 
suscitated. Kvery ([uarter during the year has bandry carried off the laurels of the day, and 
shown a slightly increased membership, so that received the congratulations and praise of all 
■when we compare our progress with other connected with the celebration, as well as 
orders and associations we have reason for con- highly commendable reports iu the leading 
gratulation upon the encouraging situa'ion. newspapers of the State. And tor the success 
!Many large public gatherings have been held ; of this demonstration let the beautiful tribute 
during the year under the auspices <jf the of Thomas Jefferson to agriculture be here 
Order, prominently the Inter State Kxhibitiou, repeated : "Let the farmer for evermore be 
the lOxhibition in Crawford county, Ambler i honored in his calling, for they who labor in 
I'ark Joint I'oiuoua meeting, and many other the earth are the chosen people of ( !od." 
county gatherings, with their vast exhibit of ■ My experience and observation in (irauge 
agricultural and horticultural products, the ' work, covering all the years sin ;e the introduc- 
ffuest in the State. Lectures were given at I tion of the Order into our State, lias convinced 
these meetings by practical farmers, on agri- ■ me forcibly that our success or failure is in pro- 
culture and ijuestious of political economy, so portion to the efl'ort and personal ^e we 
that the amount of useful information imparted make to e.vtend and uphold the principU s of 
is incalculable, llcsides these meetings we have the organization in our several localities. When 
constantly kept uur State lecturer in the field, the Master of a local < Irange is awake to his 
who delivered probably over -JOO lectures during . opportunities for usefulness, and makes an 
the year. <i range papers are well sustaineil iu i eflort to make his I i range prosper, he can exert 
our State. ' sucli a stimulating effect upon his associate 

Our business enterprises have been reason- oliiceis and members as will make his Orange 
ably successful. The co-operative stores .staried successful in all its varied undertakings. And 
under the Uochdale system are successful when I believe further that, as Masters of State 
conducted strictly on business and cash princi- Oranges, our work will prosper or decline just 
jilcs, giving the stockholders a legal rate of [ in proportion as w e put our best efforts into the 
mterest, and dividing the profits among Patrons 1 work, and devote our time, as far as possible, 
according to the amount of patronage given by to visiting ( iranges, local, district or county, 
ch, selling their gootls at a fixed retail price. I ami interest ourselves in their work. 

A Patron at the World's Fair. 

KiuToK.s Pkkss: — Although the California 
exhibits are not all in, enough is already in 
sight to assure us that California is in the front 
rank in a large share of her exhibits. W e feel 
proud of the fruit department, of which there 
is a very large ([uantitj' from many sections of 
the State put up in liiiuid. We have in Horti- 
cultural Hall alone of fresh fruits, seven tables, 
extending 270 feet by six in width; and we are 
happy to report that this display elici's the 
commendation of all beholders. Mr. D. C. 
Keely's grapes will bear off all or most of the 
premiums. Mr. Keely will also bear off a share 
of the premiums on tree fruits. Lake county 
will also come in for a share of the premiums 
on these fruits, and will undoubtedly share in 
the awards. One of the good results of this 
snow, is that it indicates where the best grounds 
are for raising apples. I refer to the mountain 
regions. It is not only beautiful to look at, 
but where properly packed and carefully han- 
dled it is sound. 

Los Angeles and Sxn I >iego counties join in 
making the largest and most attractive display 
of honey to be seen here. 

Florida and Louisiana make a very fine show- 
ing of the citrus fruits, especially of oranges. 
But we fell assured that California can, if she 
will, make a better showing, if she will repeat 
the effort made at lliverside in 1882, on the 
occasion of "The Press Kxcnrsion" to that 

Our timber, in variety, especially the red- 
wood, is attracting much attention. From the 
Lona Prieta mills of M atsonville are many 
specimens of this wood, highly finished. Los 
Angeles county shows a finished plank of this 
wood 12 feet long by six or seven wide. 

Santa Clara \'alley Mill and Lumber Co., and 
the Pacific Manufacturing Co., of Santa Clara, 
both have highly finished woods of this and 
other varieties. The It. R. Co. also exhibit 
many specimens, finished up at their thops in 

Returning to fruits, let me say, that very 
many choice fruits from vaiious localities of 
California, were put up by Ohas. K. Turrill, for 
the Railroad Cu'e- display. This fruit embraces 
apples, pears, peaches, plums, apricots, etc., 
and may be found scattered about in the (iov- 
ernment building, among other local exhibits. 
This is to .suit the wishes of several prominent 
counties, the people of which prefer to bring all 
their products in one display. The displays, as 
a whole, would appear to better advantage, if 
like articles were clustered together. 

Pardon this jumbled-up ni'^ss, as I intended 
only to write a business letter. After inform- 
ing you that Brother and Sister Coulter have 
been here, helping in the work and seeing the 
sights. I will close. They report a good 
National (Grange meeting at Nashi'ille, and 
will doubtless tell you all more abeut it before 
this reaches you. I. .\. Wili ox. 

,\ ' ' >rl< anx, La. 

Californtan Meeting at New Orleans. 
The following was received by telegraph Jan- 
uary <ith; The citizens of California now in at- 
tendance at the World's Kxposition held a meet- 
ing in the Oovernment building yesterday, and 
adopted a memorial to the Cilifornia Legisla- 
ture, reciting that lilieial appropriations have 
been made by many States and Territories, as 
well as by foreign countries, for the representa- 
tion of their industries, and that they have 
shown remarkable enterprise in the magnitude 
of their displays. The exhibit from (California 
has been left wholly to in-.liviiluals and private 
enterprise: and, while 1 he exhibit is creditable 
as far as it goes, much more might bo accom- 
plished by State assistance, in renewing the 
fruit and enlarging other exhibits, for which 
there is yet abundance of time. 

Grange Testimonial, Etc. 

Sister Nellie O. r.abcock has been the effi- 
cient secretary of Teniescal (irange for many 
years. With the exception of a very few meet- 
ings, while ill, she has been constantly at her 
post of duty at the opening of the (irange, 
with nunutes that Leldom, if ever, needed 
additions, substractions. or corrections of any 
kind. Her example of punctuality has been a 
worthy one. Well imitated by a majority of 
Patrons, the prosperity of the Order may be 
greatly and speedily benefited throughout the 
land. As before mentioned in our columns, a 
recent fire entirely swept away the home of 
Sister Rabcock. Since then she has l^een the 
recipient of many substantial tokens and kindly 
evidences of friendship and sympathy from 
many intimate and whole-hearted friends; but 
on Saturday evening last the unanimous vote 
of Temcscal (irange, for dividing its treasury 
funds with her (to the sum of •'*:{0), was the 
greatest and most touching surprise to her of 
all. It was tendered with fraternal expressions 
of kindness and appreciation, with a real ( irange 
heartiness that as completely overcome the feel- 
ings of the recipient as it reflected the spirit of 
a true fraternal bond that is bound always to 
stand for the right and for each other in trial 
and adversity. 

Temescal-Eden Installations- 

A communication was read the same evening 
from Kden Orange, at Hay wards, accepting the 

harvest feast and joint installation invitation of 
Temescal Orange, to be held at Odd Fellows' 
Hall, Oakland, at 10 a. y\. on Saturday, .lan- 
uary 17th. All regular Patrons are invited. 
The third and fourth degrees will be conferred 
on Kden and Temescal candidates. 

Bro. J. \'. Webster was welcomed present, 
in good health ami cheer, after an absence of 
some two months at his Huer Huero ranch in 
San Laia Obispo county, where he intends to 
return again for awhile. 

An interesting discussion was had touching 
on co-operation, reciprocity treaties, sugar and 
other monopolies, after which it was voted that 
the subject of raising sorghum, amber, cane, 
etc., be considered on the first Saturday even- 
ing in February. Hro. Cliff was by vote 
appointed to lead the discussion. 

Returning Home. 

W . .M. Hro. Coulter made us a brief call ua 
January 'Jd, on his way home from the meeting 
of the National (irange and the New Orleans 
Lxposition. He reported Sister Coulter in good 
health and him-self in good cheer, though suffer- 
ing from a slight indisposition which we trust 
will be but temporary. Hro. and Sister Coul 
tcr continued their journey to Santa Rosa the 
same evening. 

Hrother (joulter found the World's Fair in 
rather a crude state generally, with the Califor- 
nia exhibits well at the front. Much more 
work remains to be done to bring the grand 
collection of materials in shape for examination. 


I'liixr "IK TiMhKK (!k\m.k. Contra Costa 
ounly. Master, A. V. Taylor; Overseer, Mrs. 
S. .\| Wills; Lecturer, C. .1. Preston; Steward, 
A. riuinley: Assistant Steward, X'olney Taylor; 
(Jhaplaiii, Mrs. A. Richardson; Treasurer, (ieo. 
Cople: .Secretary, Mary .1. Carter: Oate Keeper, 
S. M. Wills: Pomona, Mrs. Volney Taylor; 
Flora, Mrs. (Ieo. ('ople; (Jeres, Mrs. Jaquillard; 
L. A. .steward, Mrs. C. •!. Preston; Trustee, A. 

San Jose Grange. 

F.MTiiKs;— Please give notice in the 
<iranj;e department of your paper that the in- 
stallation of Kfticers of .San .lose Orange has 
lieen postp .ued until Saturday, -lanuary 17th. 
There will be a harvest feast, literary exercises, 
etc., l onnccted with the meeting. 

H. G. Kke.slin*:, Sec'y. 




TiiF, LnKKMiiKK N'iNK I NTKKKsT. — \alley 
111 rh ir: The \ iticultural Inspector, I'r.fieorge 
Bernard, for the Livermore N'alley Mistrict, has 
furnished the /f < ci. »• with the followini; correct 
report of w hat has lieen done since the vine 
planting in our valley began, in the spring of 
I8S2, until the close of this season, which 
yielded the first crop of grapes; In the spring 
of ISS2, 8>S0 acres were planted in vines, with 
the exception of SO acres, which were planted 
to table grapes, all were of the wine variety. 
Being a rather dry season the plants did not 
urow very vigorously, and at least per cent 
were lost. The following year about 1.") per 
cent of the replant were lost; but, as this, the 
third year, proved to lie an excellent season for 
planting, most of the plants of the .SSO acres aie 
now growing. The above losses reduced the 
acreage of bearing vines for the third year, to 
about .V>0 acres. With the exception of the 
Zinfandel, most varieties bear but little fruit 
the third year. The grape crop of the planting, 
of 1882 amounted to Lw tons, of first, and 2!S 
tons of second crop, which were sold to Mr. C. 
F. Aguillion, and delivered at his winery in 
Livermore, at $'M per ton for the first, and $l.'> 
per ton for the second crop. According to 
agreement the grapes had to have 22 per cent 
of sugar for the first, and not less than lo per 
cent for the second crop. Of the 183 tons of 
grapes fully three fourths were Zinfandel, and 
one-fourth was made up of Mataro, FoUe 
Blanche, Burger, (irenache, Charbono, Carig- 
nane, the different Reislings, and perhaps a 
dozen other varieties. This shows that the 
Zinfandel is a very prolific be;irer, and fur- 
nished largely the (juantity, as well as quality 
of this year's vintage. The first load of grapes 
was delivered to the winery September 22d, 
and the last of second crop November 22d. It 
will be seen that the vintage lasted just two 
months. The early rain which caused great 
damage to the grapes in other parts of the 
State did not hurt us, as our first crop was al- 
ready picked, and the second crop was not in- 
jured either by rain or early frost. At the 'M 
Annual State N'iticultural Convention which 
oficned Nov. 29th and closed December 6th, 
Livermore X'alley was represented with .31 sam- 
ples of different blends of wine of this year's 
vintage. All the samples showed a perfect fer 
mentation, fine color, and an excellent fruity 
and mellow taste. There are now planted 1,97") 
acres to vines; they are ow ned by 58 different 
parties, 'Mi of whom are new-comers to the val- 
ley; 28 of them have built houses and barns, 
and have improved their property outside of 
their plantations. Fight are living in San 

January 10. 1S8:).J 


Francisco, and have their vineyards attended 
to by parties who reside here. 

LivKR^roRK Grain.— //<(•«/(/.• Livermore's 
grain crop for the past year figures up 22,833 
tons. This is exclusive of the Altamont crop, 
which, before the erection of the warehouse at 
that point a couple of years since, has always 
come to this place. This will reach 1,.">00, thus j 
giving us a total for the oast end of Murray i 
Township of 24,833 tons. This, with but one j 
exception, — 1880 — is the largest crop ever pro- 
duced in this section. And when it is remem- 
bered that we have since that year drawn from 
wheat production some 2, .500 acres for vineyard, | 
it will be seen that there is but little if any j 
difference between the yield per acre of the two | 
years. The product that year was 2,(i00 tons, i 
but 1 ,(i(j7 more than this season. Our largest 
crop in any other year was 17,000 tons. Last 
year it was but 7,300. It will, therefore, be 
seen at a glance hat these two years, 1880 and 
1884, were seasons of most remarkable crop 
production in this valley. 


EfHTORs I'rkss: — Since writing you last we 
have had an abundance of rain. Aliout three 
inches have fallen witliiu 10 days past. The 
weather has been warm throughout, and green 
feed is making its appearance. The sky has 
cleared, and we will probably resume the j 
"freezing weather." previously mentioned. 
Karming wili now begin in earnest; men and 
teams are in demand. — (^n ui i, Mark, liordi ii, 
Cal., l>,r. :i7lh. 

Meat Packino.— The Baird Hros. at the 
Washington Colony, are engaged this winter in 
packing bacon, hams, shoulders, rolled and 
special meats, lard, etc. They had an adobe 
building built during the summer with a view 
to this business, which they use as a packing 
house. As a starter, tliey will kill and pack 
about .'500 head of hogs, and if they bud a i 
market for their meats, will engage in the bus- | 
iness more extensively another season. Several j 
years ago these gentlemen put up a considerable j 
quantity of meat, and those who tried it, spoke j 
very highly of it. Wo hope they will succeed] 
in their enterprise. Thousands of dollars are i 
sent out of tlie county annually, to pay for im- I 
ported hams, baoon and lard. 'I'here are large | 
numbers of hogs raised in this county, and there j 
is no reason why meats should not be packed 
here successfully, and a large part of the money 
now sent away to purchase salt meats, retained i 
at home. l')very dollar so retained, adds to the 
general prosperity of the county. j 

(iRain.— There is not as much grain sown in \ 
this county this season, as there was at the same 
time last year by many thousand acres. But 
the farmers will now push ahead rapidly, and | 
will soon have in more than was planted last 
year. The ground is a little too wet just now 
for good plow ing, but only a few days of pleas 
ant weather will bs required to put it in prime 
condition. The plows will be started as rapidly 
as the land tillable, and by the end of another 
week, should the weather remain pleasant, 
thousands of acres will be prepared for planting. 

Los Angeles. 

OKfiANi/.ED Work Acainst Insects. — Santa 
Ana Stiindnnl: The Orange Bug Association 
met on Saturday last. A petition to the 
Board of Supervisors was read and adopted. 
It is as follows: "To the Honorable Board of 
Supervisors of Los Angeles county, Cal. -We 
the undersigned citizens of Los Angeles 
county, Cal., do petition your honorable body 
to pass an ordinance in accordance with the 
law made and provided for the extermination 
of insect pests injurious to fruit trees and other 
plant life. We ask for a division of the county 
into suitable districts and the appointment of 
inspectors therein, whose compensation shall ba 
provided for by the county and whose duty 
shall be to thoroughly inspect all orchards, 
nurseries, hedges and vineyards in their re- 
spective districts, monthly, during the follow- 
ing months, to-wit, commencing in June and 
continuing through July, August, September, 
October and November, for all the varieties of 
scale insect, the codlin moth and wooly aphis, 
and wherever found report the same to the 
owner or occupant thereof and prescribe a 
course of treatment for the abatement and ulti- 
mate destruction of such insect pests. And 
upon the second inspection of any orchard, 
nursery, hedge or vineyard wherein the said 
inspector shall find that such prescribed course 
has not been fully complied with, or some other 
course pursued, which, in the inspector's 
opinion, has been fully as efficacious in destroy- 
ing said insejt pests, the owner or occupant 
thereof sliall be liable and subject to a fine of 
SIO, and upon every subsecjuent neglect to com- 
ply with such prescription of said inspector, or 
failure to effectually destroy said insect pests in 
some other manner, to a line of §20. We also 
ask that it shall be the duty of said inspectors 
to immediately prosecute any and all persons 
who fail to comply with the requirements of 
this ordinance and collect said tines by due 
course of the law, and pay the same to tlie 
( bounty Treasurer, and we ask that the District 
Attorney be instructed to assist in and conduct 
such prosecutions. And we furthermore ask 
that the prescriptions of insecticides of said in- 
spectors shall be in accordance with the advice 
of the State Horticultural Inspector." A com 
mittee of three was appointed to circulate it for 
signers. The committee was Messrs. A. J. 
Wood, Collins and Parker. 

The County. — We learn from Mr. J. L. 
Kester that the fruit and agricultural outlook 
in the northern part of the county, east of the 

coast range, is very flattering. Mr. Kester has 
about 3,000 vines of choice foreign varieties 
which bear luxuriantly the sweetest and best of 
grapes. He also has orchards of apples, necta- 
rines, prunes, pears, peaches, plum's, etc., that 
produce excellent fruit. In the last year he 
cultivated a field of oats which yielded the 
finest crop of that grain he ever saw in his life, 
which sold on his place at $1 .25 a cental, chielly 
bought by his neighbors for seed, who will this 
year plant oats extensively. The great necessity 
of the region is a railroad, and there is e, propo- 
sition to send a petition and representation of 
the case to the Southern Pacific Directors to 
urge them to complete the connection between 
Soledad and Bakersfield. 


Oranhes. — Bee: Isaac Lea, whose farm is 
near Florin, Sacrahiento county, has about 50 
orange trees, 40 of which are in bearing. They 
were grown from seed, and are very hardy. 
None of his orange seedlings have died, al- 
though some orange grafts on lemon stock 
bought and set out by him, were killed down 
to the ground by frost. His bearing trees are 
from 10 to 15 year.s old. One of them this year 
produced 2,000 oranges, which were sold in this 
market at $15 a thousand, making the yield of 
the tree worth Some oranges brought by 

Mr. Jjea to the life office to day were of excel- 
lent quality. He also has lemon trees in bear- 
ing. Mr. C'rowell, a neighbor of Mr. T^ea, has 
two orange trees about 15 years old, from which 
he sold last year $60 worth of fruit. 

San Diego. 

Bi,A<'K Lkc. — Uii'iox : .\n epidemic of black 
leg has lately prevailed in this State, and the 
cattle men in one or two sections of San Diego 
county have lost a number of fine stock cattle 
by it, and the disease has not yet disappeared. 
The following letter on the subject from S. 
Woodrum, Jr., a stock raiser of Wilkins county, 
Minnesota, may give those interested some in- 
formation on the subject. The letter is con- 
tained in a work on "Contagious Diseases in 
Domesticated Animals," lately issued by the De- 
partment of Agriculture at ^\'ashingtonj and 
was addressed to the Department: "The cause 
of this disease, I am convinced by experience 
and observation, is over-feeding. For instance, 
cows that were milked all winter, and were fed 
eight ((uarts per day of corn meal, linseed meal, 
oat meal and wheat bran, went through the 
winter without getting sick, but cows that came 
to the barn fat and dry, and were not fed any 
thing but hay until after dropping their calf, 
when they were put on the same feed as those 
who were milked all winter, were taken sick in 
every instance. Again cows that came to the 
barn fat and dry, and received a daily ration of 
feed of the same quality as the other cows, but 
after dropping, and then increased in quantity 
to the same amount as the others, got through 
without being sick. My experience has been 
about the same with calves as it has been with 
cows. A calf that has been allowed to run 
with its dam all summer, being very fat, was 
turned into a Held where grain had been har- 
vested, anil a very luxuriant growth of grain 
had sprung up, and it was soon taken sick. 
When Dr. Hearn, of the Signal Service was 
here, some seven or eight years ago, I described 
the post Diorti III appearance of an animal that 
had died of black leg. He advised me to try 
drenching with strong salt brine, and I am 
happy to say that I accepted his advice, and 
have not since lost a cow or a calf. I'ut one- 
half pint of salt into a quart bottle, fill with 
water, shake well, and give about half as the 
first dose; in about an hour give the re- 
mainder, and one hour later repeat. The fol- 
fowing day the operation should be repeated. I 
have used this remedy in the case of sick horses 
with satisfactory results." 

San Luis Obispo. 

Fink, I^ri it. — Trihinn': Mrs. Dr. Hays sent 
to -Mrs. Angel a box of Japanese persimmons 
which were large, beautiful and delicious, and 
were received with thankful pleasure. Dr. 
Hays, we are happy to say, has made a sur- 
prising success iu vine and fruit growing at La 
Ladera, his place on the hillside north of town. 
He has many thousand grape vines of different 
varieties, and all growing well, and a great 
many varieties of choice fruits. Of these are 
over 30 Japanese persimmon trees, now stand- 
ing about six feet high and loaded almost to 
breaking with fruit. This tree bears so pro- 
lifically that if there should be a market for the 
fruit either fresh, preserved, canned or dried it 
would be exceedingly profitable. We are told 
the fresh fruit sells at 20 cents per pound. The 
Doctor's experiments at La Ladera ha\ e demon- 
strated the fact that a vast area of mountain 
side, now covered with chaparral and con- 
demned as valueless is really the best there is 
for fruit, particularly grapes. At least in the 
lower belt of chaparral frost seldom touches it, 
there having been none yet this season, which 
has been one of the coldest for years, heliotrope, 
fuchsias, begonias, tomatoes and such sensitive 
plants growing and blossoming continually. 
The residence, about which these grow, is below 
the chaparral, but Dr. Hays has vines in the 
higher land which are doing well without irri- 
gation, and thinks the chaparral soil the best 
and moiit favorable. He designs setting out 
about 10,000 vines annually. 

Santa Barbara. 

PRrNE.** ON Ai.MOND. — Pre--<.i: Mr. Albert 
HoUister, who owns one of the finest ranches 
in the vicinity of (!oleta, has transformed an 
extensive almond grove into a variety of fruit 

orchards, by grafting peaches, apricots, plums, 
prunes, etc., on the almond stock. He has met 
with better success in the apricot line than any 
one else we know of, and is still experimenting 
with the hope of finding a way to make the 
graft and stock forma perfect union: this he 
has already accomplishea in many cases. Some 
of the best peaches raised near here last sum- 
mer came from this orchard from almond stock . 
The best success, however, was with plums and 
prunes, and a fine crop was gathered and dried 
for market. Lately a load of these was brought 
into town and ((uickly disposed of at the stores. 
They were neatly packed in 20-poun<l boxss. 
The fruit is the very nicest we have ever seen 
and far excels in richness of flavor the foreign 
varieties imported into our markets. They are 
the Pi'litr iP /l;/()tand being naturally (|uite 
sugary and tender somewhat resemble immense 
raisins, being relished with or without stewing. 


VALfK HI' KcYi'TiAN Corn. — Vuba City 
Fnrnirr: During the spring months, the 
Farmer, on several occasions, alluded to this 
corn as a valuable forage on the dry plains of 
this State. We believe the farmers of Sutter 
county, were the first in the State to demon- 
strate the adaptability of this plant on our up 
lands at a time when nothing will grow without 
rain or irrigation. We repeat what we said 
then, that the (|uestionof abundant green feed 
the entire summer was solved, and solved so 
easily and cheaply as to astonish the "natives." 
This is now so well understood by our farmers 
as to reijuire no repetition in these columns, but 
we hold that such a triumph should be heralded 
beyond our borders, because it is a discovery 
that will work an important change in the near 
future. The idea that these great plains are 
worthless for anything but wheat and barley, 
must be abandoned. Henceforth they will pro 
duce more meat, butter, cheese, and stock of all 
kinds than ever before, or before they were de- 
voted io the production of the cereals. And 
what is more surprising, it will not interfere 
with the production of wheat or reduce the 
acreage. It can be grown on land laid over in 
fallow, and only occupy the soil while at rest, 
so to speak. Twenty-five pounds to the acre 
will seed the ground, and from 10 to 20 acres 
will supply an ordinary farm with green feed 
for all the stock usually kept; but of course, the 
amount of one is regulated by the other. The 
corn used for pasture must not be allowed to 
mature, as in that event the stalk and the leaves 
become hard and woody, and is then not relished 
by stock; but when fed down close, it will con 
tinue all sunnner to throw out "suckers," 
wherein lies its value as a forage plant. It will 
be seen, that for our farmers to avail them- 
selves of this important discovery, it will be 
necessary to have the lands fenced in convenient 
fields, so that the pasture field is separate from 
the wheat field. P'ences are costly luxuries, but 
we will never inaugurate neat and profitable 
farming without them, and since the advent of 
barbed wire, the expense has lieen very greatly 
reduced. The cost and absence of fences has 
greatly hindered the development of the resour- 
ces ef these plains, which obstruction will now 
give vay to the progress of the times. A\ e can- 
not, however, (|uitthis subject without point- 
ing out another great advantage of the Kgyptian 
corn. Kvery farmer has felt the want of abun- 
dant and cheap food for his stock during the 
winter and spring months, and the lack of it 
prevented bim from carrying over but a meagre 
amount. Now, however, he can fence off' a few 
acres, let it mature, and thus grow iu abun- 
dance feed for the winter, at a cost so trifling 
as scarcely to be felt. For this purpose, the 
corn ne(Kl not be threshed — it is simply "top- 
ped'' i. <•., the heads cut off and drawn to an 
enclosed shed or bin, to be dealt out to hogs or 
other stock, in that form. For fattening hogs, 
nothing can excel it, audit is fully eijual to 
Indian corn for eve y purpose for which corn is 
used, and the yield is simply enornu)us, going 
as high as from 50 to 75 bushels to the acre, on 
our dry land, and, of course, much greater on 
moist land. .\n<l all this with no labor but the 
sowing and gathering. We want a n)ore dix er- 
sified agriculture. Here it is, with pork, beef, 
cattle, horses, mules, poultry and fruits of 
every kind and description, cheaply grown for 
good prices, ,'^urely there is no need of grow- 
ing wheat at starvation prices. 


(iiioX ES oi'' OuASiiEs. — , l/yy/c'd/." People of the 
State have a slight conception of the nunibRr 
of beautiful orange groves scattered over this 
city. Marysville can vie with the o-ange sec- 
tion of the State. One of the earliest and larg- 
est groves was planted by ('hailesC. Bockiiis. 
About 15 years ago the trees were purchased at 
Los Angeles at a cost of •Si5 each. Recently 
the place was purchased by ^Irs.W. N. Rogers, 
and passers-by cannot fail in noticing these 
fairy like grimnds. The fruit is large and of 
delicious Havor, as liberal samples amply 


Tnr, Storm.- Kditor.-^ Southern (Cali- 
fornia baa been visited with the storm that has 
prevailed recently in the more northern portion 
of the .State, and in the Ojai we have already 
had 4.03 inches of rain, and the prospect is 
that we will havs more before the storm is over, 
{'lowing will now commence in real earnest, and 
for the next two months nothing will be heanl 
except the low surging of the plow and the 
hum of the seed sower. -".Iack," Norilhojf. 

Proorkss. — iSi;/)' <(.■ The rapid and satisfac- 
tory development of the fruit, wine, oil and 

honey interests of this county, saying i 
of the shock, wool and agricultural prou 
gives us a certain guarantee that a railroad 
must soon be built to carry to market our sur- 
plus. The cheapness of railroad iron and labor 
gives us additional hope that at no distant day 
the iron horse will sound his whistle at various 
points in the Santa Clara valley. 'J'he low rate 
of interest in the Kastern market, and the con- 
se<|uent desire for its investment in railroad and 
other sureties add another strong reason for the 
hope. This hope has taken a strong hold upon 
the people of our town, and hence the healthy 
and active tone of the dealers and owners and 
buyers of eligible town property. 


0ran<^ks.- -Di iiuirral: Now that the rains 
have thoroughly washed the dust from the 
fruit and foliage, nothing presents a more beau- 
tiful or ornamental appearance thjn the orange 
trees that are in full bearing. Several of them 
may be seen in W. W. Brown well's garden, 
and they are worth a walk to those unaccus- 
tomed to such sights. Viewed in the winter 
season, an orange grove must be an attractive 
landscape, and it is not astonishing that Kast- 
ern people have of late fallen so largely in love 
with the southern counties, whose claims to 
prominence and fame rest largely upon the 
facility and profit of the orange culture. The 
few trees ffoiuishing in our northern counties 
demonstrate the practicability of growing 
equally large, delicious fruit with Los Angeles or 
San Bernardino, so far as the seedling varieties 
are involved. .Mediterranean sweets and the 
navel varieties ha ve not proved a success, and 
will not receive much attention hereafter in. 
this latitude, save in favored localities; but 
there is no good reason why every ranch in oui' 
northern fruit belt should not add oranges to 
apricots and prunes. 

State Horticultural Society Meeting. 

The last meeting was held at 40 California 
street on December 2lith, W. (;. Pdackwood, of 
Haywards, in the chair. The attendance of 
members was light, but visitors were numer- 
ous and the room well filled. S. H. Shaw, of 
Sonoma, and Felix (Jillet, of Nevada City, 
were nominated mendier'sof the society. 

The ('ommittee on the Reduction of Rail- 
road Freight on Overland Shipment of Pruits 
reported progress. 

The principal feature of the meeting was the 
exhibition of a cask of plums shipped from Kng- 
lund after treatment by a new process of preser- 
vation. K. Thomas, of Haywards, the exhibitor, 
said that the object of his bringing this fruit 
from KTigland was to ghow the chance of organ- 
izing a company here to put up fruit in the 
shape shown by sample, and stated that the 
lOnglish firm was ready to purchase all that a 
large concern could put up here, and would ad- 
vance half the value at the time of shipment. 
The fruit on e\!iibitioii, which had been cooked 
and reduced to a pulp, was sampled by almost 
every one present, and all were apparently 
satisfieil that it was in excellent condition after 
its long voy.age. 

In discussing the subject before the society, 
I. II. Morse stated that he could preserve 
pulp fruit iu cans to last two yeais, but did not 
behevc that California preserved fruit could be 
sold in lOnglaud with very much profit. 

J. Jacobs, who represented the firm of Lusk 
\ Co., said that California apricots and plums, 
in pulp, some seasons did not realize first cost 
iu the Knglish markets, and mentioned a num- 
ber of instances in corroboration of this state- 

Mr. Thomas gave as a reason for this that 
canned fruits from this coast were sour when 
they arrived in England. He remembered one 
occasion where, in asbipiuentof 240 cans, sixty- 
three were found to have spoiled. 

After a somewhat extended discussion of the 
subject, Chairman Blackwood .suggested the 
appointment of a committee to formulate a re- 
port on the fruit exhibition, to be presented at 
the next meeting of the association. After a 
tnotion to this effect the president appointed 
the following committee of three: I. H. Morse, 
1. .lacobs and A. J. Perkins. On motion ('hair- 
man Blackwood was added to the committee. 

J. B. Waller next exhibited to the society a 
patent contrivance to facilitate the overland 
shipment of fruit. This was simply a box con- 
taining partitions, made of tules, with a number 
of layers for the fruit. 

Mr. I'ryal believed that, in anticipation of 
the large fruit crop during the coming season, 
it would be advisable to (horoughly test all such 
contrivances, since they are in great demand, 
and, furthermori', for the rerison that the Fast 
will b(^ th<' [irincipal market for California fruit. 
A committee to investigate and test the (quality 
of the box was then appointed, as follows: A. 
D. I'ryal, W illiam Knox and S. H. Shaw. 

The discussion of the reduction of railro;id 
rates on fruit was postponed on account of the 
absence of the gentleman who proposed the 
subject for discussion. 

The pruning of trees was then proposed by 
A. D. I'ryal to be discussed at the next meet- 
ing of the socie'.y. He stated that the fruit 
growers are sadly in need of instructions on 
this subject, as there are very few horticultur- 
ists who 'oulerstand it. and the speaker gave 
this as the reason for the fact that so many fruit 
trees are dying out throughout the State. 

Col. Webb proposed the subject of grafting 
and planting trees. It was decided to take up 
both subjects at the next meeting. 


pAeiKie i^URAL PRESS. 

[January 10, 1885 

iWrittcn for Ki rai. I', by SlAin iit-ALi.-WciHK.) 
Christmas eve melted away entirely and 
Christmas dawns with clouds thick and heavy 

• The Mill Has Shut Down." 

'The mill has shut down! Good God, shut down!' 

I .ike the cry of flood or fire, the cry 
kiiiis swifter than lightnin,!; through the town. 
"The mill has shut down! Good God. shut down!' 

Men wrin^ their hands, and look at the .sky; 

Women fall fainting — like dead they lie. 
.\t the very best they earned but bread; 
With the null shut down they'll better be dead! 

Last with patience, a lessened wage 
They hopelessly took— better than none; 

More children worked, at tender age. 

liven tlieir mite helped the lessened wage. 
The babies were left at home, alone. 
"I was cnouf^h to break a heart of stone 

To see these people work for bread. 

With the mill shut down they'd better Ik? dead! 

"The mill has shut down! Good God, shut down! ' 
It has run .at a loss this many a day. 

f 'ar worse than flood or fire in town 

Will be famine, now the mill has shut down; 
liiit to shut mills down is the only way 
When they run at a loss, mill-owners say. 

God help the hands to whom it meant bread! 

With the mill shut down they'd better be dead! 

—Hchn J,u /,s,;i. 

its third paroxysm in a course of tobacco poison- 
ing. The mother was intelligent, and at once 
felt the force of iny explanation. She, with 
her brother, two babies (the eldest a two-year- 
old), and two nurses, were occupying a suite of 
rooms, aa summer boarders, in the country. 
The husband and 
of their term to 

every evening after tea the gentlemen had taken 
their cigars into the mother's sitting-room, , , . 

where the dear little baby lay in its mother's 'o^d their Christmas gifts onto the fallow acres, 
lap, while the three chatted or played whist, as It is as warm as April and the farmers' 
the spirit moved them. But each evening's Santa (Maus, the South wind, pufls along like a 
enj^oyment had been cut short by the babyV merry old friend that he is, upsets the com- 
- - ----- piinjgutg Qf ti^g season over the dark farm- 

A Rainy Christmas at the Farm-House. ' Women's Work at the World's Fair. 

From private advices and from our New Or- 
leans exchanges we learn that the women's de- 

, , ^, , , . ^, -jj-i I 14. 1 1 ■ X o partment of the New Orleans World's Fair is 

[1 father had come in the middle enough to make the gloomiest granger on San , ■ , ,. , a u • .... 

rest with them a few days, and \ Joaquin relax into a smile or two. The clouds ' 7^°^''' 7'"' ''T\ 

. ..1 1--J..-1.— X XI . • , Orleans .i><'//iO'/<(« gives a report of a meeting 

move steadily down onto the horizon and un- „. u- u m r i- n- i n • , , , 

at which Mrs. Julia Ward Howe presided, and 

Mrs. K. Au/et acted as secretary. 

It was decided that the department should 
be formed into six divisions of States, with 

superintendent of each 

house, tears up the stray clouds, flinging them ^'j^Tf' ''aoific Slope Mrs^ Lemmon , 

;.,f„ *^L„ i,:ii„ 1 .... "--.-.L ! of California was appointed. Mrs. Lemmon is 

into the hills, and keeps sweeping up persist- i "'"iT ■ ^"■'V'e'nmon is 

ently a new supply of clouds. ' ^ ^ ' ; a well-known scientist, she and her husband be- 

The yard bec-omea a map of the world, with i IX^it^^^" '^o'*°y .^'"d entomology, pur- 
oceans, gulfs and bays occupying three-fourths »"^>S.their invest.gations by long trampingjind 
ofit. ~ " " _ . _ 

over with moss; the trees get washed of their j 

The barn shows its age by greening all Sa'"^ expeditions in the mountains of Cali- 

The Tobacco Fiend, 

IWrittcn for IU'rai. by Mns. C. I. H. Nkium..".] 

From time to time I have said to myself, your 
next must deal with the tobacco fiend; and now 
I find in the following notice, cut from a July 
Chroiikh, a text for my subject: 

I'resident Schaeffer, of the Technical School 
of the Cigar Association, called to order a large 
assemblage of prominent cilizens in the sc'nool 
workshop, on .Sacramento street. The occasion 
was the conferring of diplomas on 68 graduates, 
20 of them being young girls. ♦ * • Chas. 
Wiggin was called to address the graduates, 
lie said: "To-morrow is the anniversary of 
American Independence, while to-day you re- 
ceive the credentials of your independence, and 
I charge you as you go forth to the world, never 
to commit a deed that 'would reflect discredit 
on your Alma Muhi:" 

Several other gentlemen addressed the meet- 
ing, among them the He v. Mr. Bettlebeim and 
llev. Mr. Cohen. The latter closed the meet- 
ing by prayer. 

The above notice reads like a burlesque, in 
which American independence and its natal 
day, with college diplomas. Alma Maters in 
general, and the pulpit as the guinea stamp on 
base coin, are the subjects. The advantage of 
the graduates in securing their credentials in 
advance of the national climax, oddly enough 
suggested the following lines of an old Metho- 
dist hymn, satirizing the doctrine of universal 
salvation : 

"Judas, by a cord, 
Outran his Lord. 

.■\nd got to heaven first." 

Oddly enough, too, it reminded one of certain 
political "independents," whose Alma Mater 
sent them forth into the world, with both 
diploma and "cord," to discount personal 
purity in high places. 

The solemn charge to the graduates, of whom 
•JO were young girls, "never to commit a deed 
that would reflect discredit on their Alma 
Mater" the Alma Mater of a demoralizing in- 
dustry — could not fail to suggest to every 
thoughtful mind, a troop of discreditable asso- 

Neglect of the president of the association to 
characterize the prominence of citizens in at- 
tendance - to say whetlier the assemblage was a 
general saloon delivery, or an overflow of Napa 
and Stockton lunatic asylums, the presence and 
prayers of Clergy suggesting both, as a dernier 
resort- leaves dwellers in the rural districts in 
doubt. J have asked myself: Can this wolfish 
.\lma Mater, in the garb of a shearling sheep, 
by sops to the anti-Chinese sentiment and mock 
regard for the "unemployed poor," prosecute a 
degrading, disease-producing, death-dealing in- 
dustry, in a Christian community, unrebuked ! 
If so, ought it to be styled a Christian com- 

1 have good reason for believing that more 
infanta under twenty months old, especially in 
our large cities, die of blood poisoning from to- 
bacco than any other known agency. I 
doubt if all other agencies put together lay the 
foundation for more disease of the nervous sys- 
tem in adult life. To accomplish this havoc of 
infant life it is not necessary that the mothers 
smoke or chew, or "rub" like the Southern 
women. The pipes, cigars and spittoons of the 
inale memljers of the family, and visitors, where 
nicer conventionalities do not forbid, are enough 
to destroy the health, if not the life, of the 
average infant. 

I was once called by a distressed young mother 
to her little two month-old baby. The appear- 
ance of the babe and the scent of the weed at 
once revealed the cause of its snfl'ering. It was 

sudden illness and frantic ellbrts for its relief, 
without in the least enlightening them as to the 
cause. 1 hardly need add that the cigars were 
sent out, the rooms disinfected, and the baby, 
; after a few days of languor, was crowing as 
I before. 

I From a very early age, and with the inherit- 

1 ance of a fine conatitution, I atifl'ercd without „j ^^^^^^^ t ,• „ , 

knowing, or indeed .luestioning for the cause, dead leaves, and the eaves keep dripping an ' « -^l ^o^hwest, Mrs. Julia Holmes 

I was often faint in a crowded assembly, and, I accompaniment to the pattering on the roof. f't ' ^ . * ''''ean'* ^-oman. l^y birth and one 
to my great mortification, had to leave church ; The wire screens are beaded with pearls and f prominent physicians in ( hicago 

even in cool weather if windows and doors were ; the windows are misty with trickling streams. ! """"^ r""""' V^'^^l ■'""7° 

closed. As the years passed I was brought face 'j-i,ere is no going abroad to court a festive I ^°<i ^er interest in the advance- 

to face with my tormentor. From a pew back and exciting Christmas. Christmas must en- ""^r , „ , . xt u •„ • 

of mine a breath-yea, three or four of them- tertain itself in the quiet atmosphere of the I . ^I™- J'elicia Grundy Porter, of Nashville, is 
laden with the hfe -destroying aroina, drove me , farm-houae, or go out the door and die with 
with dizzy head and tottering step into the open | sorrow in the refrain of the tappin*' showers 

Under the dripping farm-house roof there should 
be no discontent or uneasiness, no regret or 
care. Of all California's laboring sons, the 
farmer, as a rule, is the most favored and pros- 
perous. Have all our affairs been ordered with 
judgment and sobriety? Then should peace 
crown the resting of Christmas-tide. 

One thought is forced into prominence. If 
we have lived in justice to ourselves, and have 
equipped our scattered and isolated farm-house.-) 
with the rewards of labor and the pleasures of 
refinement, then we are prepared under any ! self'presid'eV 
flood of rain to fill the Christmas cup full to the I i^j^g ^y^i^ 
brim with crystal pleasures. [ j^^^ Knaland States 

Now, I do not mean that the house should I vf,„ < ;„ „u- e It ■ i-c j 

u 4 u- 1 -ku -11 u ■ J 1 1 Mrs. Ordway is chief of the scientific depart- 

be stuffed with silken hangings and damp bro- ' „„j i.v,„ t 

J jti-uj -.i J 1 ment, ana on the committee of employes are 

cades, and furbished with pasty and unendur- t.i «ic 

differing only in degree from those experienced able ornaments. But it should be so that when 
in mixed asaemblies. I say mixed assemblies, the rain "shuts us in from the world without," 
for in the rush of evidence I was confronted by can "shut it out from the world within," 
the fact— hitherto unnoticed— that in a crowd [ and find amusement in that world. We slioul.l , „, ,„„ 

where all, or nearly all, were women, I was ex- | have many little comforts and amusements, not „f *i u ■ 

empt from this nervous depression. N ery few 30 necessary to those who live within sound of *,?i!f.L„r^ Soniat, m" L^nlux^and 

delegation from the historical 
were present by invitation, 
made her address in French. 
f Tit" -"">• perfectly conversant with the 

II c u iw^". "'u^ P''**^ language, which faciliUtes her intercourse very 
cally, one farm-house that I know has a gym- ■ - ■ - - ... ■> 

nasium and skating rink under its roof. The 

children there are having a jolly time this rainy 

day. With books and pictures abundant to 

our desires, we have a "world within," which 

no atorm can enter to clog its many highways, 

and bar the sunlight from its gladsome resting 

places. The storm-bound household is not im- 

air. Once the smoke from the driver's seat on 
a covered stage-sloigh laid me low at the feet of 
its other lady passenger. And yet, again, 
while the coach was waiting for a passenger 
before a hotel piazza on a court day, where 
half-a-dozen smokers were enjoying tlieir after- 
dinner cigars, 1 was struck speechless, and my 
left arm so unnerved that for weeks my hand 
was nearly useless. 

After years of questioning for the cause, as 
I have said, of this depression of vitality, which 
non-sympathizers regarded as imaginary, 1 put 
this and that together, or rather, this and that 
came together with a rush of recognition, 
when the sensations caused by the tobacco 
smoke and breaths — agents perceptible to the 
senses — forced themselves on my observation as 

vice-president of the Southwestern l)epartment. 
She was widely known for her services in the 
Confederate hospitals during the civil war, and 
is a dic^tiiiguisned philanthropist. 

For the Middle States, Mrs. K. T. Gillespie, 
of Philadephia, is appoiuted. She was presi- 
dent of the Woman's liepai'tineut in the Cen- 
tennial, and has lieen laboring earnestly in 
Pennsylvania for the Kxposition. 

Mrs. Caroline K. Merrick is vice-president 
for the Southern States, and is widely known 
as president of the W. C. T. U. of Louisiana, 
and member of the Society for the Advance- 
ment of Women, over which Mrs. Howe her- 

I'olcott, of Bostoli, is appointed for 

Mrs. Kugene Soniat, Mrs. Pierre Lanaux, and 
M. K. Auzet, all names well-known in New Or- 
leansas those ef prominent and influential ladies. 

Mrs. 1>. A. (iiven, who is commissioner of 
Louisiana, was also appointed local superin- 

ings. The nerves of an infant are more sensi- 
tive than a woman's, and the nerves of a 
woman more sensitive than a man's. Hut while 
all persons, accustomed to the use or contact 
of tobacco, lose more or less of the sensibility 
that admonishes them of its depressing pres- 
ence, this acquired obtuseness is a very ques- 
tionable blessing, since it must be gained at the 
expense of vitality available to resist disease 

much with that large and influential half of our 

^Irs. L. J. Cloudman, Mrs. Howe's charming 
aratit i-oni-'ui-, continues her duties as chief of 
installation in the woman's department. 
An Appeal to California Women. 
Mrs. J. G. Lemmon, who is mentioned above 

prisoned that can open a volume and take into 1 as nuperintendeut for the Pacific Coast, has 

and^recuperate the physical powers^in time of ] jts midst the genial presence of Mark Twain. I written us a letter on the subject, from which 

^^^^^j^^ ^^^^^ draught of the we t|Uote as follows: 
most innocent and refreshing fun. His anec "1 wish that the ladies of the (i range would 
dotal humor encourages forgetfulness, warms wiite and send exhibits of their industries to 
the heart and entertains without excitement, the Woman's .^eparment. Kvery State and 
It is the cup that cheers without inebriation, ' territory should be represented there, and the 
but with all the warmth and sparkle of wine. ' effort is being made, even though some of their 
There are many books which are reviewed to ' work appears in the general States' Exhibit, 
death, which would otherwise afford us many We have the promise of some honey, dried 

need. It is burglary and larceny of the precious 
life supplies of all non-consumers of the weed, 
: whether levied in the public assembly, home, 
workshop or street, for < lod created for us all 
a pure, life-sustaining atmosphere, and to 
poison it is a crime against humanity at large. 

In the year 1SS:1, 17,000 infants under five 
years of age were sent to their last rest in a 
single New Kngland city. Probably a majority 

pleasant hours. They are either so set forth 

of these occupied the same sleeping rooms, even that we get the strength of them in the review. 

beds, with their parents. I am satisfied from 
observation and experience that tobacco is more 
destructive to health than alcohol, and from its 
more general use, diffusiveness and masked 
effects, more to be dreaded. If it exhibited its 
devotees in like idiotic and belligerent moods. 

fruit, &c., but not enough. I would like to see 
an extensive display by California of the silk 
worm imlustry, from the worms, cocoons, silk 
reeling process and so on to a wedding gown or 
starry flag. It should be done for this 

or are so cajoled and cut up that we place them 
aside from our notice. 

One book, "More ].,eave8 from the .Journal of 
a Life in the Highlands," was scratched off especial department. 

every body's list by the critics. In fact it is a "A box could soon be gotten up, by united 
charmini; book for a rainy Christmas, or for and prompt effort, through Mrs. Ilittel and 
its use would be as generally opposed. But my 1 any rainy day. It is filled full of rainy skies othera, invoiced, a duplicate sent to me, and 
present appeal is in behalf of heli.less infancy to I and shadow^y mists and fogs and afterglows, the box marked Woman's Department, World's 
thoughtless fathers and equally thoughtless j ,.ugged peaks and heathery hillsides, with val- i Kxhibition. Mrs. J. G. Lemmon, care Chas. 
but suffering mothers. For more than half the 1 uable bits of history thrown in. Such, for j B. Turrill, New Orleans, La. 
weaknesses bewailed as peculiar to women, are instance, as this: I "I would attend personally to having the 

at least cousin german to this tobacco fiend. "At the head of the loch stands a very ugly articles well arranged, and also see that a good 

Think of the babe sleeping under the same ; monument to Prince Charles Kdward, looking { space is given. Kvery thing would Ije well 
covers with its tobacco saturated father, its 1 a sort of light house. There it was that he : cared for, and at close (')f the Kxhibition packed 

landed when he was brought by McDonald of and carefully returiii d, if so desired. The De- 
Borradale to wait for the gathering of the [ partment agrees to settle all expense of freight 
clans. When Prince Charles arrived at the 
spot he found only a dozen peasants, and { 
thought he had been betrayed, and he sat down 
with his head in his hands. Suddenly the 
sound of the pipes aroused him and he saw the 

lungs and delicate pores taking in the poisoned 
atmosphere; think of the nursing mother breath- 
ing and absorbing the same tainted atmosphere, 
and is it matter for wonder that 17,000 infants 
died in 1SS.'< — die annually — in a single city? 
Health commissioners in several cities have 
within the last few years reported against the 

use of impure milk as an alarming cause of clans coming down (.'/.7(>/(Ha/(. Soon after the 
infantile disease, and within the year have dis- Macdonalds appeared, and in the midst of a 
covered that the drinking by country cows of cheering host the Maniuis of Tullebardino un 

impure water, and occupancy of stables filled 
with impure exhalations, not only poisoned the 
milk for city babes, but bred sweeping disease 
among the adults in families using it. The en- 
tire exemption of neighboring families, who 

furled the banner of King •James. This was in 
August, 1743. In 174li poor Prince Charles was 
a fugitive hiding in the ii:ountaia8 on the sides 
of Loch Arkaig and Loch .Shiel." 

Among the many pictures of a shut-in holi- 

took their milk from other dairy farms, fnr- jay jg the chessboard surrounded by the friends 
nished the clue, and the examination by the of the two contestants, the interest of all 
commission the proofs of this fact 

to and from Kxposition, and whatever expense 
is necessary for installation. Wliat could be 
more encouraging or a finer opportunity for our 
women of America to come to the front? 1 
wish every invention by women of California 
could be on exhibition in this department." 
We would like to have the Pacific Coast division 
of the Woman's Kxhibit well-filled. Probably 
no part of the country could shov/ a more 
varied line of women's M'ork than we can. Our 
women are already leading in a number of pro- 
ductive enterpribes, and their achievements 
should be made known. 

TiiK vastness of the universe renders foolish 
1 - ■ u 1 • • absorbed in the fate of a willful black knight the supposition that this little planet is the 

I might close with adding that nursing se„t on a mission for a wandering white bishop, only inhabited one, and the unity of laws and 
mothers and babes should avoid contact with And the spell breaks into laughter as a sly of substances asks us to imagine the beings 
tobacco and its atmosphere by night and by white rook swoops down upon an overbearing upon other spheres to be moving to and fro, in 
day, and keep open doors and windows for and venturesome queen. Chess disposes of two the likeness of man, speaking a language 
health's sake; but I feel in every fiber of my people anyway. It may rain and blow and 
soul that the truer words are, "Touch not, thunder, but those two are unconscious— they 
taste not, handle not the unclean thing," all ! Jiave gone to the Highlands for the season, 
who value (.ods breath of life. Does any man >[erry is the rainy Christmas that has the 
ever think what a degradation of woman it is to current pictorial papers (welcome among which 

be spitoon cleaner. 'I'hat's enough. 

Pianos are played and corn popped by elec- 
tricity at the American Klectrical Kxhibition 
in Boston. Pretty soon bashful men can pop 
he question by electricity. 

is the KfK.\L Pkes.s), the standard poets, and 
I)ickens, Scott and Cooper. Then will the 
golden stars that gleam through parting clouds 
be an upper likeness of the late-burning farm- 
house lights, sending their streams of radiance 
out into the dark and stormy night. 


busied by the useful and the beautiful. We 
may even assume that such is the oneness of 
intelligent life, that if these inhabitants of dif- 
ferent planets were to meet in some general 
home in immortality, they would prove to be 
of one race — a human race having different 
minor details of history, but all menibers of one 
brotherhood, and capable of one friendship, one 
virtue, one taste, one piety — 10,000 worlds full 
of one music, oue art, one tenderness, one vir- 
tue, one creature — inan,one( ;od. — David Suriinj, 

January 10, 1885] 


C. L. S. C, 

[Written for Rural Press.] 

These letters, as almost everyone knows, 
stand for "Chautauqua Literary and Scientific 
Circle," a great national society for the promo- 
tion of popular education by means of home 
studies. It has been wonderfully successsful, 
from its organization six years ago, at Chau- 
tauqua Lake, N. Y., to the present period, 
when it numbers its members by tens of thou- 
sands. The Boston Traveler, of Nov. 6th, says; 

Society that teaches the use of leisure 
hours, and inspires the men and women of 
America with an intelligent aspiration to learn 
something of all tint it is practicable to learn 
in home study, by imparting the enthusiasm of 
companionship in work, has this year almost 
thrice as many ardent, self-sacrificing students 
of its curriculum as the combined membership 
of all the American colle;jes from Maine to 
Washington Territory. When we consider the 
influence of a single collegiate institution, many 
of whose students attend from parental rather 
than personal aspirations, and think how much 
money is annually raised through benevolence 
for them, exceptional praise is due to him who 
iias by his own wit and wisdom, without finan- 
cial appeal or charitable pretense called into 
line for the study of History, Philosophy, 
Science and Literature, nearly double the con- 
stituency of all our colleges." 

There are branch C. L. S. C. organizations in 
every section of our country, local circles in 
almost every town. The I'acific Coast central 
otiice is at San Jose. Circulars giving full in- 
formation will be cheerfully furnished to all 
applicants by the Secretary, Mrs. M. H. Field, 
of San .Jose, Cal. 

The regular Chautauqua year begins with the 
1st of October, but one may join the society at 
any time. Four years of consecutive reading 
complete the course, no matter with what year 
or month one begins. It is never "too late" in 
the Chautau(iua calendar. Neither is the course 
of study too abstruse for the ordinary reader. 
All that is required is one hour a day of careful 
reading. Many of the (juicker kind of readers 
accomplish the reading in far less time. 

Now that the excitement of the great Presi- 
dential campaign is past, and the holidays gone 
with their whirl of entertainments, it is a good 
time to settle down to sensible occupations. 
Now organize a Chautauqua circle in your 
neighborhood, send for some circulars, and see 
if it is not the exact thing for you all. Get your 
wide-awake friends interested, and before you 
know it you will all be enthusiastic Chautau- 




Hi)\v A Vv'oMAN RuN.s A Saw- .MILL. —The ca- 
pacities of women for business show a wider 
and higher range as opportunity offers. A 
Florida woman writes by invitation to the 
Norlhii'c.stcrii. Luiiihrrviaii, giving her experi- 
ence in managing a saw-mill. She is the mother 
of nine children, and was compelled to take a 
saw -mill to recover money which she had lent 
on mortgages. She knew nothing of the busi- 
nest, but put her snn-in-law in charge, and 
watched the result. Ii. a short time she found 
that he had no capacity for the business, and 
then she undertook to manage the mill herself, 
which she has done with success. Her advice, 
based upon experience, is good for other busi- 
nesses besides sawing lumber, if the necessary 
modifications are made. Here is the pith of it: 
"Be careful that you get the best machinery. 
Strong and heavy enough to stand the bad treat- 
ment of awkward hands. Buy the most durable 
belts, no matter what they cost, for half the 
failures in our backwoods mills are caused by 
breaking of belts; and wheh a complete outfit 
is secured, locate where you can get timber and 
sell lumber. Keep your machines in good order, 
taking especial care of ail par s out of sight. 
Pay your hands in cash, and not in promises, for 
they work for the money, and not for any love 
they have for you or your business. When you 
can't pay, shut down." 

Basket-Makinc) in Germany. — Basket- mak- 
ing in (iermany, which was begun in a modest 
way not many years ago, has developed into an 
imporUnt branch of industry. It employs no 
fewer than .'tit.OOO people, and the ware finds a 
profitable market not only at home but in many 
foreign countries. The demand for the raw 
material has given quite an impetus to willow 
culture in Germany, and trees better adapted to 
the needs of the manufacturer have been intro- 
duced. About '200,000 hundred weight of wil- 
low withes are annually imported. The people 
of the village of Heinburg, who redeemed 'MO 
acres of swamp lands a few years since, and de- 
voted them to willow planting this year realized 
about ij;! ,750 from the sale of the withes to the 
Saxon ami Wurtemberg manufacturers. 

"Times have changed," said old Hyson, 
mournfully; "times have changed. ' 

" And as to wherefore Y" asked his son. 

" In former times," said the old one, " man 
ate the cream." 

"And now ?" 

"They cremate the man." 

There was an awful pause, and young Hyson 
walked out of the counting-room on his tip- 
toes, and told one of the salesmen he was 
afraid the old man was breaking u^) fast. 

Mother's Room. 

I'm awful sorry for poor Jack Roe; 
He's the boy tliat lives with his aunt, you kuow, 
And he says his liouse is filled with gloom 
Because it has got no "mother's room." 
I tell you what, it is fine enough 
To talk of "boudoirs" and such fancy stufl'. 
But the room of rooms that seems best to me. 
The room where I'd always ratfipr be, 
Is mother's room, where a fellow can rest, 
And talk of the things his heart loves best. 

What if I do get dirt about, 
.And sometimes startle my aunt with a shout; 
It is mother's room, and if she don't mind. 
To the hints of others I'm always blind. 
Maybe I lose my things — what then ! 
In mother's room I find them again. 
And I've never denied that I litter the floor 
With marbles and tops and many things more. 
But I tell, you for boys with a tired he.nd, 
It is jolly to rest it on mother's bed. 

Now poor Jack Koe, when he visits me, 
I take him to mother's room, you see. 
Because it's the nicest place to go 
When a fellow's spirits are getting low. 
.\nd mother, she's always kind and sweet. 
And there's always a smile poor Jack to greet. 
And somehow the sunbeams seem to glow 
More brightly in mother's room, I know, 
Than anywhere else, and you'll never find gloom 
Or any old shadow in mother's room. 

Mary D. Bhink, hi Harpers Voiiir^ l\u>plc. 

The Boy Who Knew Best. 

.Jack Brayton took his hat from the peg be- 
hind the kitchen door and went out, slamming 
the door after him. A frown disfigured his 
forehead, and more disfiguring anger was in his 
heart. His mother had just told him he could 
not go fishing with some of the village boys, and 
he was going to tell them he could not accom- 
pany them. They were bad boys, and he knew 
that was her reason for not allowing him to go; 
she feared if he associated with them he would 
become like them. He thought he knew better 
than she did; that he never would be like them; 
that he never would smoke or swear, though 
he could see no harm in the former. 

He ran up the street to where they waited 
for him. 

"Can't go," he informed them. 

"Why not demanded a tall boy, who was 
smoking vigorously. 

Jack had not the manly courage to say, 
"Mother will not allow it." He had a foolish 
idea that would appear babyish. 

While he hesitated a smaller boy cried: "His 
mother won't let him; I know, Tom." 

The other boys laughed. It had been a long 
time since any of them had minded their 

.lack clenched his fist angrily. 

"Come on, boys," called another; we can't 
stand here all day, talking to mammy's baby." 

"Go anyway," advised Tom, the first speaker. 
"I cut loose from that government long ago." 

Anyone would know that without his saying 
so; his language, manners, and even looks told 
the story of a youth, who long ago, trampling 
on the fifth commandment, was learning fast, 
in consequence, to trample on the others. 

"Yes, come on," the boys urged. 

"Break through and let her see you're a man 
to do as you please; then she'll let you alone," 
said Tom. 

Jack did not care, if he had told his secret 
feelings, to have his mother let him alone; but 
he did want to be his own master, and tliere 
seemed a great deal of wisdom in Tom's 
marks. He was tired of being controlled; none 
of these boys were. Indeed they were not, and 
.Jack knew well they were the worst boys in 
the village. 

"All right," he said, "come on." 

"Good for you 1" they applauded. 

".Just let her find out, " Tom said to him as 
they walked on, "that you're going to be your 
own master, going and coming without ques 
tion, and she'll give up." 

They all, excepting Jack, smoked, talking 
noisily, their conversation plentifully sprinkled 
with oaths. He felt like a mere baby not to be 
smoking, and if he had not known it would 
make him sick so he could not fish he would 
have tried it. ^^'hen he began to go with these 
boys their profanity shocked him, but he was 
so accustomed to it now he did not notice it. 
He had several times found an oath at the end 
of his own tongue, but checked himself in time, 
for he really did not want to swear. 

They caught great quantities of fish, the lunch 
brought was good, the boys told furmy stories, 
so the day was voted a success by all but .lack. 
The habit of r-egarding his mother's wishes was 
more firmly fixed than he realized. But after 
this he felt sure that neither she nor his con- 
scious would trouble him any more; for the 
rest of his life he would have fun when he 
wanted it. One of the boys had an extra pipe, 
and after dinner lack was prevailed upon to try 
i', assured it would not make him very sick. 
Tom was lighting a fresh one for himself; the 
matches were damp and would not strike, so 
he swore at them, as if that would aid him. 
.Jack failed to light one at the same time, and, 
before he knew what he said, echoed Tom s 
words. The boys were so used to such language 

they did not heed it, but Jack turned really 
pale, and the pipe dropped from his hand. 

"I don't believe I'll smoke to-day," he said. 
He wanted to get away from them. 

"Go on," cried Tom; "you'll never regret it. 
What's the use of being a baby all your life '.'" 

"Here's one," said another boy, giving him a 
lighted pipe. 

He tried to refuse, but they all insisted, and, 
caring little what he did, he took it. Not long 
after that the pipe lay shattered on a stone, 
and Jack, very sick, was extended on the 
ground. ' 

"Let me alone," was all the reply he made to 
remarks, comforting or tormenting. He was 
sicker at heart than at stomach. He had done 
just what his mother had said he would do, and 
what he knew he would not do; he thought 
he knew best, and he found she did. 

"Get up," cried Tom; "we're going for beer.'' 

"Beerl" echoed the boys. 

"Let me alone," he repeated. 

They left him, going for the beer. He lay 
there an hour, and that hour was the turning 
point in his life. He revived the past few 
weeks — every downward step. He saw if he 
kept on as he had begun where he would land. 
He saw that his mother was right, and looked 
on his late comrades with her eyes. He could 
stop now, and he would. He stumbled up, and 
made his way home, still sick, and very weak 
and pale when he entered the kitchen. His 
mother was there alone. 

"Are you sick '' " she asked kindly. 

She looked troubled, as she was; for she knew 
he disobeyed her and went with the boys. 

"\'ery sick, mother," he answered. 

Then, sitting on the lounge together, his head 
in her lap, he told her all. " I found you were 
right," he said when he was through, " that in 
breaking the Fifth Commandment I cracked 
them all." 

" Dear Jack," she returned, "there are not 
three drunkards in this land who would be 
what they are if they had always honored and 
obeyed their parents when young. Break- 
ing that Commandment is like breaking down 
a fence which keeps out all wrong-doing: 
there is no safety for the youth who disregards 

three persons played a joke on him to tesi 
matter. One met him on his way to work uuu 
said: "Ciood morning, why you look sick this 
morning, what is the matter?" "Oh no, I am 
quite well," he replied. A few moments later 
the second one met him and said: "What is 
the matter with you, you look pale." To which 
he replied, "I'm not feeling at all well." The 
third one said: "^'ou look as if you ought to be 
in bed." To which he replied he was feeling 
quite badly, and in an hour he (juit work and 
went to bed sick. Yet this man lived to be 
very old and was never really sick, but was 
only so in his imagination.— //rni/(/ of U< a}lh. 

Discovery of the Ciroulatiov oi- the 
Bi-ooi). — The history of the discovery of the 
circulation, recapitulated, divides itself natur- 
ally into a series of epoch-making periods: 1. 
The structure and functions of the valves of the 
heart, Krasistratus, B.(;. .'W. -1. The arteries 
carry blood during life, not air, (!alen, A.D. 
1 •>."). .'!. The pulmonary circulation, Servetus, 
l.').")8. 4. The systemic circulation, Ca-salpinus, 
159.3. 5. The pulmonic and systematic circu- 
lations, Harvey, 1028. (i. The capillaries, 
Malpighi, \m\—Dr. Henry C. Chapman. 

X)oj^ESTie QeojMojviY. 

Tested Recipes. 

(By Miss Lmttik P. 1'itkin. | 

•Iames Cake. — Two eggs, two cups of sugar, 
one cup of sweet milk, one-half cup of butter, 
three cups of flour, two teaspoonfuls of baking 
powder: nutmeg, raisins and citrons to taste. 

0OOD [Et^^LTJH. 

Heart Beats. 

Hr. N. B. Kichardaon, of London, says he 
was recently able to convey a considerable 
amount of conviction to an intelligent scholar 
by a simple experiment. The scholar was 
singing the praises of the " ruddy bumper," 
and saying he could not get through the day 
without it, when I)r. Richardson said to him: 
" '\\ ill you be good enough to feel my pulse 
as I stand here?' He did m. I said, 'Count 
it carefully; what does it say ?' ' Your pulse 
says 74.' I then sat down in a chair, and asked 
him to count it again. He did so, and said, 
'Your pulse has gone down to 70.' I then lay 
down on the lounge, and said, ' Will you take 
it again ?' He replied: 'Why, it is only (54; 
what an extraordinary thing I' I then said: 
' When you lie down at night that is the way 
nature gives your heart rest. You know 
nothing about it, but that beating organ is 
resting to that extent; and if you reckon it up 
it is a great deal of rest, because in lying down 
the heart is doing ten strokes less a minute. 
Multiply that by sixty, and it is six hundred; 
multiply it by eight hours, and within a frac- 
tion it is five thousand strokes different; and as 
the heart is throwing six ounces of blood at 
every stroke, it makes a difference of thirty 
thousand ounces of lifting during the night. 
When I lie down at night without any alcohol, 
that is the rest my heart gets. But when you 
take your wine or grog yon do not allow that 
rest, for the influence of alcohol is to increase 
the number of strokes, and instead of getting 
this rest you put on something like fifteen 
thousand extra strokes, and the result is, you 
rise up very seedy and unfit for the next day's 
work till you have taken a little more of the 
' ruddy bumper,' which you say is the soul of 
man below." — GaHI(iril\ Joiiriiai. 

The MonEi, Hkaltiiy Man.-- The man who 
lives an idle life, be he a sturdy vagrant or fine 
gentleman, even if he is ever so healthy, is not 
our model healthy man. The pattern healthy 
man is one who lives long and vigorously; who 
in every part of his life does the lar-gest amount 
of the bes work that he knows how to do, and 
when he dies leaves healthy offspring. The 
healthiest country is that which produces the 
largest number of su< h men, who do the great- 
eat variety of good work for the longest time. 
Of course the word man is used in its broad 
sense, and includes women also. 

Cracked WHEAT Bread. - One pound of 
cracked wheat to two quarts of water, lloil 
until thick and mushy, stirring occasionally. 
Then put in one (|uart of milk, and let it boil a 
few minute.o, stirring all the time. Then put 
it in a dish to cool, after which put in one 
pound of flour and yeast to raise. it set over 
night, and in the morning put in two pounds of 
Hour and make into loaves; let it rise, and bake 
as other bread. 

Te3ted by Mrs. H. C. Pitkin. 
Cho( (il.vte Cake. — Two cups sugar, one half 
cup of butter, one cup of milk, three cups of 
sifted flour, four eggs, reserving the whites of 
two for frosting, two teaspoons baking powder; 
bake in layers. Filling and frosting: One cup 
of sugar boiled in two tablespoonfuls of water 
till it blisters: stir the well- beaten whites of the 
two eggs, three tablespoonfuls of grated choco- 
late, and one teaspoonful of vanilla; place be- 
tween layers and over the top and sides. 

Crea^i ('i)okies. — One cup of sour crean', 
one cup of sugar, one teaspoonful of soda, cara- 
way seed to taste, just flour enough to roll out; 
roll thin. Will keep, it is said, a year. 

BrRwicK Si'ONiJE Cake. - Three eggs; beat 
one minute; one and one half cups of sifted 
sugar; beat two minutes; one cup of flour: beat 
one minute; two teaspoonfuls baking powder; 
half cup cold water; one cup flour; flavor and 
beat all two minutes. Makes two cards. 

A Good Cook Book Wanted. 

EnrniKs I're.v- :— Will a reader of the kUKAl. 
kindly give the title and price of a really reliable 
American cookery booU ? Niany that are published 
are not worth house room. — .An i;N(;i.rsH I.Anv. 

Who can answer? 

F.vNCYiN'ii Him.sblf an Invalid.— There are 
many persons who think they are inv'alids when 
they are not, and there are many who claim 
sympathy on that ground who are in no sense 
entitled to it. They might shake olf their in 
validism by exertion if they would. A lit Le 
effort of the will, a lit le self-reliance, a little 
determination, and they would become well. 
Such persons, however, generally have weak 
wills and are negatJ.e characters. We knew 
one of them who could always be made ill by 
telling him he looked pale. On one occasion 

Che.stnut; kor Ko.\st Fowl. — Shell 
one (|uart of large chestnuts; pour on boiling 
water, and remove the inner brown skin; boil 
in salted water or stock till soft; mash fine; 
take half for the stuffing, and mix with it one 
cup of fine cracker crumbs; season with one tea- 
spoonful of salt, one saltspoonful of pepper, 
and one teaspoonful of chopped parsley; moi.steu 
with one-third of a cup of melted butter. 

White Candy. — One quart of granulated 
sugar, one pint of water, two tablespoonfuls of 
vinegar; boil just as you do molasses candy, but 
do not stir it. Vou can tell when it is done by 
trying it in cold water. I'ull as if it were mo- 
lasses candy, and have a dish near by with 
some vanilla irr it, and work in enough to flavor 
as you pull. 

CnocoL.VTE Caramel.s. -One cup of sweiit 
milk, one cup of molasses, half a cup of grated 
chocolate, a piece of butter the size of a wal- 
nut; stir constantly, and let it boil until it is 
thick; then turn it out on buttered plates; when 
it begins to stiffen, irrark it in squares, so that 
it will break readily when cold. 

ScALLor'ED Chicken,— Take equal parts of 
cold chicken, boiled rice or macaroni, and to- 
mato sauce. I'ut in layers in a shallow dish, 
and cover with buttered crumbs ; bake till 
brown. Cold roast turkey, using stuffrrrg and 
gravy, may be prepared in the same way. 

Chestnut Sauce. — Remove the fat from the 
dripping-pan, add nearly a pint of hot water, 
thicken with flour whijh has been cooked in 
brown butter; add salt and popper and the re- 
mainder of the chestnuts. 


fACIFie f^URAL> f RESS. 

[Janoaby 10. 1885 


Published by DEWEY & CO. 

Ofice.,S5S Market St., JV. E.cor. Front St.,S. F. 
ga" Take the Mevator, So. It Front St. 

Addbess ai.i. literary and business correspondence and 
dialta for this paper in the name of the firm. 

Our Subscription Rates. 

Our SriiscRiiTios Kates are tmkke noi.i.AR.t ayear" 
In advance. If continued subscriptions are not prepaid in 
•dranoe, for any reason, fifty ce.ntb e.'cti-a will lie charged 
for each year or fraction of a year. tiS' No new names 
placed on the list without cash in advance. Aifcnts w anted. 

Advertising Rates. 

; Week. I Mmlh. 3 Months. 
Per Line (agatol.... # .25 « .80 « 2.20 
UaUinch (Isiiuare). 1.50 4.0O 10.00 

One inch 2.00 6.00 1 4.00 

Large ttdverti.wnients at favorable rates. Special or read 
ing notices, legal ailviTtisements, notices ajipearing in extra 
ordinary type, or in ])articul ar parts <tf the paper, at speeia 
rates. Four insertions are rated in a month. 

; Tear. 
« 5.00 

I.ATK ADVKRTIsRMENTa.— Advertisements not received 
as early as Tuesday will be charged 10 per cent, additional 
for night work or extra cost, unless otherwise contracted. 

Our latest forms go to press Wednesday evening. 

Entered at the S. F. Post Oflice as second dasa mail matter. 

DEWEY ft CO., Patent Solicitors. 



Saturday, January lo, 1885. 

fiDlTORLALS. — Famous Uolstein Kuniily, 21. 
The Weeli; Kefnulters of the Kay; California for Sn^ar; 
Convention KeiwirtB, 28. Huntington, Hopkins & 
I'o.'s |)isiilay at the State Fair, 33. Lil.\ of the i n\ 
ratio; An .\ ui; ur for Tree Holes; A Xati"nal Need, ^9. 

ILLUSTRATIONS. -Menib.'rs of tl e AgKk- Fainil.i 
of llolstuins, owned liv Smiths & I'owell, Syracuse, M 
Y., 21. A Kusert I,il,\ of tlie Colorado," 29. .New 
Ijcvict for Borin<; Holes for Tree I'lantinjf, 29. K\ 
hihit Maile at the California State Fair by Hnntinxtori 
Hopkins ,v: Co., 33- T''e "Fh inif iJutchniun," 34. 

CORRESPONDENCE.- .Vortiiern Santa Barbara 
Countv; Xortlicrn California Xote-; Merced Valle\ 

THE APIARY. -Winterini.' Hccs; Report of th. 

Honi v industry of I.os Anirelcs County, 22. 
THE VINEYARD. -I'uttinjf ( p Itiisins, 22. 
POULTRY YARD.— The Cotnirju' Tonltrv Show, 23 

Tule, Miirsli and -Mkali Soils, 23. 

Granite: Grange Tfstiiiinniil, Kti. ; Returniiii; Hon.e; 

San Jose GranKc: .\ Patron at the World's Fair; Grange 

Flection, 24- 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES From the \arions 

Counties of California, 24-5. 
THE HOME CIRCLB.-Tlie Mill Has Shut l>own: 

The Tobaccii I lend; A Kain.i Christmas at the Karin 

House; Women's Work at tlie Wnrld's Fair, 26. ('. 

L. S. C; II. iw a Woman Kims a Saw Mill, 27. 
YOUNG POLKS- COLUMN.— Mother « Kooin 

The Bov Wlio Knew H. st, 27- 
GOOD HEALTH.- Heart Heats; The Model Healthy 

.Man: Fancxin^ Himself an Invalid; I'iseo\erv of the 

Circulation of tlie lllood, 27. 
DOMESTIC ECONOMY.-Testcd Keeipcs; A Good 

Cook Book Wanted; ( liestnut StnltinK for Roast Fowl; 

White Candy; Cho. olate Caianuls; Sealhiped Chicken; 

Chestnut Sauce, 27. 
HORTICULTURB.-nie Prunes. No. 1, 30. A 

Foothill Fruit Garilen, 31. Two V aluable New Small 

Fruits. 32. 

FLORICULTURE.-Classifli-ition and Character- 
istics of Garden Hoses. 32. 

IMMIGRATION.-Thc Northern Cullforiila Iinmi 
gration Movement. 32 

Business Aimoniiceinents. 

A^'ricultural M.acliincry— Bv ron .I.ickson, S. F. 
Agricultural Implements— Geo. Bull « Co.. S. F 
Auction Sale - S. I., .lones « Co , s. F. 
Poultry— Mrs. .1. H. Smyth, S. F. 
Cattle Smiths At Powell, Syracuse, V. V. 
Land for Sale— K. li. Perrin, S. F. 
Grajio Seed— C. Mottier, Jliddletown, Cal. 
Incubators. E. Van Xoorden « Co., B.isioM, .Mass. 
Business College K. C. Atkinson, Sac ramento, « al. 
Poultry— O. W. Sessions, Saii .Mateo. Cal. 
Force Pumps-I-. c Lewis, Catakill, X. Y. 
Nurseries- c. W. Reed & Co., Sacramento, Cal. 
Rooted Vines -lolin Maiison, .Vortli Hloomfiehl 
Seedlin;?s— California Nursery Co., S. F. 
Wajonn anil Carriages -Stiiilebaker Bros., S. F. 
Nurseries Coates .v Tool. Xapa, Cal. 
Fruits— Pacific 1-niit Ccinpanv, .s. K. 
Norman Stallions -Theo. SkiUman, Petalumn, Cal. 
Fish Ouano— C. B .lennings, S. F. 
Le Conte Pears C. W. Dearborn, Oakland, (Jal 
S«ine— Theo. Skillinan, Petaluma, Cal. 
Holstein Cattle H. W. -Meek, San Ixjrenzo 
Seeds Samuel Hreek, S. F. 
Fruit Stocks Tlios. Meehiin, Germantow ii, 
Poultry— A. .M. Lang, Cove Dale, Ky. 
I alifornia .Military Academy, Oakland, Cal. 

See AdverlistTig Columns. 

The Week. 

After several clays of half and half weather, 
during M-hich all longed for sunshine to facili- 
tate field ■work or pleasuring, the clouds have 
again knit closely, and have brought rain over 
a considerable area of the State, iliin is not 
especially obj jctionable if it does not continue 
too long. There is a great deal of work to be 
clone, and a chance to do it would be very 

The event of the week is the assembling of 
the Legislature at Sacramento. The Assembly 

, Cal 

organized by the choice of W. H.-l'arks, of 
Yuba, as .Speaker; but the Senate, up to the 
time of our going to press, is still occupied with 
caucusing and ellorts at reconciling conflicting 
interests and opinions. The choice of a U. .S. 
.Senator will harrass the members until a result 
is reached, which may not be speedily done, if 
one may judge by the eagerness of the canvass. 

The rise in wlieat, which is more definitely 
described in our Market Review, gives better 
heart to the growing interest, and will brighten 
everything if it continuen, as it certainly 

Defaulters of the Day. 

The rapidly increasing numljer of defalcations 
and oliicial villainy would tend to create the 
impression that honesty in places of trust is 
becoming scarcer every day. Men in whom the 
people, corporations or individual employers 
have placed the most implicit confidence often 
turn out to be the most consummate thieves 
and robbers. So little are they suspected that 
they often carry on their unjust schemes for a 
great length of time, and are only discovered 
when some link in the chain of their plans 
happens to give way. Then there is a startling 
rumor, a great deal of gossip and l)usiness men 
and otticial managers look closer into their 
books and accounts for a few days, and tlien 
their vigilance gradually relaxes, things fall 
back into the old routine, until the public is 
again startled by the development of a new case 
of di.shonesty. 

As we look over the list of defaulters the 
past year, we notice that many of them were 
held in the highest esteem by honest men, and 
were in excellent repute. The (juery naturally 
suggests itself, how men can descend from the 
plane of an honorable, upright career to that of 
a felon? The fact is, no man, however great the 
trust repoLed in him, will stand firm in the face 
of a great temptation, who is inclined to regard 
small ones as of trifling importance. The clerk 
who would appropriate to his own use a few 
dimes or dollars that belong to his employer 
would steal hundreds or thousands if they 
could be as easily got. He may not think so at 
the time, but events often sadly prove it to be 
true. And if of stealing outright small 
amounts he merely takes them to fill up gaps 
in his personal finance, intending to make it 
right after a time, he is simply familiarizing 
liimself with schemes of speculation and dally 
ing with a delusive expectation which lie at 
the bottom of nearly all the scandalous finan- 
cial crashes of the times. There never was a 
time when the iluty of honesty with all its 
sharp, hard, lllnty outlines, needed more to be 
held up and enforced by preacher and moralist 
than at present. Honesty includes dimes as 
well as dollars. It was the unnoticed seepage 
that let in the flood. 

How often have we seen men, substantial, 
honest-looking men, begi.i to stageer the mo- 
ment some great trust is placed upon them, 
f 'ould there have been a microscopical inspec 
tion of their character long before the fall, it 
would have been found perforated and honey- 
combed through and through with secret 
duplicities and petty irregularities. It is said 
the piles in the harbors of southern seas are 
often so badly Ijored and gimleted by tlie 
teredo that a child's hand could push them 
over. How many sleek, solid-.appearing men 
we may sec in an hour's walk through the city 
who can be pushed over with a bribe, a little 
hush money, or the promise of an otiice. How 
often great banks and commercial houses come 
down with a mighty crash in calm weather, 
filling the land with the dust and litter. C'ould 
we have looked into the private papers, corres- 
pondences and secret habits of the managers, 
we would have seen the teredo had long 
been at work silently, almost unconsciously, 
eating away the fiber of conscience and honor. 

Our customs sometimes have much to do with 
this state of things. A\ e once heard a broker 
say that there were not a dozen men on the Chi- 
cago Hoard of Trade who were there six years 
before. What had become of them? It is the 
custom there to deal in "futures" — to take the 
chance of difference between the price of grain 
at the time of the contract and at the time of 
delivery, and the conseijuence is that many are 
often found short when the call is made. They 
meant to be fair and honest in their deal, but 
when caught between wind and tide the temp- 
tation came to snatch at anything that gave 

promise of relief until all credit was gone and 
they went over the cataract and were soon 
forgotten. Many of our trade customs are like 
those smooth logs of pine we sometimes see ly- 
ing across a deep mountain chasm, with a 
swift, rushing torrent below. A cool-headed, 
strong-nerved man may be able to walk safely 
across the dangerous bridge, and however con- 
scientious he may be, his example may be fatal 
to many not so sure-footed as he. 

Men do not sail directly for the maelstrom . 
They merely intend to go out on a smugglers' 
cruise near shore and are caught in an unex- 
pected squall and driven into the devouring 
abyss. Depths of crime are not reached by 
jumping over a precipice. They are approached 
by sloping paths, down which the ort'ender goes 
step by step. Xor is the backbone of honesty 
broken by one great stroke. It is weakened by 
long-continued, petty dishonesties, and at last, 
when some fine chance presents itself, there is 
not moral strength enough left to resist the 
temptation . Then comes the crash, the dis- 
grace, the popular indignation, and if the of 
fender is not crafty enough to escape, Ihe 
prison door opens before hini, or, as is often the 
case, madness or suicide is his final doom. 

California for Sugar. 

We recently stated that California is now 
looked upon as the possible field for the great- 
est success in the sorghum sugar interest, as it 
has deAionstrated itself to be the only profitable 
field for beet sugar manufacturing. I'rof. H. 
\V. Wiley, the (iovemmeut sugar expert, who 
recently made a flying visit to this .^tate, was 
highly pleased with what he saw, both in the 
direction of sorghum and the beet, and he has 
gone East, to state openly what he learned by 
his observation here. Ite is now established at 
the World's Fair in New Or'eans, and will re- 
main there some time, with the exhibit of the 
Department of Agriculture, to explain what has 
been done in the investigation of the sugar re- 
sources of the country. He recently made an 
address before the Louisiana .Sugar Planters' 
Association, in which he speaks so emphxtically 
and favorably of California as a beet sugar 
State, that Me shall ijuote from his atldress on 
this point, both for the information of our 
readers and our friends abroad, who are con- 
templating investment in promising enterprises 
in this .State. 

First I'rof. Wiley spoke of our beet sugar 
enterprise as follows: 

The experience of the last five years has 
shown that the I'acific .States are best suited to 
the sugar beet industry. The continued suc- 
cess of the factory at Alvar.ado, Cal., is very 
gratifying evidence that the I'acific States have 
climate and soil suitable to their own sugar 
production. This factory, during the campaign 
now it progress, received more than -0,000 
tons of beets — an amount far greater than the 
capacity of the machinery. Tlicse beets gave a 
yield per ton which will compare favorably 
with tlie average yield of beets in Kurope. 

.\t present the California factory is the only 
one in operation in the I'nited States. The 
sugar beet for the highest development of 
sugar must not be allowed to grow large. In 
California, the land of big beets and pumpkins, 
their tendency to overgrowth is checked by 
crowding the plants together. To secure also 
the highest development of sugar, the average 
summer temperature must not exceed 70' F 
On the Tacirtc Coast, the sugar beet thrives 
without irrigation, and the dry, late summer 
and early autumn, are peculiarly favorable to 
the harvest. Large parts of California, Oregon 
and Washington, are blessed with such a 
climate, and also with a soil which lends itself 
readily to the methods of culture necessary to 
beet growth. I believe that with a few years 
more experience, and the best modern machin 
ery, refined beet sugar can be made on the 
Pacific Coast at a cost not exceeding four cents 
a pound. When it is remembered that such 
sugar is worth two cents a pound more there 
than it is in New York or New Orleans, you can 
readily see that its production must prove re- 

To "Slv. Dyer, of Alvarado, Cal., the praise 
must be awarded of working on amid ail these 
difficulties, until final success was reached. 
He, himself, had lost heavily in previous enter- 
prises, but still had faith in ultimate success. 
His factory at Alvarado has had four successful 
campaigns. At present two dangers threaten 
them. Having agreed to take all beets offered 
at a stipulated price of S4.i)0 per ton, they have 
this year, for the first time, received more than 
they can work. After .lanuary the percentage 
of sugar in the beet begins to decline, and by 
May 1st it will probably be so low that further 
work will not pay expenses. But even by this 
time the company is likely to have several thou- 
sand tons of beets on hand, and these will then 
be valueless. The capacity of the factory is 
only SO tons per day, and with nearly 'JOiOOO 

tons of beets now on hand it will be impossible 
to finish them. 

The second danger liet: in the monopoly of the 
sugar trade on the Pacific Coast, possessed by 
one company. I called on Mr. Claus Spreckles 
and was courteously received. He gladly gave 
me all the information about the sugar indus- 
try of the islands for which I asked. He has 
been abused for obtaining a monopoly of the 
P.acific sugar trade, but he has only done what 
any intelligent and industrious business man 
would have done in like circumstances. If he 
so desired he would put the price of sugar so 
low that the beet sugar could not be made at a 
profit. Hut he is not the kind of a man to lose 
a million dollars in order to entail a loss of 
fifty thousand on another. For this reason the 
oeet-sugar men do not fear that their throats 
will be cut in this way. They realize that the 
Hawaiian reciprocity treaty is really for the 
good of the islands, and works only injury to 
this country, but they are not foolish enough to 
blame .Mr. Spreckles for enjoying the benefit of 
it as long as he can. 

The beet sugar industry, however, will have 
a very slow growth. The great losses that 
have attended have made capital conservative, 
and it will be slow to embark on a cruise where 
so many fortunes have been wrecked. I be- 
lieve, however, that with a wise policy of per- 
manent national protection a great industry can 
be built up west of the Sierra that will give 
employment and prosperity to thoasanda of 
American citizens. 

At another time we shall pursue the sugar 
subject farther with some interesting informa- 
tion on the sorghum sugar interest, as, in 
I'rof. Wiley's opinion, it now stands before the 

Convention Reports. 

The publication of the proceedings of the 
recent Irrigation Convention at Fresno has been 
unfortunately delayed, and we are glad it 
results from no fault of ours. The stenographer 
employed by the convention has been somewhat 
out of health, and has, we understand, been 
nnable to prepare his manuscript, ^^'e are 
unable to proceed without "copy," and hence 
the iion-appcaraiuf of the work. We shall 
present it speedily when we are furnished with 
the material. 

The report of the Fruit firowers' Convention 
is now in the hands of the binders, and will be 
issued in a few days. The report is attracting 
Considerable attention, and all who desire the 
pamphlet should send in their orders at once, 
f they have not already done so. < l.-ders now 
on file will be filled in the order received. 
\Vhat is thought of the report may be learned 
from the following sprightly note in a letter by 
Dr. .1. \N'. Gaily, of Watsonville, in the Santa 
Cruz S' nihil I: 

The fruit growers of this State held a conven- 
tion last October, lasting through several days, 
the proceediiies and debates of which were 
oHicially reported by authority of the State 
Koard of Horticulture. I have read a goodly 
portion of the reported proceedings, and J 
challenge any other kind or character »f conven- 
tion in this State to present a more calm, sens- 
ible, dignified, deliberative front to the public. 
The proceedings, of course, may not be perfect, 
I nor is any human expression) but let any per- 
son of common sense, or even of extra sense, 
read the report and, while reading, bear in 
minil that the men whose talk is being read are 
not lawyers, politicians, statesmen nor divines 
-that they are men whose daily avocation is 
not oratory, nor oral argument — and such per- 
son must s.iy, if anything is to be said, that the 
fruit growers of (Jilifornia are a credit to the 
Pacific Slope; not only for their Aanr/icraft, but 
for their ///-K/'/iicraft. 

As I was not pieient at the convention very 
little of the taint of that self-praise which is 
termed half slander, hangs about anything 1 
utter regarding the report. Nor am I advertis- 
ing or "capping" for the P.wim iji k.\i, Prks.s, 
,\o. -'>'2 Market Street, .San Frani;isi o, when 1 
urge every citizen who owns mnj fruit trees to 
scud 'Jr> cents to that address and possess a 
pamphlet copy of "The Fruit (Jrowers' Report." 
The work will be sent to him, or her, for that 
money, and it is worth it though I assume 
that the publishers will derive very little direct 
profit out of it at that price. Further, I wonid 
add that intelligent persons who neither own 
nor control anj' truit trees will find the work of 
interest to them — but I do not know that J 
need to have added this latter, because all 
intelligent residents of the Pacific (Joast .States 
do own one or more fruit trees; or they are 
going to. 

The doctor is right about the profit in pub- 
lishing the report. We publish it for the bene- 
fit of our readers and the horticultural interest 
in general. All we get out of it will be the 
consciousness of well doing, and that is a profit 
certainly, though it doesn't make much of a 
figure on the ledger. 

Bkrksiiirk Sales. In 1883 there were 'JOO 
transfers of recorded Berkshires reported to the 
oflice of the American Berkshire Association, 
In 1884 there were over UOO reported, 

January 10, 1885.] 



Lily of the Colorado. 

Hesperocallis Undulata. 

[Written for Rlral Pkkss by J. G. Lkmmon. J 
"There it is. Oh, how lovely!" exclaimed 
my companion, as the ambulance gained the 
level of the arid plateau. "Stop, driver, I must 
jump right out," she continued. 

It was a stock of half a dozen large, pearly- 
white lilies, rising two feet out of tlie hot, 
barren sand, encircled at base, by a rosette of 
long, large, dark-green wavy-edged leaves. 
< 'ould anything be more surprising to a traveler 
in the midst of the torrid Colorado desert? 

"How is it possible," we queried, "to hnve 
so rank and large a lily in such a torrid, shade- 
iess locality?" Our botanical pick, soon solved 
a part of the mystery: The large, tunicated 
bulb was concealed a foot beneath the sand. 
The meteorological register, at Fort Mahone, 
consulted next day, accounted for the rest of 
the conditions of the phenomenon: No such 
rain-fall as that of last winter had been ex- 
periem;ed on the lower Colorado for eleven 
years, being ten to twelve inches of rain, 
where the usual ((uantity is only 1 .\ inches 

The oldest inhabitant had seen the lilies but 
once before; that was in 187S — eleven years ago. 
Correspondence with one of the original dis- 
coverers, r)r. J. (1. Cooper, of Hay wards, Oal., 
elicited the fact that he discovered it near Kort 
Mohave while he was post-.surgeon there in 
May, 1861 — good twelve more years ago. 
Hence, perhaps, the proper conditions for its 
appearance only recur at long periods connected 
with an unusually rainy season. 

We have found plants over three feet high, 
and counted over sixty blossoms and buds upon 
them, though as many more may appear as the 
stalk elongates, for the plants are in the glory 
of full blooming during a month or six weeks. 
The usual hight, however, is less than two feet, 
with a show of ten to forty blossoms and bud.'i. 

The flowers are often four inches across, but 
generally a little smaller. The lobes are lanceo- 
late and recurved, like a Turk's cap, and 
brilliantly white, with a greenish-purple mid- 

Milk-white when first opened and during the 
day, they become pearly-white and delicately 
semi-transparent towards and during the even- 
ing, the time of greatest beauty; the lovely fairy 
bells finally folding their discolored drapery at 
midnight, to be surmounted by others as fair 
appearing every morning; hence the eminent 
appropriateness of the generic name — Hespero- 
callis, " Evening Beauty." 

On large plants four to six flowers mature at 
once, and during all the time of their ex- 
pansion, especially in the evening, they give off 
abundance of sweet perfume, reminding one of 
Cray's line — 

"Wasting their sweetness on the desert air, " 

The seed vessels formed in time, are ovoid 
and three-angled, about an inch in length, the 
three large cells packed with double rows of 
flattened, black seeds, the latter, no doubt, 
possessed of great vitality, since they must 
often endure many years of excessive drought 
before getting a chance to germinate. The 
leaves of the desert lily are mostly all disposed 
in a large whorl lying flat on the ground, around 
the upright tree. They are a foot to 15 inches 
long, one-half to one inch wide, fleshy, keeled 
on the back and with undulate or wavy margins 
for their whole length, suggested to Dr. Cray, 
the appropriate specific name of unduiatu. 

The bulbs are close tunicated, a half to one 
and one-half inches in diameter, buried very 
deeo in the earth, circumstances that prevent 
tbeir destruction by the torrid heat, also their 
being much used as food by the Indians, though 
Kthulia, the name given to this lily by the Mo 
have tribe, are industriously mined for by the 
squaws, when mesquite beans are scarce. 

A character of these bulbs presents a very 
interesting study for the miscroscopist. Spiral 
threads are close coiled in tubular vessels of the 
tunicated enveloprs. These can readily be seen 
by cutting a bulb partially across, horizontally, 
then tearing the remainder part around; tlie 
threads will be uncoiled from their cases, and 
they are so long that the segments of the bulb 
may be separated a year or more before the 
threads will be snapped. They are also so 
numerous and strong, that those of a medium- 
sized bulb will sustain a weight of several 


The Hi .s/x ro'-allh is dispersed in small patches 
on certain dry tables along the lower Colorado, 
from Yuma to Fort Mohave, being especially 
abundant near Calico, where a large area was 
this season white with lovely lilies for several 

When we consider all the peculiar circum- 
fltances attending the growth of this plant, per- 
haps it is not surprising that it should be alone 
in the world. It is the solitary type of a very 
4i8tinct genus of lilies, its nearest ally being 
the famous Indian food called -'Comass," abun- 
dant in the meadows of the northwestern States 
and Territories. 

It is now, I believe, an ^cceptfsd theory of 

botanists, that plants, in the unceasing warfare 
of races, do not hold their peculiar native ground 
so much from choice as from necessity. They 
are forced into their places by the encroach- 
ments of others, or environments of climate, 
soil, etc., for which at first they have inherent 
adaptation, but where in time they must often 
undergo material modification, and render them 
able to resist unfavorable conditions that are 
sure to arise. 

Hence, during all their struggle for exist- 
ence, plants are always willing to exchange 
their habitat for a better one. 

Man, by his intelligent cultivation, fosters 
certain plants and destroys their enemies. So 
the climate, soil, etc., of plants may often be 
vastly changed, as by removal from a dense for- 
est or bleak desert to the florist's garden or 
conservatory, where the foundlings may flour- 
ish immeasurably better than at home. 

I'erhaps this desert lily of the Colorado may 

An Auger for Tree Holes. 

The disposition toward orchard planting in 
this State is naturally bringing out many 
inventions which aim to aid the horticulturist 
in his work. One of the most interesting im- 
plements is one shown in the engraving on this 

A new device for boring holes in the ground 
for planting trees or posts was lately patented 
by C. de ^Mezerville, through Uewey i*!: Co.'s 

The device consists of a vehicle mounted on 
wheels, and upon the center of the body is a 
transverse plate, having in its center a flanged 
socket. A nut has oppositely extending arms 
with sockets. The nut has a downwardly pro- 
jecting neck fitting through the top of the 
flanged socket and a flange lying within the 


become a general favorite under proper cultiva- 
tion. That the experiment may be made, 100 
bulbs and a quantity of seed have been secured 
for planting out in California. 

He.vt CoNurcTiviTY 01' Soils. — The author's 
conclusions are that the heat conductivity of a 
soil is so much the greater, the more densely its 
particles are packed together. The difi"erence 
thus occasioned is the more considera))le, the 
higher the proportion of water. In a dry soil 
the heat conduction rises with an increase in 
the size of the particles of the soil. Water in- 

latter, by which the nut may turn freely, and 
yet'cannot rise from its bearing. 

The shank of the auger is made in the form 
of a screw, and passes down through the nut 
and the plate. A washer is feathered upon the 
screw shank, and lies just above the nut. It 
has oppositely projecting arms having sockets. 
A pole has a singletree upon its end by which 
the horse is attached to it. 

The practical operation of the device is as 

I The inner end of the pole is inserted in one of 
I the sockets of the washer, and the horse is 
' made to travel in a direction required to turn 


creases the conductivity of the soil consider- 
ably, the more, the larger its proportion in the 
soil, the circumstances being eijual. — Dr. F. 

TiiK FuKNiTURE Interest in the United 
States is a very important one. Three years 
ago in New Xork it amounted to ."{OO factories 
and a product of neariy .$10,000,000. Cincin- 
nati had llOfactories. withaproductof .'ii!4,.'')00,- 
000. Chicago turned out above .^6, 000, 000, 
Fhiladelphia,$r),000,000,and Boston,iS4,000,000. 

Kk'FK.cTs OK Si'N-Si'oTs. — In 18.S9 a magnetic 
storm of unprecedented magnitude continued 
from August 'ZSth to September 7th. Prof. 
Balfour Stewart has pointed out that this was 
synonymous with the period of maximum activ- 
ity of fine of tlie largest sun spots ever ob- 
sorved. ^ 

the screw down through the nut, which, being 
anchored, remains in the same plane, wliile the 
screw passes down through it, and its auger 
bores into the earth, 'I'o raise the auger the 
pole is removed from the washers and inserted 
in one of the sockets of the nut, and the driving 
is continued in the same direction. The screw 
now rises through the nut. 

This machine is very simple in its manage- 
ment, and it is claimed that it will bore over 
:iOO lioles in ten hours. It will work in any 
kind of soil very easily, and even in the hard- 
est ground it has been found to oper.ate rapidly 
and with comparative ease. 

The invention will, no doubt, attract the at- 
tention of tree planters, with whom the digging 
of tree holes is quite an item of expense. The 
tree-hole auger is iii the hands of Truman, 
Isham & Co., of San Krancisco, who yriW give 
any information desired concerning it, 

A National Need, 

This country has reached a point where what 
is required for constant and continued develop- 
ment and 'prosperity is an enlarged foreign 
market. To obtain this we should learn what 
every market in the world requires and can 
pay for. Our foreign consuls, if intelligent and 
properly directed, will give us this information. 
Then we must have constant, speedy and 
economical means of transportation to each of 
these markets. Our treaties with other nations 
must be so adjusted as to enable our goods to 
enter their ports on favorable terms. Our tariET, 
when changed, should be altered in the interest 
of home manufacturers, home labor and home 
capital - not foreign. The most important 
branch of (Tovernment, in relation to the above 
matters, is the United States Senate. This 
body can outline and control the policy of the 
Uovernment in such a manner as to continue, 
and still further, build up our great national 
industries in the interest of home labor. Will 
it do so? 

We liave reached the point now in industrial 
development where it is entirely practicable 
to supply ourselves fully, without importing 
the products of foreign mills, and yet leave a 
large surplus for export. Notwithstanding this 
it appears by the report of the Secretary of the 
Treasury that during the last fiscal year we 
imported $180,000,000 worth of manufactures 
of iron, steel, cotton, wool, silk and jute, — all 
of which could as well be made here; and, under 
a proper adjustment of the tariff, it made here, 
would soon, by domestic competition, be much 
cheaper than when imported as now; and our 
own mills and opeiatives would not, as now, be 
idle. l>o our working people understand that 
the ^;180,000,000 worth of goods, which we 
import annually and which, under proper legis- 
lation, might all be manufactured at home, if 
made in this country would give employment to 
180,000 hands, to say nothing of the vastly 
greater number directly dependent upon them, 
who, by their labor, would receive support and 
enjoy comfortable and happy homes? All the 
now idle population of the country could find 
full employment and generous support if we 
expended at home the §180,000,000 which are 
now sent abroad every year. 

Of course, home manufacturers are dependent 
largely upon the manner in which our tariff' 
laws are adjusted. At present wo are handi- 
capped in all directions, and practically pro- 
hibited from entering to advantage the inter- 
national markets. There is such a thing as 
over-protection, for the benefit of the rich, and 
such a thing as under-protection, to the disad- 
vantage of both rich and poor; but what we 
want is a happy medium, by which the capital- 
ist may make a profitable use of his money in 
manufacturing enterprises, and the poor find a 
plenty of work at remunerative prices. No one 
questions but what such results can be obtained 
if our national legislators will only act honestly 
and for the benefit of the whole country, 
instead of for that of a favored few. 

In oriler to have this vexed question of tarifl'a 
satisfactorily settled, there should be a com- 
mission appointed, in which all parties should 
be represented by the best and most intelligent 
men of each, for the purpose of prosecuting an 
inquiry into the subject, in all its bearings, 
comprehensively and impartially. Such a com- 
mission should be composed of men of enlarged 
and liberal views — not wedded to either pro- 
tective or free trade principles — but of such as 
are capable of, and would be inclined to, study 
the question solely on its merits. 

There is no doubt but that such a commission 
might evolve a system which would not only 
set our idle men to work for a more full supply 
of our home markets, but also greatly enlarge 
our foreign trade. Such a system, if properly 
enunciated, would commend itself to the better 
portion of all classes in Congress, and would be 
adopted by acclamation. No administration 
ever came into power under such favorable 
circumstances for honest and popular action in 
this matter as the one which will take upon 
itself the conduct of afl'airs from and after the 
4th March next. Let us hope that opportunity 
will not be overlooked or neglected. There 
should be no unnecessary delay. The indus- 
tries of the country just now are in a deplorable 
condition. Hut few people are making money, 
except the bankers, the brokers, tho brewers, 
wine-sellers, and a fevy speculators, lawyers and 

[January JO, ISS') 


The Prune.— No, 1. 

, Written (ur Iti RAL TKiMt bv Kki.i.\ Gillkt. I 

The Petite Prune d'Agen. 
When, last spring, 1 undertook to investigate 
the Petite Prune d'Agen, and tind out what 
variety of prune it really is and where it orig- 
inated, and when, more recently, I started in 
the Press that discussion on the wrong nomen- 
clature of the prune in (California, I certainly 
thought, that with the help of some of the l)est 
posted poniologists and prune merchants of 
France, to whom I addressed myself to obtain 

the light I was after, the job I had undertaken selves on the best kinds of prunes to raist, or 
was a light one. Rut I soon discovered that l>etter adapted to our various soils, climates, 
the prune nomenclature was also in a perplex- altitudes, etc. ; the best modes of cultivatin;L; 
ing condition in its very home, France, and that and pruning, and the best methods of curing, 
more time was rei^uired to enable me to draw packing and preserving. 

definite conclusions as to th« genuineness of Hiving all that precedes as an introduction to 
thi.'i or that kind, and more particularly our , niy subject, which I intend to treat in the col- 
Petite Prune d'Agen; so I concluded to put the ' umns of the Pkks.< in several and separate num- 
matter right into the hands of the National So- , bers, 1 will proceed first by discussing the 

now Servia and Bulgaria are coming to the 
front, making quite an opposition to the raisers 
of that "Common prune," and exporting large 
i|uantitie8 of theirs to the same countries. Thid 
signifies that the prune business in Kurope is 
increasing wonderfully every year, having al- 
most tripled during the last 2.") years. 

Xow a iiuestion: Why wouldn't California, 
the boasted fruit land of America, and which is 
so splendidly adapted to that industry, try to 
supply that immense territory east of her, the 
United States and (,'anada with that delicious 
<lrie<l fruit; and besides export to other coun- 
tries her cured prunes, which she run raise 
liere as perfect, rich and tine as those 
of the most privileged countries on the sur- 
face of the globe There is in the prune 
business an immense future for California, and 
1 am satisfied that all sensible people will 
agree wi h me on that proposition. Hut, 
I will add, we will have first to post our- 

ciety of Horticulture of France, whose mem- ■ 
btrs l>eing scattered all over that country, a ; 
good many in both prune districts, were there- , 
fore better able to investigate the subject more j 
closely, and thus enable the society to decide I 
intelligently on a juestion as important to them 
there as it is to us here. i 

Magnitude of the Prune Industry. j 

My repeated inquiries in regard to the sev- 

Petite Prune d'Agen. 

I presume that by this time the readers of 
the Pkkss are satisfied that this prune, what- 
ever kind it may be, has been misnamed, and 
that the word "Petite" has been wrongly, 
though perhaps properly, given to it. I have 
not found a poniologist, or nurseryman, or 
prune merchant, in France that ever heard of a 
Petite or Grosse Prune d'Agen. Thay know in 
eral "kinds of p/unes cultivateil and grown in j that country but one kind of Prune d'.\gen, 
France, and the prune industry in general, have that is the J'rune d'Katc or Kobe de .Sergent, 
apparently rather alarmed prune growers and also called iMtte Violette. (The Hriguoles 
merchants there, so sensitive are they now-a- Prune is the Ued Perdigron cured in Provence 
days on a question so vital to their interests. ; in a certain manner, and in the town of that 
It has also made the French nu iserymcn change name; but it is not a synonym of the Prune 
their old type of "Prune d'Agen" for a purer d'.Vgen, as wrongly sta ed by a tree dealer of 
one. It has, in the third place, enabled me to Orleans, in a let er to Mr. W. Iv Sibley, as 
get an insight into the magnitude of the prune : published in the Pkess .some lime ago.) Now, 
industry, which 1 must confess, 1 never had | how has the Petite Prune d'.\gen got to be 
any idea of. j named "Petite"? is a ijuestion that I am able to 

The port of Bordeaux alone, as is shown by j answer, thanks to Mr. .lohn Hock, the well 
custom house .statistics, is exporting over three known horticulturist and nurseryman of .San 
millions of dollars' worth of Prune d'Agen ! Jose, to whom I applied for data concerning 
annually, mostly to the United State.", (ireat ' that prune, and who kindly furnished me with 
Britain, (icrmany, llusaia, Holland and Hcl- | it, sending along at the same time tine samples 
gium. I have had no figures yet on the amount i of prunes from Santa Clara county, 
shipped from Marseilles and other poits, .nnd j The pioneer nurseryman of the Santa Clara 
direct through railroads to Paris, the interior I valley, Louis Pellier, had two brothers coming 
of France, and foreign countries; and 1 will a<id ' fro'u France, .Jean and Pierre, and he instructed 

that it is very hard to get at such figures 

Apropos the prunes imported to this coun- 
try from Bordeaux under the name of Prune 
d'Knte No. 2, they are nothing else but prunes of 
the "sixth grade," what is called in France 
"one-half choice," or "first choice for exporta- 
tion.'' It is a small prune, taking SO to S2 to a 
pound of .lOO grammes ( IS .American ounces), 
packed in fancy canisters. Th" gowl people of 
San Francisco are made to pay i\ pi:r cannister 
of two and one-quarter pounds Some of our 
experts might wonder at the small si/e of the 

?rnne, but never mind, for that's what in 
'ranee they call first choice I'vr rxporta- 

lion: or good enough for the American palate 
and high tariB'. ^Vhat a lesson for our people 1 
To give your readers an idea of the magni- 
tude of the prune business in France, I will 
here state that the d'Knte and common prunes 
are cultivated in six departments, chiefly in 
those of Lot-Ft tiaronne, l.,ot and Tarn- Kt • ia 
ronne; in other words, in the valleys of the <la- 
ronne and Lot. In the latter valley the produc- 
tion of prunes reaches from seven to nine mil- 
lions of dollars annually. In the department [ 
of Lot- Kt-( i a ronne alone, so writes to me the' 
president of Cowm- .1, ,,■;,■„/< of .\gen, there are 
more than 1,200,000 prune trees. In the valley 
of the Lot the prune orchards cover an area of 
about oO miles in diameter, says another of my 
informants from ^■illeneuve, the largest single 
orchards comprising from 2,000 to 2,.")00 trees. 
.A. firm at, in Lot-Kt-(;aronne, ships 
annnally almost one million <lollars worth of 
prunes, wnile the branch of the Bank of France 
at Agen, through these prune transactions, ban 
dies over four millions of dollars. 

The other prune district, that or the valley 
of the Loire, is not by far so importart as that 
of the (Jaronne. There the Prune d'Agen does 
not give very good results, while the St. Cath- 
erine, propagated,/Vn»r d'- i>;f,l (true from the 
root), yields splendid crops of very nice prunes, 
not quite so soft as the <l'Kntes, but as nch. 
The prune business in that valley is carried on 
in three departments, viz.: Indre-Et- Loire, \'i- 
ennc and Maine-Kt-Loire. The center of the 
.St. Catherine prune district is Chinon and llu- 

them to bring the Prune d'Agen in the shape of 
grafts, directing them where to get them. 
They am veil in .San .Jose in IS.Vi with the 
grafts, including ninny other fruits, like pears 
and apples. One was nanied "Petite" prune 
d'.\gen, and another "Crosse" Prune d'Agen. 
The Grosse prune p - oved to be the Hungarian, 
or, as it is more properly called, says .Mr. 
Rock, iKnglish) Pond's Seedling. The value of 
the Petite prune was soon known, and it has 
ever since been extensively planted . According 
to Mr. Rock's estimate, this year's crop in 
.Santa Clara county alone amounts to two hun- 
dred tons of dried prunes. .Such figures tell 
better than words in favor of prune raising. 

Thus it is shown that the name of I'etite 
prune was given to a varietyof the Prune .I'Ageu, 
to distinguish it from another, incorrectly 
called (irosse Prune d'Agen, and which, as 
stated by Mr. Itock, was nothing else but the 
Hungarian or Pond's Seedling. So much for 
the history of the introduction of the Petite 
Prune d'Agen in (Jalifornia, and the giving to it 
of the name "Petite." 

Quality of the Fruit 

As I wanted to be sure that the Petite prune 
I had upon my place, and obtained years ago 
from Fox's nurseries in San .Jose, was the gen- 
uine one — that is, the same Petite prune as 
that so extensively cultivated throughout the 
.State — I sent samples of the green fruit and 
leaves to several parties in California, jn«t to 
ascertain. They all pronounced it genuine, or 
similar to theirs. On the other hand, I sent 
for samples of prunes, leaves and wood of the 
Petite prune to nine difTerent counties in Cali- 
fornia; and I will here publicly thank Messrs. 
S. F. Chapin and .lohn Rock of San .Jose, Leo- 
nard < 'oates of Napa, C. H. I>winelle of Berke- 
ley, A. T. Hatch of Cordelia, C. .M. Silva of 
Placer, Robt. Williamson of Sicramento, .fudge 
.J. H. Logan of .Santa Cruz, I. R. Totman of 
Colu.^a, Wm. H. .Jessup of Haywards, and oth- 
ers, for their kindness in supplying me with 
samples of the fruit, leaves and wood of their 
Petite prune, so as to enable me to study more 
closely that kind, and compare it with my vari- 

wnies, in the department of Indre-Kt- Loire. In i ous Prunes d'Agen, as importfd from France 
fact Chinon 18 to the St. Catherine prune dis- I must say that I was agreably surprised at 
tnct what Agen is to the d'Knte district the } the nice samples sent of that pruup, and which 
entrepot or shipping place of the prunes raised \ proved tome that our wretched nielh. .1 of cur- 
in the valley of the Loire. ing had been considerably improved upon all 

ine merchants of Agen complain bitterly, I round; though I yet stick to the word 
and with cause, of immense quantities of I "wretched", for I have never seen in our stores 
prunes Deing imported m Paris from Austria such nice prunes as those sent me by the gentle- 
ana Hungary, and sold there by the Paris mer- men whose names I mentioned above. In some 

chants tor i runes d Aeen. though iiif.>rif.r in ;„=fo.,.„o fk„ „„„ X find in stores are as hard 

: cooked to be eaten. The 

chants fori runes d Agen, though inferior in instances the prunes I 
quality to the latter. I wonder if the "French" as wood, having to be 
prunes imported and sold in San Francisco at " 
^^I per canister of 2| pounds. In-long to that 
class of prunes? 

In the valley of the < Jaronne, they raise also 
largo quantities of the "Common prune," a 
fiAall, rather acid prune, which is mostly ex- 
ported to Canftda, .SwPdoij and Norway, put 

finest samples sent to me were from Solano and 
Placer counties. Mr. Hatch sent me almost 
green prunes which I cured here, and found 

As to flavor and quality, they were all pretty 
much alike, sweet and well-Havored; about their 
preserving qualities, though, I could'nt tell 
anything. I do not hesitate for one, in proclaim- 
ing such prunes as (|uite an improvement on 
the ()th grade of French prunes imported in this 
country under the name of "Prune d'Knte, 
No. 2." The pits of all those samples were ex 
actly alike, and the same as that of my own 
Petite prune; only the pits of mine were not so 
free as those of the others. The freest pits I 
found to be with the prunes from .Santa ( 'lara 
county. In color, there was, however, a strik- 
ing ditlerence. due, likely, to the fruit being of 
a rosy color here, and violet there. The sam- 
ples sent by Dr. Chapin were the lightest in 
color, in fact of a light yellow; the darkest were 
my own and those from .\!r. Hatch. The 
wrinkles of the skin were quite numerous in the 
prunes from Colusa, Napa, Santa Clara, Santa 
Cruz and Alameda, but fewer and broader 
in those from Solano and my own. The pulp 
of all those prunes was of a fine yellow, and 
(juite sweet. 1 found the pistillary point in the 
samples from Solano, Napa and Colusa, (juite 
conspicious and large, while with the samples 
from Santa Clara and my own, it was very small. 
With the Prune d'Knte, that pistillary point, is 
very small, and of a golden hue. 

The Tree. 'Wood, and Leaves. 
I will now give a botanical description of the 
wood and leaves of the Petite prune; but I will 
beg your readers to be indulgent, for I do not 
profess to discuss horticultural topics from 
scientific standpoint. I am not a scientific 
pomologist. I use simple language, for all I care 
is, not to make a show of my little science, but 
to be clearly and distinctly understood by your 
readers, most of whom are, like myself, more 
used to plain language than to high-sounding 
sentences and Latin i|UOtations. There is also 
a point upon which I would call the attention 
of the horticultural public, that is that no tree, 
for being planted at difl'erent altitudes or in 
difTerent soils, would change materially its bo 
tanical characteristics, exci'pt the size, quality 
and yield of the fruit. As to the color of the 
wood, shape of the leaves, color of leaf petioles 
smoothness of same, convexity or undulation of 
leaves, size, shape and position of buds, shape of 
fruit and pit, etc , all those main characteristics 
would remain the same, provided, of course, 
that the trees be propagated "true from th 
root" or "grafted, " and not from the "seed. 
It is going a little too far in trying to explain 
ditTercnces in kinds, as being caused by alti 
tude, soil, climate, rain, sunshine and the like 
when such difl'erences, wherever they occur, 
are really due to difference in "types 

I have right before me in writing these lines, 
on my bureau, for comparison, scions of our 
Petite prune and scions of the true d'Knte or 
d'Agen received a few days ago from the valley 
of the Lot, in France, the very center of the 
Prune d'Agen district, and leaves of both. 
The young wood of the Petite prune is what 1 
would call of a rosy maroon color, veined with 
with white lines and dots, and smooth. The 
smaller twigs are more violet, with hardly any 
w'lite dots. The buds are medium size, short, 
and far apart, from 1 1 to \\ inches on large 
wood — nearer together on smaller twigs, or the 
upper parts of long shoo's. I find the wood of 
the Lot d'Knte pretty much alike, while that 
of the d'Agen trees, obtained from the nurseries 
of the valley of the Loire, i-s difTerent. The buds, 
though being likewise medium size, and short, 
are nearer togetlnr, .md laj'ing almost flat 
alongside the wood. With the Petite prune 
.and I..ot d'Knte, the buds are sticking out at an 
angle of W degrees to -4") degrees. The leaves 
of the young twigs are of a broad oval, irregu 
larly toothed, and of a light green, with petioles 
V inch long to an inch, very .slightly hairy, and 
of a winish red, extending sometimes half 
way under the limb of the leaf. The limb 
is three by two inches long; a character- 
istic of the largest leaves, is to be convex above 
the long and principal nerves, a characteristic 
that seems to exist with the leaves of the Lot 
d'FvDte, but not with those of the trees from 
the Loire, whose leaves are of a more elongated 
oval, not at all similar to those of our Petite 
prune. The leaves of the fruit branches, are a 
great deal smaller, of an elgongated ovate, and 
even obovate or the narrow end downward. In 
the minute description given of the leaves of 
the Prune d'Agen, in the great work "Le 
Verger," by .M. Mas, I find two important 
characteristics of that prune, which I fail to 
find in either our Petite prune and my Loire 
varieties of the Prune d'Agen. They are:,a 
slight undulation of the edges of the leaves in 
stead of a convexity, a description which cor 
responds only to the leaves of my old Prune 
d'Knte, or rather, "Houble Kobe," as I 
have since ascertained the true name 
Secondly, the presence on most of the leaves 
las I find only on those of the Double Robe) of 
two yellow, globular glands inserted on the 
petiole, fight at the base of the limb. On some 
leaves of the Petite prune, such glands, of a 
greenish yellow, may be seen, but not so dis 
tinctly and as yellow as on the leaves of the 
Double Kobe. 

The fruit of the Petite prune, is of small to 
medium, of an elongated oval in some places 
pyriforni in others. The largest Petite prune I 
ever raised, weighed 1 | ounces, while I raised 
Double Robes as large as an egg (2'| ounces) 
The pnlp is yellow, very sweet, juicy and deli 

them to make a No. 1 article. An important cate; the suture is slight; the peduncle V of »n 
charaoteristio of Mr. Hatch's Petite prune is to inch long, 

keep ioft after being cured, as I found with I find my Petite prune the easiest prune to 
jioDfl of the other samples including my OM-n. I cure, the pulp being rather firm, though that 

might be a defect at the same time, as it ren- 
ders the prune, when cured, rather hard. The 
color of my own Petite prune is deep violet, 
with very heavv bloom; but that of the Petite 
prune of Napa, Pk'ano, Santa Clara and other 
places, is red, or of a reddish violet, which ac- 
counts for the light color of the cured article, I 
presume. A light color is a defect in prunes, 
or is regarded as such. The true Prune d'Agen 
is said to be sprinkled with little dots of a 
darker color, but I have been unable yet to dis- 
tinguish any on my own Petite prune, neither 
did I see any on the samples from Mr. Hatch, 
of Solano. But Mr. Coates, of Napa, says he 
has seen some on his own. 

The pits of all the samples of the Petite 
prunes sent to me were exactly of the same 
shape; that is, oval, obtuse, rather smooth, and 
a little convex; it answers very well the de- 
scription of that of the Prune d'.\gen or d'F'.nte. 

About the time of ripening: My own Petite 
])rune ripens late, fully three weeks after my 
double Itobe, but I am told that in other parts 
of the State, it ripens comparatively earlier. All 
those points and ditTerences, though, will be 
better determined by next fall, when our horti- 
culturists' attention will have been called to it, 
and a committee appointed to that effect by the 
State Horticultural Society, as properly sug- 
gested by Mr. Leonard Coates. 

I will state here that my bearing Prune 
d'Agen Double, or Double Robe, of which I 
sent a sample to the, weighing two 
and three i^uarters ounces green, is a difTerent 
type altogether from oui Petite Prune, or 
Prune d'Agen from the Loire or TiOt; wood, 
leaves, frnit — all in it is different. 

Since my last letter t» the Pkk.s.s, I have re- 
ceived samples of curetl prunes from the prune 
distiicts in France. Some of them, from the 
valley of the Lot, were the most magnificent 
prunes I ever saw, weighing three-quarters of 
ounce. They were sent to meas Prune d'F.Q'e of 
the first grade or, as they call it out there, iin- 
' /• ih iir, or 2."i to a pound of ."lOO grammes 
( bS American ounces). Next to thatgrade is the 
iiiijirrinl' , then the "extra choice," then "first 
choice for exportation" — those li:tle things 
shipped to this country in zinc canisters. ( I will 
send you samples, to show people down there 
what is called iDi/ifriuli jtcnr in France, as soon 
as the balance of the samples I expect will have 
arrived.) Those first grade prunes sell in bulk 
at Agen, (i francs (SI. 201" a kilogram (2} 
pounds): Die ''common" prune sells in bulk, ."lO 
centimes 1 10 cents) a kilogram. The first, sec- 
ond and third grades are not shipped at all to 
this country, but to Paris, I^ondou, and such 
places, where there is no high tarifi' in the way, 
.and where big purses reside. 

The Petite Prune in France. 

As I have already told your readers in a 
pievious article, I sent last spring grafts of my 
I'etite prune to .Mr. H. Chatenay, a leading 
horti-ulturist of the valley of the Loire, who 
cultivates on his place the same type of Prune 
d'Agen as is cultivated and propagated in the 
nurseries in that valley, as those of .-Vngers, 
Orleans, Tours, etc. .Mr. Chatenay wrote to 
me last summer about the trees that he obtained 
from the grafts sent to him. Said he: "It is not 
at all the same kind of Prune d'Agen that we 
cultivate here; it looks like Perdigron violet, 
but when the wood ripens 1 will be better able 
to tell." 

In the meantime, as soon as the fruit on my 
trees had reached its full size, I sent samples of 
it, green, in tin boxes and p,-icked in bran, to 
Messrs. H. Chatenay, of the Loire district, A. 
Naissant, of Agen, Ch. .lolly, vice-president of 
the National Society of Horticulture of France 
and .lacquemet & Bonnefont, of Annonay, who 
had furnished me with my eld Prune d'Agen, 
or rather Double Rol>e. I am now in possession 
of all the answers to my in(|uirics accompany- 
ng the sending of those samples of Petite prune 
anil leaves, but before giving them to your 
readers I wish to lay before them a letter of 
Mr. W. B. West, of Stockton, to .ludge .1. H. 
Logan, of .Santa Cruz, and I trust that there is 
no indiscretion on my part in giving to the 
public a letter not addressed to me. Every 
horticulturist in California has heard of Mr. 
M'est, who may be justly regarded M one of 
our best authorities in horticulture, and whose 
opinions in such matters carry weight with 
them. Says Mr. West: 

"1 visited thr prune districts of France in 1878. 
The subject of varieties was closely investigated, and 
theie was only one variety was recognized as 
the best, and it was called "Prune d'Agen;" Robe 
de Sergenl and Prune d'Knte are only synonyms. 
There ar- no prunes grown at Tours now; 1 was 
told in Paris that I w^uld see the business there, 
but on reacliing lours I was told to go to Bor- 
deau\. When 1 got there. I was told logo to .^gen 
to see the true prune country. 1 went there and 
saw all th it 1 wanted to see in that neighborhood. 
There arc orchards Hordeai'x in which the 
prune is grown; the v.iriely called best is the saiiie 
in all. There are other kinds grown in limited qiian- 
;ities in all places. I had a good opportunity to 
judge of varieties as the fruit was fresh and ripe, 
and my long experience as a nurseryman enabled 
me to judge the trees by their grow th, habits, etc. 
The prunes are dried by the growers, but the pack- 
ing and assorting is done by the wholesale mer- 
chants. It is there that the largest ones are selected 
and packed in fancy boxes. 1 think that the crop 
they grow being less in amount than ours, the size 
of the fruit is better. Oars .always overbear; it i.s a 
fact that theirs arc larger than ours. I imported 
trees of Prune d'.Agen from Orleans in 187.). They 
have been bearing six years, and do not seem to be 
different from our old vaiiety, I think the kind 
grown in this State as the French prune Is the true 
kind ahhough others differ with mr. Thf «i«e oh; 

January 10. IHSr).] 


tained in France is owing to the fact that the trees 
are prevented from bearing heavy crops by various 
climatic accidents. " 

In regard to the Loire prune district, Mr. 
West was certainly badly hoaxed; had he been 
dirfected to go to Chinon, Huismes, Saumur, 
etc., in the department of Indre Et- Loire, 
\'ienne and Maine-EtLoire, he would 
have found there an extensive prune dis- 
trict, though not by far so important as that of 
the d'Agen district. It is to be regretted, too, 
that Mr. West, while at Agen, did not go to the 
valley of the l^ot, the center of the prune 
d'Agen district. 

Mr. Ch. Jolly, vice-president of the National 
.Society of Horticulture of France, propounded 
the rjuestion to two of the leading members of 
tliat Society, Mr. Gh. Baltet, of Troyes, author 
of a new and very good treatise just published, 
on the "Culture of Fruit Trees," and of other 
works, and to Mr. J. Jamin, author of the 
"I5est Varieties of Fruit to flultivate." 

Mr. Baltet, after calling the attention of the 
Society to that capital point, viz, the rapid 
growth of the speculative fruit trade in North 
America, that bids nothing good to that of 
Europe, says: 

The I'etite prune d'.\g->n. of uhich .Mr. l''eli\ Gil- 
let desires to know honieihing definite about, 
is, I believe, what we call here the Faux-Agen (False- 
Agen). We call it "fal?e," so as to dis- 
tinguish it from the "true" kin 1. It was sent to us 
years ago, under the name of I'rune d'Agen, and we 
cultivated it under that name; but it is little known 
in the Agenese district. 

The Perdigron, with whose fruit are manufactu.'ed 
the Brignoles or I'istoles, in Provence, is round, in- 
clining to oval, and certainly different of the Petite 
prune from California. 

Mr. J. Jamin writes only this: 

The Prune d'Agen, or d'Knte, or Robe de Ser- 
gent, is not ovoid or egg-shaped; it is regularly 
elongated or slendering from the center to ends. 
There are in the d'Agen district lots of false varieties 
of the Prune d'Agen. Perhaps Mr. Gillf t didn't 
get tlie true kind. In regard to the St. Catherine 
prune, no mistake can be made, as it is a prune 
with a yellow skin; it is the Perdigron violet that is 
very large and ovoid. 

I will beg your readers to pay particular 
attention to the description of the I'rune 
d'Agen from those various sources. It is really 
curious to compare them, and no doubt 
there are in France various "types" of that 
famous prune. 

Messrs. Jacc|ucmet it Bonuefon*-, owners of 
the largest horticltural establishment in France, 
and the very parties who furnished me with 
the Prune d'Agen— that kind that bore such 
large fruit — write as follows: 

"We have just received your samples of prunes 
and leaves. We have gone right under our mother 
trees of the Prune d'Agen, with leaves and green 
fruit of yor.r Petite prune in hand, to make com- 
parisons; there is no resemblance between the two 
kinds. It is, however, the same shaped fruit, but 
the true Prune d'Agen is larger, and more regularly 
ovoid, and ripens a great deal earlier — from the 
latter part of August to the beginning of September. 
\ ery likely that your Petite prune was originated 
from the seed of a Prune d'.'Xgen, whose type has 
been more or less truly reproduced. We answer 
yon that the kind we furnished you wao the gen\iine 
Prune d'.^gen." 

In another letter to them, in regard this time 
to that very Prune d'Agen obtained from them, 
i sent Messrs. Jacqueniet tk Bonnefont a photo- 
graph of the prune grown on that tree, and pit 
of the same. Here is their answer: 

"'I'he prune that you gathered upon the tree ob- 
tained from us, is the "Prune d'Agen Double," 
originated by Mr. Simon Lones, Sr., of Metz. The 
foreman of our Fruit F)epartment tells us that lie 
}iad this kind budded in preference to the old one, 
on account of the fruit being so much larger, every- 
thing else being exactly the same." 

Thus was explained to me that peculiarity of 
this kind, a good many of the prunes being 
"double;" and I didn't know whether that was 
a quality or defect. 

Mr. H. Chatenay, of the Loire district, 
writes on October 14th; 

1 have received ^our green samples of Petite Prune 
d'Agen. 1 cannot tell whether that variety is known 
in the l^ot-lit-Garonne, but what I am (lerfeclly sure 
is, that that prune is neither similar or identical to 
the Prune d'Agen or Robe de .Sergent that I sent 
vou, and which \ ariety of the Prune d'Ag'^n we cul- 
tivate in this valley. The wood of yours is shorter, 
less red and less bright, and the buds sticking out so 
much more, though I admit that there is a certain 
relation between the two. The widest difference is 
in the fruit. Our Prune d'.Agen is much larger than 
the samples of your Petite Prune; then ours is rose or 
bright red, while yours is deep violet. The Prune 
d'Agen, besides, is much more elongated in shape. 
Vour Petite Prune is not either the Perdigron Violet. 
.Now that the wood of your Petite Prune is well 
ripened, I see quite a difference. Your Petite Prune 
is probably a bad reproduction from the seed of the 
true Prune d'Agen. In the nurseries of Angers, 
Tours and Orleans, they cultivate the same Prune 
d'.\gen that I do. ^^y own was obtained from 
A.gen. It is easy to tell at once the Prune d'.\gen, 
through a simple inspection of the wood. The leaves 
you sent me (they were from my Double Robe, F. 
G. ) are not at all similar to those of mine." 

In the meantime I had directed Mr. Chate- 
nay to send to the valley of the Lot, the center 
of the Prune d'Agen district, for scions, leaves 
and fruit (cured) of the true Prune d'Agen or 
d'Ente, which Mr. Chatenay received in time, 
and which reached me a week ago. Here is 
what Mr. Chatenay had to say this time : 

"In regard to the identitv of the Prune d'Agen, I 
must say that it is the most perplexing question 1 
have met with yet.. (Ces/ a donner sa lan^iic •nix 

(7/ «Hj (it is almost to give it up.) The scions sent 
to me from the Lot are much similar to the Jacque- 
met & Bonnefont Prune d'.\gen, of which I just re- 
ceived a tree that I had ordered for comparing. 
Then the leaves are different from those of the Prune 
d'Agen grown in the Loire, which are long, but not 
so broad. There are doubtless several types of the 
Prune d'.\gen, and you will be the cause, in France, 
too, of inciting horticulturists to study closely those 
various types. In the valley of the Loire, the Prune 
d'Agen — that is, the variety or type that we have 
been cultivating so far — does not give good results, 
either green or cured, and I had always thought thai 
the climate had something to do with it. I am go- 
ing to write to the Lot for a sketch of their Prune 
d'Agen, and also samples of prunes. As soon as 
they are received, I will mail them to you; also the 
samples of scions, leaves and prunes that I sent for 
to other parts of the valley of the Lot, and that have 
not arrived yet. " 

Mr. A. E. Dudon, a large prune grower, and 
president of the Comin- Aiirkoh of Clairar, in 
the valley of the Lot, has this to say about the 
Prune d'Agen: 

"Vou are well aware that ilie prune is the juain pro- 
duct of our valley, and that right here are r?ised what 
are known to be the very best prunes of ihe whole 
district; for it is with prunes as with wine — some lo- 
calities have a name for finer products, and the con- 
noisseurs soon tell the prune of the Lot from those 
of any other sources. .At the last competitive fair 
{Colli ours, in French, I''. where 14 cantons were 
represented, I obtained the first premium for the 
good curing and beauty of my products. The only 
prune cultivated in the valley of the Lot is the Prune 
d'Ente, or Robe de Sergent or Prune d'.Agen; all the 
other varieties are mercilessly banished from our 

Our prune trees are cultivated either "francs de 
pied," or "grafted." The choice between " francs ' 
and "grafted" trees is quite important, and the class 
of trees to be planted depends on the adaptability of 
the soil to that class. In new soil, where prune 
trees have never been planted before, the best is to 
plant both kinds at the same time, and find out 
which of the two will do the best. In most 01 the 
Lot-Ist-Gai onne, the grafted trees give the fjest re- 
sults; they yield smaller crops, it is true, but the 
fruit is larger. With the "francs," the cro|) is 
larger and more regular, but the fruit is smaller, ex- 
cept in certain soils. Many people prefer the 
"franc" for stock for grafting to the seedling or 
myrobolan. The reproduction of "francs" is never 
made from the seed, but from cuttings or suckers 
taken at the foot of large trees, fr,iin de pied (true 
from the root), and where they are found in very 
small cjuantities. 

How is it possible to procure tr^es of the "true" 
kind ? This is a grave (|uestion, and as to us prune 
growers, we consider nurserymen in general as mere 
"iiidiislrich" (a kind of speculators, F. (J.), who, 
for the sake of selling trees, would not hesitate in 
deceiving in the coarsest manner their customers. 
That is the main reason why pruii^ growers here 
keep a little nursery »f their own, so that they are 
exactly sure of the kind they plant. Mill, I admit, 
it is impossible to do without nurserymen, and for a 
person stranger 10 the district, it may be very hard 
to get from them "exactly" what he may want." 

The scions and leaves of the d'Ente that I re- 
ceived by mail from the valley of the Lot, came 
from Mr. Uudon. I am expecting from the 
same gentleman samples of prunes, and a sketch 
of his Prune d'Ente fruit. 

In the second number of this paper on the 
prune. I w ill discuss at length the advantage 
especially for our mountains, in planting trees 
"francs" rather than "grafted." 

Other Prunes. 

Mr. P. (iinouillac, writes from Villeneuve- 

ist. Prune d'I'.nte, Robe de Sergent, or Prune 
d'Agen, are all the same thing. I'he Double Robe 
is the only one that is larger than Ihe d'I'.nte proper, 
it is of the same color, and differs in no manner 
from it; only it does not bear as well. 1 he branches 
of the Double Robe are, too, more droopi.ig than 
those of the d'Knte. 

There is another kind bearing large fruit, of a 
violet color, named Pousellir; it is a poor bearer and 
very hard to cure. We have still a third kind re- 
sembling the d'Ente, known here b> the name of 
Prune Uanihrc, violet. mo;e round and smaller than 
the Pousellir: it is a vigorous grower, but shv bearer 
and hard to cure. Such are the only varieties hav- 
ing any resemblance with the d'Ente. 

2d. The Common or .St Antoine prune is largely 
planted in some localities, great quantities of thai 
prune are shipped, green, to England. 

3d. There is also the .'~<t. Catharine, extensively 
planted in Tourraine, a yellow, almost round prune, 
very good to cure. 

Vour readers will notice that Mr. (.Iinouillac 
is answering categorically, questions as 
to the kinds of prunes resembling the d'Ente; 
none of those kind, I miist admit, answers our 
Petite prune description. 

From Another Authority. 

I will now introduce an old, practical, horti- 
culturist of Agen, .Mr. C. l/iiizo, to whom Mr. 
Chatenay had sent one of my green samples of 
Petite prune with scions of the same. Here is 
the answer of Mr. Lauze: 

"The |)rune sample arrived all decayed, but the 
scions all righ'. It is simply the 'conunon ])iune" 
of our district. It is a kind that we do not care to 
graft, so common is it all ovei the country; it grows 
anywhere without troulile, though for the last 8 or 10 
years, a great many trees of that kind are planted to 
sup]>ly the demand for the fruit, green, which is ex- 
ported to l''.ngland,it is picked then with the stem on. 

The fruit and wood of your Petite pnme from Cali- 
fornia has no resemblance with our Prune d'Agen. 
As to the three varieties of Prune d'Agen. Robe de 
S.-rgent, and d'Ente, it is only one variety in three, 
ex.icily like the three divinities, the F.ather, Son, and 
Holy Ghost." 

Mr. Lauze, I believe, makes here an impor- 
tant mistake, and if he had only examined the 
pit of the decayed Petite prune, he would have 
seen how different it was from that of the 

"Common" prune, which is smaller and round. 
Our Petite prune is not the "Common" prune of 
Lot-Et-Garonne, even if there is any similarity 
in the wood. 

A Prune Merchant's Views. 

Last, and for the "bouquet," 1 will lay before 
your readers the letter of Mr. A. Naissant, one 
of the leading prune merchants of Agen, and 
president of the Chamber of Commerce of that 
place, to whom I had also sent samples of niy 
Petite prune with leaves. First, I will say 
that about the time I wrote to Mr. Naissant, 
there appeared in the Ki R.\i. Pkkss a commu- 
nication from some of our prune growers, recoin- 
mending the taking out of the juice in curing, 
and turning it into glucose. That method of 
curing prunes looked to me so absurd, knowing 
how particular the wholesale firms are in re- 
fusing prunes that had lost their juice, that, at 
the same time, I submitted the question to Mr. 
Naissant. Here is that gentleman's letter: 

"I have just received your letter with samples of 
your Petite Prune d'Agen and leaves. 

ist. There is no kind of prune in the Lot-Et-Ga- 
ronne known under the name of "I'etite" I'tunr 
d'Agen. The type that you sent me is exactly the 
kind known here under the name of Prune d'Agi'n 
or Prune d'Ente. I'he leaves are also exactly like 
those of our d'Ente trees. 

2d. There is no such prune as the "Grosse" 
d'.Agen. There is but one kind of Prune d'Ente; 
only, according to the care given to the trees, and 
pruning, products, more or less fine, are obtained. 
The nature of the soil has also a good deal to do 
with the beauty and size of the fruit. Of late years 
(particularly since the phylloxera has caused such a 
destructir.n in vineyards, F. G ) they have tried to 
extend the culture of tiie prune outside of the Lot- 
Et-Garonne, but with little success. The fruit does 
not grow so large; it has a firm pulp, it is true. 
Therefore it is easy to cure, but it is haj d, and worse 
yet, it is red instead of dark \ioIet or even dt-ep 
violet, as is the Prune d'Ente, so called simply bi-- 
cause Agen is the shipping place or entrepot of that 

3d. We cultivate also m large quantities in the 1 -ot- 
Et-Garonne, a prune called "Common;" its fruit is 
round, of a deep violet, and a liitle acid. This 
prune is extensively cultivated south of Agen, and as 
far down as ,\lby and Cordes; but from Agen, going 
down the ri\er (Garonne towards liordeaux, this Com- 
mon prune has been completely given up, aiitl re- 
placed by the d'Ente, which in that valley succeeds 
well and yields fairer returns. 

The Conunon jjriine is shipped mainly to Xoru.iv, 
Sweden and Canada, though there the Bosnia arid 
Scrvia iirune is making quite an opposition to that 
kind, whose sales are decreasing little by little every 
year. But the Prune d'Ente, on the contrary, is 
shipped everywhere, as much in European State's as 
all over the world. To the L'nited States, since 
rapid lines of steamers have been established between 
both counliies, the [jrunes are shipped in boxes and 
barrels. We have there an important market. 

4th. In the Department of Lot-Kt-(>arouiie, the 
d'lCnte, is the most generally cultivated kind; in the 
rarn-et-Garonne, it is the Common prune. 

5th. Our largest orchards comprise only from 
2,000 to 3,000 trees. 

6th. You were perfectly right to treat as "absurd" 
the system of extracting the glucose from the prune 
in curing the latter; prunes should never lose their 
juice in curing. Experiments iiave been made in 
distilling the prune, with poor results; the best fruit 
made only a poor brandy. 

7th. As to the prune "Robe de Sergent, " I will say 
that it is very little cultivated; the old orchards of 
that variety, little sought after by'prune merchants, are 
done away with, and the d'Ent j planted in its place. 

We have, it is true, a third kind of prune, which 
may be given a middle place between the d'lCnle and 
Common, it is the Faure, from the patois "luiouri," 
which means blacksmith; it is a round prune, almost 
white on the tree, so that after being cured, it re- 
mains red, That prune is more sweet than the 
Common, but less than the d'ICnte; it sells for a bet- 
ter price than the former, and less than the latter." 

I presume that your readers will have found, 
without being told, the important points of Mr. 
Naissant's very interesting letter. One of those 
points, though, is far of being clear to .uy mind. 
I mean that one having referencj to the Robs 
de Sergent, which, says Mr. Naissant, i-< "pr« 
istimci'" (little thought of), and replaced by the 
d'Eute. I wrote back to Mr. Naissant, some 
time ago, asking for explanations, and wliether 
he does not make a mistake. I asked him 
whether he does not consider the l^^be de Ser 
gent as synonymous of d'Ente. I sent him at 
same time samples of our Petite prune, cured; I 
want the Agen's experts' opinion on that prune. 

With all the above data before them, your 
readers are at liberty to draw conclusions in re- 
gard to our. Petite prune, if they can or will. 
As to myself, I am not ready to draw any 
"definite" conclusions, and still want more light. 
I believe, however, that we may safely draw 
such conclusions as the following: 

J St. That there is in ]''rance no varieties of 
the Prune d'Agen known eitlier by the name of 
"Petite" or "Urosse", Prune d'Agen. 

■2d. That our Petite prune is a type of the 
Prune d'Agen. 

3d. That there are iu France several types 
of the Prune d'Agen, or d'Ente. 

4th. Tiiat, in California, there are also, prob 
ably, several types of the Petite prune. 

To enable us to draw more definite conclu- 
sions, I shall spare nei her pains, time uor 
money, whatever they may do or not do in 
France, to reach similar conclusions. 

Before concluding tlie first part of this essay 
on the prune, I will give some good advice to 
our people, who are anxious to know what to 
plant: I say, plant trees of the best kinds, as 
recommended by reliable persons in California, 
whether engaged in the nursery business or 
not. Find out for yourselves which of those 
various kinds will thrive and yield the best in 
your soil and at your latitude or altitude, for 
a kind that may do well in one locality might 

not do so well in another, and vii-c versa. 1 ;ieu 
keep a little nursery of your own, for it is easy 
enough to raise trees, and in this way you will 
be sure beyond a doubt of what you plant, and 
at the same time will do away with the nursery- 
man's services. 

Nevdila City, Dcr. ';>>^, 188.',. 

A FoothUl Fruit Garden. 

EniToRS — Among the many beautiful 
places in the neighborhood of Penryn, we vis- 
ited that of Mr. P. W. Butler. Four years 
ago this was a wilderness, but, as if by the hand 
of magic, the place has been converted into a 
growing, blooming, fruitful orchard and garden. 

Mr. Butler has 80 acres in his home enclosure 
in trees ami 40 iu pasture. He was fortunate iu 
his selection of a spot for his dwelling-house, 
which is on a mound projecting from the main 
hill back of it, fronting the south, and about 
one-eighth of a mile from the main road. An 
avenue, 44.^ feet wide, leads from the la,rge 
front gate to the house, slightly winding in con- 
formity to the gently undulating surface of the 
ground, and bordered on each side with a row 
of oranges and Japanese persimmons, arranged 
alternately. This avenue continues around the 
house on the east side, and on to the rear of 
the place. 

Near the gate at the entrance to the grounds 
cypress trees are planted in an octagonal form, 
making a summer house 2.') feet in diameter. 
The tops of these trees are to be bent into the 
center, and trinmied to make a perfectly shaped 

The house is a sightly, well-designed, two- 
story frame, with a piazza surrounding it, 
eight feet in width. In front of it is an ample 
circle, enclosing well-laidout ornamental 
grounds, in which are growing many rave trees 
and flowering shrubs, among which we notice 
the '•umbrella tree," the lemon, Italian cypress, 
oleander, euonymous elm, fan-leaf palm, etc. 

To the west, on stepping from the piazza, we 
enter a grove of a variety of trees, both ever- 
green and deciduous, forming a dense shade, 
among which are several quaint-looking rocka 
that have been picturesquely carved into seats. 
In one spot these carved chairs of stone are ar- 
ranged in a circular form, with trees and 
shrubs growing over, forming a complete 

The Orchard. 

Everything on this place is laid out on a lib- 
eral scale. The grounds of the 40 acres next to 
the dwelling are in blocks containing little 
more than an acre each, with ample avenues 
running in straight lines through the entire 
tract. On this 40 he has placed his fruit trees 
22 feet apart in straight rows, running at right 
angles. On the eastern 40 the avenues running 
north and south are at greater distan'ces, auil 
the trees are 1 .S feet apart, planted in the form 
of an equila eral triangle (the quincunx form). 

Of fiuit trees he has planted 217 apricots, 10 
almonds, 2S7 cherries, ."WB plums, 154 prunes, 
55 apples, 280 pears, 12 quinces, 50 figs, 50 
oranges, .'> lemons, 25 .lapanese persimmons, 10 
English walnuts and 200 olives these last on 
avenues and at corners and centers of blocks. 
The main crop is the peach, of which he has 
over 7,000. 

The reason I mention numbers of eacli kind 
of fruit so particularly is because Mr. Butler is 
well-informed on the kinds and varieties best 
adapted to this neighborhood, considering 
growth, maturity and quality of the fruit as 
well as profits to be derived from marketing. 
His grounds and methods of cultivation would 
furnish a field for observation and reflection, 
and would well justify a visit for personal in- 


Mr. B. advises that, for the sake of con- 
venience iu gathering and shipping, we confine 
ourselves to as few kinds of peaches as may 
serve us at any given time, so as to have a suc- 
cession of crops with say but one kind of free 
and one of cling at a time. He prefers clings 
because of their shipping qualities. Would 
plant no cling for early fruit until a good variety 
comes in. 

In planting a peach orchard of about 600 
trees, Mr. llutler recommends the following 
varieties as most worthy of cultivation in this 
neighborhood. This is his list of freestone 

1, ITale'a Eurly. Has white flesh, don't can 
well, too juicy; would plant only 10 trees. 

2. Foster. This and Crawford's Early are 
much the same. Foster a little the better peach, 
more nctirly round, matures same time; plant 
25 trees. 

Day's Vellow Free. Ripens at the same time, 
and considered so nearly same iu points of time 
and (juaiity that he would omit one or the 

S. Susquehanna. Largest and best market 
free that has been developed iu this section; 
100 trees. 

4. Stilson. Such as he has seen for two seasons 
appear to be better and larger than the Craw- 
ford's Late. Planting this season he put out 
Stilson instead of Crawford's J.,»tc. He admits 
the Stilson he saw may have been forced. Of 
this or Crawford's hate he would plant 50 trees. 

5. Sal way; 50 trees. 

(i. Bilyeu's Late October. Latept desirable 
peach grown in this State, so Mr. B. 

knows; 75 trees. " - 

This is the list of Clingstones: 

L Barter's; Cling (propagated by Mr. Barter, 

pACIF ie RU RAb PRESS. lo. i885 

of Penrjn). Very good. Similar to Orange 
Cling, but earlier; 7'> trees. 

2. Albright's Cling, same time or slightly 
later than the Orange Cling; considered better, 
larger and more highly colored; 175 trees. 
Day's yellow cling stands high, but Albright's 
is preferred. 

;i. George's Late Cling, white flesh, red 
cheek, large, fine looking, marketable, but not 
desirable for canning; 50 trees. 

Of white i>eache8 would plant only a few for 
market. Demand for canning is limited. He 
recommends of cling and free, ten each. 

This collection f^vea us a continuous crop of 
first-class peaches best for this section thus far 
produced, and extending from June to October. 

This year Mr. Butler sent to friends in Sac 
ramento a box of Day's yellow cling— 15 peaches 
in a tier, ."tO filling the box, and none measuring 
less than 11 inches in circumference. 

Mr. B. has planted his berries between trees, 
lie thus has ten acres strawberries, four acres 
blackberries and two acres raspberries. His 
business in berries is only auxiliary to his other 
business, his main object in their cultivation 
being that he may have his labor distributed 
throughout the season. L'p to the first of luly 
this year he has sent off 20,000 baskets of ber- 
ries. For a time during the picking season he 
shipped over 100 cases a day — one day as many 
as 111. lie begins to pick about the first of 
April— about the time when he begins to intro- 
duce irrigation; and the hands used in prepara- 
tion for irrigation also do the work of picking 

Of strawberries the Sharpless is preferred to 
all others. Some of this variety raised in ISS:^ 
measured lOl inches in circumference. 

Of blackberies, the Early Wilson and Cran- 
dall's Early are the only two varieties raised by 
him, and, because of their earliness, sell better 
than others grown here. There are others con- 
sidered better, but not so profitable. 

Mr. Butler believes in thorough cultivation, 
and keeps it up all the season through, only 
slacking up a little after the rainy season has 

This place is favored by being crossed by two 
fine natural runs, that have been trenched and 
filled with rock, broken and cleared from his 
grounds, thus making it all arable. 

Mr. B. has .'?,000 peaches budded this season, 
and 30,000 grape cuttings of muscat variety. 
These he expects to put out in grounds just 
west of his 120 acres mentioned above. -M. 

Plactr louitty. 

Two Valuable New Small Fruits. 

Editor.* Puess: -We find in HnraJ. Niv- 
York-Ki; of Dec. 20th, the following: "Mr. 
Josiah Hoopes, in the T< il'iiii<:, thinks that after 
two years' fruiting, 'Kay's Prolific currant' pro- 
duces clusters that surpass the immense bunches 
represented by the wood cuts that ushered this 
new fruit into notice." We, ourselves, had on 
vines of Fay's Prolific less than one foot in 
bight clusters four inches long. The berries 
Were equal in siKe to the cherry currant and of 
I)etter fiax or. We also noticed one point in 
their favor that we have not seen claimed for 
them by their originator. They can be picked 
from the bunches without tearing the skin of 
the berry and thus allowing the juice to escape. 
We find many torn berries on bunches of the 
cherry currant after it has been packed in boxes, 
and they ."soon mould. We think Fay's will be 
less liable to this fault. 

We are agreeably disappointed in the Hansell 
raspberry. AN'e expected to see a medium-sized 
berry only, but having measured many of the 
berries the past season and finding a great many 
of them to be v of an inch in diameter across, 
and some of them .,' of an inch in diameter both 
ways and only an occasional one less tlhan I 
inch and this on ground poorly cultivated and 
not fertilized, we shall have to class them as 
"medium to large." The color is just what 
we want — a bright crimson. They are very 
firm, and are undoubtedly the earliest to ripen. 
We think this variety combines more desirable 
qualities for the grower than any other variety 
now being cultivated. C. M. it .Son, 
Ntxixa*tl' , Cai. 

Oraxok (!RAi>iNf;. -The Riverside i'r<''<s, in 
answer to an incjuiry, says: There is no stan- 
dard orange grader, 'fhe grader in use at 
Riverside consists of a stand 38 inches by 'Jh 
feet in surface dimensions. It is inclined from 
one end to the other, the higher end standing 3(i 
Inches from the ground and the lower IS 
inches. At the upper end there is a table in- 
clined somewhat, but not so much as the rest 
of the apparatus; dimensions 38x.33 incites. 
Below this there are two series of slats running 
lengthwise, each 40 inches long. These slats 
perform the office of a riddle for the oranges in 
process of sorting. The slats in the upper 
series are two and a half inches apart. The 
fruit is first placed upon the table and then al- 
lowed to roll down the incline. Tne smallest 
fruit drops between the slats of the first series. 
The oranges that are too large for the last 
slats (i. I., more than three" inches in 
diameter) run ofi' the end of the table. Thus 
three grades are accomplished. Beneath each 
of the riddles is fastened a burlap, bagging to 
the middle, where there is a hole allowing the 
oranges to roll into the receptacle pro\ ided for 
them. By this appliance the work of grading 
is accomplished Terj quickly and accurately, 


Classiticatlon and Characteristics of 
Garden Roses. 

(Written tor Ki'HAL I'RKSS liy Gi stav Eihks.) 

No. 1 — Tea Roses. 

No lover of flowers is unacquainted with the 
tea rose, in at least one of its many forms. The 
sweetest of flowers, the most perfect in shape, 
the most delicious in odor, the most lovely in 
shades, it is the favorite of all. The forced 
buds at Christmas and New Year time bring 
j.iy to the wealthy, who can afford their luxury. 
The opening buds at the advent of spring are 
watched and enjoyed alike by rich and poor. 

The tea rose is by no means an old rose in 
our modem gardens. It is not an inheritance 
bequeathed to us from centuries ago. It did 
not blossom in the gardens of .Solomon, nor was 
the mythical blue rose of Alhambra one of them. 
The tea rose, as seen in our gardens, is a 
modern flower — an offspring of our time --and 
still in the floral world the emblem of the 
highest perfection of beauty, the ([ueen of 
flowers, the bight of perfection, according to 
our modern taste. 

The original home of the tea rose is Asia 
(especially the southern part), India, Siam and 
China. It still grows there wild ?.8 of old, and 
blossoms there, with its live petals, in moun- 
tainous districts and the more temperate parts. 
The flower-loving natives discovered centuries 
ago its beauty, and cultivated it in their gardens. 
But the tea roses, as they exist there, are very 
different from ours, at least from our best ones; 
and if we now ■were to get them anew from 
there, it would be hard to discover any re- 
semblance whatever. 

^The chief characteristics of the tea rose as a 
species is, aside from more strictly botanical 
intricacies, the tea-scent that gives the rose its 
name. This characteristic is a highly impor- 
tant one, and in our days no rose should be 
classed among the teas which has any other 
fragrance, be it "rose," "brier," bourbon, 
damask or any other. Some tea rosea, it is true, 
have no fragrance, or rather, one so faint that 
it cannot be either readily discovered or en- 
joyed. Other characteristics <if the true tea 
roses are heavy thorns, more or less hooked; 
never any spines or bristles; never any mossy 
glands. The stems or shoots are spreading and 
stout, always decidedly thicker towards the 
base; when older branching forming rounded 
and compact heads, about as wide as tall. 
The foliage is generally pointed and glossy, and 
peculiarly so. The leaflets are generally five- 
pointed, and with a characteristic of their own, 
hard to describe, but when once seen easily to 
be remembered. The seed balls or heps are 
globular, generally flat and concave both at top 
and base; never elongated as in the Jlyhrid- 
pi r/ii'lualx or some other class. 

The parent stock of all our teas was origi- 
nally very scant. In the end of the last cen- 
tury and in the beginning of our own, the first 
plants were brought from India and China. 
The records are imperfect or none, and the 
original roses lost or 'roufounded. These origi- 
nally imported tea roses were single, or nearly 
so, but still very attractive through their fra 
granceand beautiful buds. We can trace the 
history of our teas i>ack to three varieties, 
imported to Kurope at different times — the 
blush tea, the white and the yellow tea. These 
were soon distributed and propagated, and 
from seedlings raised from accidentally hybrid- 
ized flowers, a dozen or more varieties became 
soon known. No great headway was, however, 
made in producing valuable varieties, until ac- 
cidentally a chance seedling was discovered in 
Devonshire, in Kiigland, in a neglected and 
wildish g.irden. This seedling, which immedi- 
ately created a sensation in the horticultural 
world was none else than oar own standby, 
the lovely and yet unrivalled "Devoniensis. " 
Witli the advent of this rose the teas stepped 
at once to the front with a perfection and 
beauty since hardly surpassed, and even sel- 
dom equalled. 

The advent of this magnificent rose began a 
new era in rose culture. Indeed, there are few 
tea roses in our gardens which do not show the 
"blood" of Devoniensis, and many are the di- 
rect followers or descendants of the same, all 
showing a marked similarity to the parent rose. 
It is not sufficiently known which was the pa- 
rent rose from which Devoniensis originated, 
but it takes but little fancy to trace it to the 
old semi-doubled W/iile T' ci of the early im- 

The other early imported varieties, the blush 
and yellow, have a no less number of followers, 
as from them have originated, by seedlings or 
sport, most of our pink, blush, yellow and in- 
termediate kinds, until in our days the varie- 
ties can be numbered by the thousand, though 
the well-defined tea varieties may not really ex- 
ceed 000. But even this is a respect- 
able number, and rather perplexing not only to 
the amateur, but to the professional rosarian, 
who endeavors, with the aid of , common cata- 
logue-description, to pilot his way through the 
seemingly hopeless labyrinth. The amateur 
rose-grower, who buys his first dozen roses, 
has generally no suspicion about his roses not 
being tnie to name and description. After a 
further indulgence in, say a hundred kinds, he 
begins to doubt and a little further experience 
soon convinces him of the confusion of names, 

even among the most reliable and careful grow- 
ers. The chief reason of this is that, neither 
when the roses are first sent out, nor in cata- 
logues afterwards, they are in the least classi- 
fied and these descriptions are generally every- 
thing but in coirespondence with the reality. 
Nearly all roses can be referred or traced to 
certain parent roses or types, and by having 
these well described and afterwards referred to, 
most of the confusion will be cleared away and 
something like a systematic and comprehensible 
view of the varieties, new and old, can easily 
or at least po^f^ihiy be had. 

It will be our endeavor in these essays to 
point out such a relationship among the most 
common and important varieties and arrange 
them systematically, that any one with a knowl- 
edge of a few dozen varieties can determine if 
his or her roses are correctly named. 

The author of these sketches will be glad, 
through these columns, to answer ..ny questions 
in regard to the subject treated here. 

Frr.1,10, Cnl. 


In this departmi nt we ex(<cct lo give inforniiition 
of the several jnipoi lam organized efforts which are 
being put forth by (enterprising citizens in diftcrent 
p.irts of the Stale to make better knou n the resources 
of California and tlie opportunity which is oflered 
for home-making and for prolitable investment of and energy. We cordially invite correspon- 
dence from all Imniigiation Socielies, with descrip- 
tions of the districts to w hich their labors relate, and 
the officers lo whom inquirmg readers of our journal 
may apply for fuller information. In this way we 
hope to assist in all these praiseworthy enterprises 
and thus contribute to the development of so grand 
a heritage as California. 

The Northern Califorcia Immigration 

Kditokk Pkkss; Yours of December .30th re- 
ceived. .Many thanks for the interest in im- 
migration work, manifested by you. We need 
all the help that the press of the State can give 


With all the examples of the great and rapid 
development of new countries on this continent, 
in this century by immigration, before them, 
it is difficult to arouse these people to its im- 
portance- Our whole national history is little 
more than a record of the movement of swarms 
of people in search of new homes. 

'iVithin the memory of people now living in 
the Mississippi valley, the < ;reat Lake Basin, 
the wide plains west of the Missiouri river, the 
interior basins, and the Pacific .Slope, have been 
subdued from a savage .State, settled and con- 
verted into rich and populous States of the 
Union. In 1880, there were living in the United 
.States, nearly 7,000,000 foreign born people, 
who had crossed the ocean and made homes 
wit;h us. 

It is estimated that these people brought 
money enough with them to pay more than half 
of the .National Debt. A large percentage of 
these foreign born people, are laborers, and 
their labor adds S()00,000,000 to the we.alth of 
the country each year. .\t the time of the last 
census there were 15,tX)0,00O people in the 
United States born of foreign parents. 

Their labor adds fifteen hundred million 
dollars annually to our wealth. Immigration 
has not only done all this, but it has 
sent a steady stream of people out of the older 
and even newer settled .States in search of land, 
upon which they have built homes. There are 
now more than 12,000, 00<J native born people in 
the United .States who have left their native 
.States and joined the migratory movement 
toward the setting sun. These, with their 
brother "home-seekers" from foreign lands, 
have subdued a savage continent, tilled its soil, 
covered it with villages, towns, cities and beau- 
tiful homes full of every comfort and luxury of 
civili/ition, built thousands of scliool houses 
and churches, established the printing-press 
everywhere, constructed 125,000 miles of rail- 
ways, developed an aggregate of wealth greater 
than that of any other country ou the earth, 
and carried our trade and commerce wherever a 
sail whitens the seas. Without immigration, 
the vast empire of the Mississippi valley and 
lakes would still be a howling wilderness, and 
primeval silencj would rtiiu on the Pacific 
Slope. As great as has been the movement of 
people in pas^ times, it -is greater now than ever 
before. - 

Steam has given the movement a won- 
derful impetus. .More people in the Kast are 
now inquiring for new homes than at any 
former period of our history. All that is 
wanted to bring them here is to let them know 
the advantages oUered here to the settler. 

The benefits to be derived from advertising 
our resources have been so great in other 
regions that Northern California should not 
hesitate. Between 1H70 and 1,S!S0 Texas in- 
creased her population !I4 ; Oregon !>2 ; Wy- 
oming 128 , Kansas 173 , Idaho 117^, Wash- 
ington Territory 214 , Nebraska 2(>S , Ari- 
zona 318 , Colorado 387 and Dakota 8.^3 . 
California with greater inducements to the 
settler increased only .")4 . 

What has Been Done for Southern Cali- 

Some years since an immigration movement 
was organized in the southern counties of the 
State, \\ ith a liberal hand they scattered 
abroad descriptions of that part of the State. 
The result was beyond the most sanguine expec- 

tations of the leaders of the enterprise. Set- 
tlers came pouring in, some in colonies, and 
others singly, or by families. Excursion com- 
panies in the Kast were formed that gathered 
immigrants together at Chicago, aril carried 
them in train-loads to all parts of the southern 

Thousands of people in the Northern States, 
tired of the struggles with snow and ice, which 
through six months of the year consumed the 
earnings of the other six, or, weary of the illy- 
pai<l labor of grain raising, in response to these 
advertisements came seeking homes. A grand 
awakening all over the lower country was the 
consequence. The old, sleepy, half-Spanish 
towns awoke to new life. Trade increased, 
manufactories were started, new industries 
that put in motion thousands of tireless wheels, 
sprang into life; extensive systems of irrigation 
were established; wide areas that before bore 
only cacti, sagebrush and greasewood, were 
covered with orchards and vineyards; flourish- 
ing colonies were established and new towns 
built; railways were constructed, .iiid the whole 
face of the country was changed. The increase 
of wealth in these counties is one of the 
remarkable features of this era of immigra- 
tion. Fresno county in 1.880, had property to 
the value of !;7,.').33,327; in 1884 it had 
increased to SI 4, G24,4«7— an increase of !?7,091, 
140. San I.uis Obispo county, in 1880, had 
S4, 603,085 worth of property: in 1884 it had 
increased to .?8,i«H,154, "an increase of $4,276,- 
009. .San Bernardino county increased from 
Ssl,OSO,740 to Sll,028,.323, an increase of ^^7,- 
947,577. .San Diego county had in 18.S() i4,- 
!t!l5,46!l, in 1884 §8,703,850, an increase of 
.S3,7fia,387. Los Angeles increased the valu- 
ation of her property from ?l8,.')02,ti.52 in 1880 
to S.30,572,!»5!l in 18.S4, an increase of .?IS,070,- 
307. In comparison with this remarkable ex- 
hibit the northern counties, with far greater 
resources, an incomparable climate, a greater 
supply of timber for fencing and building, a 
rainfall that makes irrigation unnecessary and 
with far better means of transportati )n, re- 
mained almost stationary. 

The wonderful growth in the sonthern coun- 
ties is more fully illustrated by the following 
figures relating to Los Angeles county. In 187.S 
there were in that county .l^S.'iO acres of vines; 
iu 1883 there were 20,000 acres. The wine pro 
duct had increased in the same vears from 
1,0!»0,0<K) gallons to 4,000,000 gallons; the 
brandy product from tr^OOO gallons to 2.50,000 
gallons; orange trees from 103,500 to .■>20,000; 
the production of barley from 350,000 bushels 
to 2,000,000 bushels, and wheat from 75,000 
bushels to 1,. '.00,000 bushels. In 1881 there 
were 11 1, UK) pounds of green fruit shipped 
from Sou'herii California; in l'S.83, 5,!t|8,f60 
pounds. The city of Los Angeles increased 
in population from 11,000 in LSSO to 30,000 
in 1884. Li two years' time 15 churches, 
costing .S175,(X)0, schools and colleges to the 
value of S14ti,000, factories aggregating in 
cost S225,000; 100 stores, at a cost of !?\ ,.500,000, 
and 2,000 residences, aggregating tf2, .500,000, 
were all built in that city. 

It would seem that it is impossible to add to 
the above as a lesson for the northern counties 
of the State. 

What Can be Done for Northern California? 

In 1880 Northern California had only five 
people to each square mile. New Kiigland, 
cold, bleak and barren, in comparison, had 
nearly 25 times as dense a population. We 
have room in our great vjilleys and along our 
foothills for half a million farmers and their 
families. If we could bring the home seekers 
here, who are anxious to come and fully develop 
our possibilities, we should soon rank as the 
first State in the Union tor wealth, trade, 
manufactures and population. All that is re- 
(juircd from the northern counties to accom- 
plish this great work, is for them to organize 
and aid the parent society. 

The Agencies at Work. 

The following is a list of the officers of the 
various county societi< 8 organized up to date: 

Northern ('alifoniia Immigration AjBSOeiation. 
— N. D. Hideout, Pn.".; .li.6tph[Stefl"ens, N'ice- 
Pres.; W'm. P. Coleman, Treas.; H. Latham, 
Sec. Directors — W. H. I'arks. ^■|lba(;o.; 
H. Bowers, Butte Co ; Will S C reeni < 'olusa 
Co.; Ceo. G. Blanchard, El Dom.l., ("o.V'H. C. 
Boggs, Lake Co.; .1. A. F'ilcher, Placer Co.; N. 
D. Rideout, .Joseph .Stevens, Sacramento Co. 
Directors - C. 0. Ilush, Shasta Co. ; (J. Kincaid, 
Sierra Co.; A. H. Denny, Sijkiyou Co.; W. B. 
Parker, Solano Co.; Geo. Ohleyer, Sutter Co.; 
Chas. Cadwalader, Tehama Co.; C. W. Craig, 
Trinity Co.; K. B. Blowers, Yolo Co. 

Auxiliary Societies. 

The Sacramento County Immigration Associa- 
tion. --A. S. Hopkins, Pres.; Frank Miller, 
Treas.; Wm. Ingram, .Jr., Sec. Directors — A; 
S. Hopkins, .Ino. .McNeill, P. K. Piatt, D. 
Lubin, Sacramento city; Dr. O. Harvey, Gait; 
Wm. .lolinston, Richland; R. D. Stephens, 

Yolo County Immigration Assn.- B. B. 
Blowers, Pres. (Woodland); Geo. D. Fiske, 
Vice-I'res. (Woodland); Wallace R. Pond, 
Treas. : .Joel « '•. Wright, Sec. 

Yuba County Immigration Assn. — W. H. 
Parks, Pres. (Marysville); A. C. Bingham, 
Vice-I'res.; .J. B. Fuller, Sec; G. R. Kckert, 

Eldorado County Immigration Assn. — L. 
Laudecker, Pres. (Placerville); .J. H.Miller and 
H. S. Morey, N'ice-Pres.; E. "VV. Whitiiier, Sec.; 
S. J. Alden, Treas. 

H. Latham, Secretary. 
K St., Sacramento, Cat, 

January 10, 1885.] 


Huntington, Hopkins & Co.'s Display 
at the State Fair. 

The hardware and iron firm of Huntington, 
Hopkins & Co. have for many years been ex- 
hibitors at the California State Fair, but it wus 

ceeded beyond their expectations. The large 
engra-ving on the first page of this week's 
Press will give an idea of the arrangement of 
the exhibit. 

The tastefulness of arrangement and scale 
of the exhibit struck every one who went 
in as a most prominent feature in the pavil 

As the engraving shows, the exhibit was ar- 
ranged in pagoda shape, the whole being uni- 
que and original, as well as being effective in 
showing the wide scope of the business of the 
firm. The exhibit was designed and carried 
out by Mr. Geo. R. Hansbrow. All the ex- 
terior designs were worked out by the dis- 

and breadth, and it was crowned by a cin , 
of ever-revolving locomotive head-lights, (sur- 
rounded by a broad circle of polished and glit- 
tering hand-lanterns. Over all rose a broad^ 
slowly-turning 3 star, decorated with Icircula^ 
saws and varieties of small hardware, all flash, 
ing back the light as the beautiful design re. 

not utttU three years ago that the house begah 
to pay special attention to the display of their 
wares at these annual exhibitions. Since then 
their efforts have met with universal praise, ana 
been considered the most attraotire in the pa- 
vilion At the fair of 1884, the occasion of the 
opening of the State Agricultural Society s mag- 
nificent new pavilion, the firm determined to 
out-do all former efforts in the line, and sue 

Ion, atid Tlsitors who saw it always remember 
it as a leading attraction. It was one of the 
features that helped make the visitors realine 
the masrnitude of the success of the fair In tne 
new building. While there were very many 
meritorious exhibits, no other one attracted 
such uuiversal attention as theirs, and tor U 
the society awarded a special gold medal as the 
most attractive display. 

nosal, by infinite cafe and taste, of a myriad of 
nieces of hardware tools and houne trimmings 
on a background of dark red, relieved by blue 
and black trimmings. The central pyramida 
structure was 18 feet square at the base, and 
40 feet over all in hight. Like sentinels, at 
corners rose four graceful towers, in keeping 
with the general desigu and finish. The upper 
section of the central structure was of less deptli 

volved. The cornice below was marked out 
handsomely with sheep shears. 

Kar.h panel of the upper section bore great 
circular saws, that revolved slowly, and the 
binds of reflected liglit thereon resembled 
nuick moving dial h.ands. The surrounding 
dccoro.tions were fanciful designs, worked out 
with such odd things as spoons, butcher knives, 
brass door-rail, picture nails, etc. Below these 



[Jandary jo. lSH-"t 

flared the four sloping faces of the roof of the 
iniiiii body, on(> l)c:iriiig the name of the firm 
and of Sill Kiaiicisco aud Sacramento, in letters 
of brilliant red, hemmed in with thick-set brass 
nails. Along the eaves graceful festoons of 
chains were caught up with vavious glittering 
tools. Two handsome signs of the firm, in gold 
letters, graced the roof, which was supported 
by four pillars from the Uoor of the base, each 
decorated with thermometers, bronze butts, 
magnets, etc. On these, here aud there, re- 
volved smaller circular saws. The panels of 
the body of the pagoda were thick set, with a 
great variety of uni(|ue and graceful designs, 
all of varied metal goods, house trimmings, all 
manner of polished hardware, and tools repre- 
senting all the trades. Here, too, the eye 
rested on handsome designs fornied of brass, 
plumbing goods, steam and water gauges, and 
the like. 

In one of the s<iuares noted was a landscape 
scene, representing a "lad and lassie" com- 
ing through the field, every portion being com 
posed of escutcheon pins, small chains, horse- 
shoe nails, etc. A number of esthetic designs 
framed this picture. 

The lower 6(juares those on the of the 
grand pagoda — were decorated with heavier 
articles from the stock of the firm. Hay forks, 
shovels, spades, garden tools and such imple- 
ments, ornamented the certer, whilst a border 
was formed of horse-shoes, washers, bolts, 
screws, etc., whilst there were pyramids of 
shot, anti- friction metal, shoe and stove black- 
ing, cordage, belting, hose, etc., resting be- 
neath. All the newspapers in the State which 
paid any attention to the State Fair, awarded 
the palm for completeness, originality and 
Ijeauty to this display. 

In the establishment of which there was so 
worthy an exhibit, mining supplies are largely 
represented. There are picks both for surface 
and drift mining, blasting powder of different 
kinds, cordage, tackle blocks, rubber and 
leather belting of .ill sizes, drills of every vari- 
ety, pumps, both common, lift and force. Lan- 
terns and headlights, of all makes and grades, 
form an important part of the business. Barbul 
wire can also be obtained, in any i|tiautity fen- 
fencing purposes. Pocket and table cutlery, 
both of Knglish aud American make, door h in- 
dies and locks, and builders" turnings, are to be 
found in the store, from the most expensive 
articles, fit for the residence of the millionaire, 
down to the bolt for the barn door. They have 
a fiae selection of Parker, (bolt's. Biker's ami 
Kuglish breech-loading guns, Winchester, .M ir- 
lin's and t'jlt's riiles, and pistols of all makes. 
The necessary ammunition is on hand, as well 
as a fine supply of fishing tackle, artifi jial tlies 
and other baits, rods, reels, lines, hooks, and 
every want of the disciple of honest Isaac 
Walton. Thus are the settler, mechanic and 
sportsman all supplied from this one store with 
everything which is, and much which is not, 
classed as hardware. 

addition he had orders on hand for three large 
generators and five steam cheese vats. It is a 
subject for congratulation to Mr. Woolsey, who 
has given this industry a large share of his time 
for the last five years, as also to our large dairy 
interest in this State, that he has succeeded in 
investing and manufacturing equipments for 
making cheese that are superior to those here- 
tofore used, and that the large demand for them 
warrants us in believing and predicting that in 
the near future our State will not only supply 
our home demand, but export cheese in large 

Studebaker Bros.' Manufacturing Co. 

One of our reporters, in company with Mr. 
Ames, the manager, visited the establishment 
of this firm, in this city, the other day. The 
California branch of the Studebaker Bros.' 
Co., in magnitude and variety of vehicles, is 
the largest on the Pacific Coast. Their re- 
pository, corner of Main and Market streets, is 
four stories and basement, filled with carriages 
from cellar to garret. The basement is stocked 
with farm wagons; ground floor has a large 
room enclosed with glass for harne.s.% aud a 
general variety of carriages and phaetons. The 
secimd floor is devoted to turnouts, borouches, 
landaulets and gigs, while on the third floor are 
exhibited buggies, express and fruit wagons. 
The fourth story is used for storing in bulk, burn- 
ishing room, and what is worthy of note, in all 
this laboratory only .samples are shown, no two 
jobs beingof the same pattern. Their warehouse, 
corner of King and Fifth streets, near the R. K. 
depot, is 7-1 feet in wid h by "240 feet in length, 
and "20 feet high, running from street to street. 

The " Flying Dutchman." 

I By J. 0. H.t 

The better tillage "of our fields " is a subject 
that has engaged the attention of inventive 
genius and skilled mechanics. As a factor in 
this problem, " the plow " is an implement that 
is pre-eminently the chief. During the last 
decade more improvements have been made and 
a degree of excellence attained than a century 
previous. The latest pattern of a sulky plow 
may be seen in the above cut with the sig- 
nificant name of "Flying Dutchman." In the 
construction, durability, strength and lightness 
are prominent features, using steel in the place 
of iron to make it lighter, and bracing on the 
same principle of a truss-bridge to make it 
strong. As shown in the above cut, there are 
three wheels — one running in the furrow ahead 
of the plow, one in the furrow behind the plow, 
and one on the land to steady the plow, the three 
wheels forming a support for the plow and hold- 
ing up the whole weight and resistance of the 
earth. The levers can be used single or double, 
and the plow can l>e lifted or adjusted for un- 
even land or side hill plowing, while in motion, 
and with a small force. The only weight on 
the horses' necks is the pole which is jointed and 
attached to a swivel, by which a circle can be 
made, as easily as in a barouche. We have a 
personal knowledge of a number of farmers who 
have used these plows this season, and they 
speak in the highest terms of their many good 
liualities, among which, as they say, are light- 
ness of draft, ease in management, and the con- 
venience of using a 12, 1+ or lU-iuch plow 
on the same frame. Two whom we have con 
versed with say, "\ boy 10 years old can man- 
age the 'Flying Dutchman. '" "I wouldnottakc 


It is a lamentable fact that a considerable 
portion of cheese consumed in this State is still 
imported from the East and Europe. Within 
the last three years a large number of dairies 
previously dcvotei to butter making have been 
equipped with the latest and most improved 
apparatus for making cheese, especially among 
those dairies situated inland — beyond the coast 
belt of counties. It is generally conceded that 
the marketable value of the cheese constituents 
of milk, uuder improved methods for securing 
the curd, is greater than the butter constitu- 
ents of milk, or, in other words, in a heated 
climate there is more profit in making cheese 
than butter. 

Within the last three years this industry has 
been increased, and is growing in favor by the 
use of Woolsey's steam generator and improveil 
steam cheese vat, patented through the Scikn,- 
TiFic PuEss Agency of this city. Woolsey's 
steam generator in its constructioi' gives the 
greatest possible fire surface, saves fuel, and it 
is claimed by those who have i.sed them that 
100 pounds of steam can be raised in 20 minutes 
from cold water. 

There are a large number of dairymen who 
use this generator in their dairy for power in 
churning, raising water and heating purposes. 
Woolsey's improved steam cheese vat is con- 
structed with a view to e(iuali/.ing the temper- 
ature in every part. Between the wood or 
outer covering and the tin or vat, running al- 
most the entire lengthen the bottom of the vat, 
is a one-half inch gas pipe with short pieces 
projecting from either side at regular intervals, 
so curved as to send a current of steam or hot 
water completely around the vat, thus heating 
the milk so evenly that a thermometer will 
register the same degree of heat immersed in 
any part of the vat. These vats have been 
awarded first premium at several State fairs. 

We visited Mr. Woolsey's factory at (iilroy 
on the 12th inst., and saw a large equipment 
for cheese making. Two .jOO gallon vats were 
nearly finished for Carr & liaggin of Kern 
county, this being the third outfit with steam 
generator for this firm. For Messrs. Fariis- 
worth & Kuggles, a well-known firm in this 
city (Mr. Farnsworth being a Supervisor elect), 
Mr. Woolsey had nearly completed an outfit, 
to be used on their ranch in San Mateo county. 
The outfit includes generator, cheese vat, press 
screws, curd tillers, curd knives, kc, &c., the 
(Aggregate cost amounting to over $500. Id 


This large edifice is packed closely with all | 
kinds of vehicles, while in places may be seen ] 
cords ^of whillletrees, neck-yokes and wagon- i 
poles. Tliis is the distributing point for this 
immense plant, and its extent and proportions, 
stocked as it is, from ground floor to roof in 
many portions, seems one vast sea of wagons. 

L.'VNK Lki ti kks. — The third course of popu- 
lar lectures at Cooper Medical College, corner 
.Sacramento and Webster streets, S. F. , will 
be delivered during the coming winter, accord- 
ing to the program given below. As has 
been announced before, these lectures are free. 
No ticket of admission is reijuired. The follow- 
ing is a memorandum of the time, place and 
subjects of the lectures: Jan. HI, C. N. Ellin- 
wood, "Health Resorts;" Feb. (!, A. Barkan, 
"The Blind:" Feb. 20, C. Cushing, "The Use 
and Abuse of Dress;" March 6, Dr. John F. 
Morse, "Hereditary Influence in Health and 
Disease;" March 20, Prof. W. D. -lohnston, 
"Spectrum Analysis;" April 'A, Prof. C. H. 
Steele, "Honey and the Bee;" April 17, Prof. 
J. O. Hirschfelder, "How We Breathe;" May 
1, Prof. Henry (iibbons, Jr., "How to Raach 
Long Life;" May I."), Prof. J. H. Wythe, 
"Mental Automatism." 

Dh.i.on'.s Norman Houses. — We have re- 
ceived a new catalogue from Dillon Bros., of 
Normal, Illinois, which contains excellent de- 
scriptions and illustrations of the Norman 
Horses, of which they are well-known import- 
ers and breeders. Fifty head of their Normans 
are now on exhibition at the World's Fair, in 
New Orleans. Among these is the champion 
herd that was shown so successfully last fall. 
1 I'arties visiting this exhibition should not fail 
{ to see the display, which terminates .lanuary 
I 20th. 

j V' Ai.i K OK TiiK lU'R.vL. — The F.tfiFic RruAi, 
j, published by Dewey & Co., San F'ran- 

eisco, ought to be in the home of every farmer 
I on the Pacific Coast. It is thoroughly devoted 

to the interests of agriculture, horticulture and 

viticulture in general, and to the material ad- 
^ vancement of California in particular. There 

are suggestions in one issue that are well worth 
^ the subscription price for a year to the class of 
, people to whose interests it is devoted. — Dixon 

SI 00 for my 'Flying Dutchman,' if I could not 
get another." Mr. L. Knox of Sau Leandro, 
days: " It b.'ats any plow I ever used in 
ud jbe. " 

The plow is in front of the driver, where its 
work can be inspected without any change of 
position. It leaves a clean, hard track for the 
furrow wheels to travel in, insuring uniform, 
even plowing. This advantige is particularly 
noticeable In crossing corn furroA s and plowing 
over hogwallow land. The front wheel, besides 
assisting to carry the plow, acts as a gauge 
wheel, and insures a uniform width and depth 
of furrow, and the point of the plow is held so 
firmly in place that it is compelled to run 

We are informed by Messrs. Batchelor and 
Wylie that hey will ship the "Flying Dutch- 
man" plow to any parties who are desirous of 
purchasing a plow under a guaran'ee that the 
work will prove satisfactory. 

From a circular issued we <)UOte: 

" Iho 'Flying Dulcliman' sulky plow combines 
many features of advantage over the old style riding 
plow. The plow being in front of the driver, he is 
enabled to watch the work with the same e.asc and 
givi: it the same attention as s<\-nred by using a 
w.ilking plow, without having to trudge behind a 
pair of handles from morning till night and doing 
but indifferent work at tin' best, .and especially poor 
when the ground is dry. Lightness of draft and 
ease of inanageti-ent are two very prominent features 
in this plow, and features that make it a favorite 
wherever used. With the '1- lying Dutchman' plow- 
ing becomes a fascinating employment instead of the 
laborious task. And here we would advance the 
opinion that if the gang plows, which .are so gener- 
ally used in plowing summer-fallow, were displaced 
by sulky plows, better work would be done and a 
corresponding increase in the yield secured, and we 
firmly believe it could be conclusively shown that a 
given amount of ground can be plowed at a less 
cost per acre by using the sulky plows «» comp ared 
with gangs, the work being done fai better." 

The "Flying Dutchman" is manufactured by 
the Moline Plow Company. Batchelor & Wylie, 
sole agents for California, 37 Market Street, 
San Francisco, Cal. 

We append the following testimonial: 

Santa Ci.ara, Cai... Jan. 3. 18K5. 

AfcMts. Utilihelor and Wylh-. — .\ good thing 
ought to be recommended. 1 take pleasure, there- 
fore, in saying, without solicitation, that you need 
have no apprehension of speaking too highly in 
praise of the "Flying Dutchman." Having within 
the past week thoroughly tested the plow I bought 

of you in November, I find it "perfectly lovely," as 
the ladies say. My span of horses, neither Weighing 
over 1,000 pounds, draw the I2 inch share, at a 
depth of 6 inches, with less apparent labor than 
another span of horses but little inferior to minr 
draw an 8-inch walking or hand plow, at an equal 
depth, in similar soil near by. Thi- wtieels of the 
"Dutchman" .sustain and carry the weight of the 
plowshare, so that there is no dragging on the bottom; 
the rolling coulter cuts the sod and soil to nearly the 
full depth, and the labor of the team is consequently 
mainly employed in turning the furrow. Any or 
dinarily strong twelve-year-old boy can handle niy 
plow readily, and could scarci'ly avoid doing good 
work if he should try, so accurately does the front 
wheel serve to locate and guide the plowshare. My 
sons, though inexperienced, are doing excellent 
work with it. 1 am now .able to testify to the fact 
that there is a sulky which can be drawn by two 
horses, at a depth of 6 or 7 inches, and which will 
do gooil work, without overworking the team. 

E. C. Bkonaui;h. 

Percherons Best for City Use. 

.\. M. Stein & Co., Ilrooklyn, N. V., handle 2,o<x) 
horses annually, mostly heavy draft. They say of 
the grade IVrcherons: "Wc handle more of the 
IVrcherons than of any other breed. There is more 
diMiiand for them. Tliey give the best satisfaction, 
no matter how little of the hh'od there i< 111 them. 
Genenilly they have good feet and Last better on our 
pavements than the Clydesdales or other breeds. 
I'ell the farmers of the West to iee/' their Perche- 
ron mares and lireed them. WouM advise breeding 
to I'ereheron horses in preference to any olhrr 
breed." — Chieasro 'J'riliuH,. Uiiriiig the pi I H\i lve 
iiionilis, over 600 IVrcherons have le.n bought in 
France and imported to Oaklaw n l-.irm by M. W. 
Dunham, of Wayne, 111., w hose purchases are al- 
most exclusively confined to pedigreed animals, 
recorded in the I'ereheron Stud Book of France, .as 
the honest and careful breeders of pure bred stock 
would no more buy a horse imported from France, 
without a pedigree than they would buy an imported 
Shorthorn or Hereford bull that was not recorded in 

The Light-Running and Popular 



Absolutely Free from Annoyances 


Bona Fide Guarantee for 
Five Years. 


In Every County on the Pacific Coast. 

tfVor Information and Terms address 



108 & 110 Post St„ San Francisco. 


L :.skui.';li i.v 

iroiie,ToEcli,Worl(iiiausliiD and Darabiiit/. 

\f\\AA\yi KNAItF. A CO. 

Nos. 204 and 206 West Baltimore Streer, 
Baltimore. No. 112 Fifth Avenue, N. V 

San Francisco Savings Union, 

632 California Street, cor. Webb. 

Kiir the hall .vcar cnilinv'« ith Oecenilicr 31, I8S4, a 
di\'idenU has been rieclarcd at thu rate of fuiir ami thirt-v- 
two onv-huiulredtliK (4 ;i2-100) per cent per annum on 
tvrm (IcpOiiit!*, and three .and nix tenths (.'i 6-10) per ("ont 
per annum <*n ordinary deposits, free of ta\c8, {uiyalde 
on ami after Friday, Jaini.ary 2, 

I.O\ KLL WIIITK, I'asliier. 


The German Savings and Loan 

For the half year ending' Dcccuihcr 18»4, t ic Board 
of Pirectors of ttie CierniiLii St\ in^s and I.oaii Society ha» 
dcflarcd a dividend <tn term deposits at the 'rate of four 
and thirty-two oiie-hundredths (4 .'t^-IdO) per cent per 
umnnn. and on ordinary depti.sit.s at the rate of three and 
six-tenthn (:i 610) per cent j>cr annum, and itayable on 
and after the 2d dav of January, Issfi. Hv oi-rler 

CKi). LI'rrrK, secretary. 


■.|'j^ARTIF!piAI..llMBS IP 


Geary St, 1^ gg.g 


i OWXCS 6. S> f^f 

Jand'aby 10, 1885.] 

pACIFie I^URAlo f RESS. 




Authorized Capital, • - $1,000,000 

In lO.OOO Shares of $100 each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $645,360. 

Keserved Fund and Paid dp 8tock, $21,178. 

A. D. LOGAN President 

I. C. STEELE Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER Cashier and Manager 

FRANK Mcmullen secretary 


A. D. LOGAN, President Colusa County 

H J. LEWELLING, Napa County 

J. H. GARDINER Rio Vista, Cal 

T. E TYNAN Stanislaus County 

URIAH WOOD Santa Clara County 

J. C. MERYFIELD Solano County 

H. M. LARUE Yolo County 

I. C. STEELE San Mateo County 

THOMAS McCONNELL Sacramento County 

C. J. CRESSEY Merced County 

SENECA EWER Napa County 

CURRENT ACCOUNTS are opened and conducted in the 

usual way, bank books balanced up, and statements of 

accounts rendereil everj' month. 
LOANS ON WHEAT and country produce a specialty. 
COLLECTIONS throughout the Country are made 

promptly and proceeds remitted as directed. 
GOLD and SILVEtl deposits received. 
CERTIFICATES of DEPOSIT issued payable on demand 
BILLS OF EXCHANGE of the Atlantic States bought 


Cashier and Manager. 

San Francisco, Jan. 15, 1882. 


We (Icsiri! to call your attciitinti to the 

This niarhine is so simple in construction that anyone 
ran operate it successfully. Satisfaction guaranteed, or 
money refunded. Kor part.iculars and Testimonials 

0. B"x lo.")4. Los Angeles, Cal. 




Fire, Marine, Life, 

.... AND. . . . 

Accident Insurance Agents. 


Traveler's Life and Acciflent Insorance Co, 

Grain in Fielil and Warehou«o Insured In 
First-class Companies at Lowest Kates. 

OFFICE in Masonic Temple, Bridge 8t.,ST0CKT0N, CAL 


Oculist and Aurist, 

969 Broadway, Room 51, 

Hours: 9 to 12 A. M.: 1 to .S p. m. 


Lumber Company. 


No. 1310 Second Street, near M. 


Corner Twelfth and J Streets, 


c^o...o S , tl.ccuslomcr 

keeping tbc one 
».-.»v, ... - I I —I. lliat fails 

Order on trial, nrtrtress for rlrciilar and location of 
Western and Snnthern StoreMmiseB nml Acenis. 
P. t(. OEOERICK & CO., Albany, N. Y. 

A first class lodifing hotel, containing; 185 rooms; 
water and gas in each room; no better beds in the world: 
no guest allowed to use the linen once used by another: 
a large reading-room; hot and cold water; bathg free 
price of room per night, 60o. and 76c.; per week, from 82 
upward; open all night. At Ferrlea take Omnlbul Lio' 
iffteti to ^oiw«. R. pyo^EB, Propriftor. 









Makes Three Machines, as shown In Cut. Made of Polished Brass. Parts Interchange- 
able. Each Machine Complete in Itself. Just what is needed by every 
Farmer, Gardener, Nurseryman, Florist, Stockman, etc. 



Can <^haiisr*' from solid stream to spray instantly while puiiipinf^. It is the best, most power- 
ful, easiest working and cheapest first-class hand pump in the world. Regular retail price, ^pC.OO; weight, pounds; 

I challenge the world for their ecpial. For .Spraying Fruit Trees infested with insects of any k'nd they 
stand unrivaled. .Send for llUistrateil Catalogue, Price List and Terms to Agents, etc. I give the names and ad- 
dresses of in:ui\' of ni} aL'ents who make from §10 to $;J0 in a single da>-; also a long list of my customers, each itf 
whom has bought from s.W to .'?2,y0O worth of these goods in from one to three weeks' time. Farmers and panva.sacrs 
■an make from >fl« to •'j'ao per day. I gi\ e the largest profits and furnish the f.astest selling article in the United 
States to-tla\' Agents wanted e\ er>'whcrc. 

P. C. LEWIS, Catskill, N. Y. 

Those Piunps have iriven nie j^rcat satisfaction. —A. M. Pl■KD^■, Editor Fruit Hfcfirder. 



This large and well-kuown villa has been leased by C. C. Wheeler, of the Winsor. It has 
>een thoroughly renovated th oughout. The House and Cottages are situated on large and 
beautiful grounds. The Billiard and Reading Rooms have been handsomely fitted up for ladies 
and gentlemen. Jn close proximity is the Perry Seminary for young ladies, the Sackett School, 
the Misses Field's Home School for Young Ladies, California Military Academy, Hopkins' 
Academy, I'agoda Hill Kindergarten, and many other Schools. Cars pass the House every 
sevoi} minutes from Broadway Station to State University. Ten minutes from Broadway and 
forty minutes from San Francisco. Special rates to regular boarders and families. Telephone 
communications to local points free. 

C. C. WHEELER, Proprietor. 






A FULL LINE OF SHEET MUSIC. Violins, Guitars, Banjos, Flutes, 

Accordeons, Etc., Etc. 

Pianos Tuned, Polished and Repaired. Piano and Furniture Express. 



Berkeley, Alameda County, Cal. 


It is the aim of this institution to furnish the hest .attainable education for .vounf; women. The inmartinj; of 
useful intomiatioTi anil mental culture is attended by the most intelligent effort to deielo|> true womanly qualities 
and to instill priiioiples of {food taste and sound judgment. Thus, the institution possesses a funuly character in it 
best sense. 

The Charges for tuition and board are made as low as possible without sacrifioin? excellence, so as to iilace the 
School within the reach of those whose means are moderate. It is a principle of this School that tlioso who are 
wealthy as well as those whose means are limited, should, as a i)art of their i;dui;ati(in, be taujfht to practice eeon- 
omv, and by their ex,ample discourage extravagance in dress and personal expenditure, either for orn.ament or 

It is not an ambition of this School to hriii',' together a large and imposing array of pupils. Its numbers arc 
limited; hence each pupil receives that close personal attention and instruction rendered impossible where multi- 
tudes are gathered together. 

H. H. B!. 

H. H. H. 

llorite Jtlcdiclne. 
I>. n. T. - 

As a family remedy, we are safe in making the bold 
assertion that no liniment exists that will compare with 
the H. H. H. in curing the following diseases: 

KHEUMATISM— Apply freely to the parts affected 
and take internally- from 10 to 20 drops in from 2 to 3 
tablespoonfuls of water 3 times a day. 

DIAKKHCEA— Dose, as above. 

COI.1C— Same as above, repeated every half hour 
until relieved. 

TOOTHACHE -Saturate a piece of cotton and put 
it in tbc tooth, repeat in If) miinites if not relie\'ed. 

All other aches and pains apply freely to the parts 

As a horse medicine it is superior to any liniment ever 
invented. For KINGBONE, .SPAVIN, .SWEE- 
NEY, CALLOU.S I.Ui>irS, ami all OLD SORES, 
apply freely so as to blister, from tliree to five days in 
succession, and, in four or five days, if not cured, repeat 
ES, WIND GAL.LS, and all sliglit ailments, apply a 
small (|ua!)titv, so a3 not to blister. SADDLE 
SOliES, CUT.S, and all other sores where the skin is 
broken, mix the liniment, halt and half, with any kind of 
oil and apply in moderation. 

H. H. MOO^E & SONS, 


For Catalognes or other Information, address Misses HARMON, Berkeley, 
J. WICKSON, 414 Clay Street, San Francisco. 

Cal., or 



(H other Wringers. Has more capacity. The hearings of Rolls iicimI no 
oiliii$r. The coi wheels are ill ways In gear ; crank is not attached to 
the sliaft of either roll. "Em|iire" is warranted to give satisfaction. 
Sain|>l<^ to Agents (sec cut), or with the "NEW BECKER," at 
M liolcsair prices. \V rite at iinee tor Circular, as this .^{Ivcrtisement 
will not appear long. Mention th's paper. 

E W. MELVIN, Gen l Agent, Sacramento, fal 

I Many Agsnts are Making SS to S10 r^r Day " 

Seiliwo orn I^ifW Won« Fahmiku, 
ISiuKlft Copicn malltsii »a,60. . liiljnr 
i Tiihfv of (^imhnts wid H'nrnTii tirAgoiils 




For simplicity and durability it is the only reli?- 
1)1 ; C-atc now in use. No complex matliinery aboi t 
it. By a simpl.: '^ver it is thrown off the center of 
gravity, and opens and closes itself by its own 
weight. A child six years old can open and close 
it sitting in a buggy. 

It is THE (jATK when drivings skittish horse or 
yoimg colt, or when ladies do their own driving. 
No Fancy Residence shotild be without them, and 
every Farmer should have th.em where there is a 
Gate used. He will save time, besides taking the 
chances of his team leaving him while closing the 
old common Gate. 

These (jatcs are almost as cheap as any common 
Farm Gate. They are du'able, never get out of 
order, and will last a lifetime. 

Send for Circular giving reference and price list. 

F, O. Box 88, LivERMoKH, Alameua Co., Cal. 
<.}r James Stanley, Mission San Jose, do 

County rights fort^ale, apply toJoHN AvLWARn. 


I'rice Fifty l>olIars. 

First Premiums Awarded at Sonoma Co. Fair, 1882-1883. 

Farmers, Dairymen, Mechanics and Bu.sincss Men ha\o 
long felt the want of a cheap and simple power to dri\e 
Farm, Dairy and other Machinery. In these Powers this 
want is fully supi>licd, and thev are acknowledged by all 
who have used them to be the ciieapest, best and simplest 
Powers made. Powers made for one to fourteen horses. 
I also mamifacture all iron Ensilage or Hay Cuttejs. 
Also, Worth's system of heating dairy milk-rooms Ijy hot 
water. W. H. WORTH, 

Pctaluina. Foundry and Machine Works, Petaluma Cal. 

jsl. .A.iTi5:E:3Nr, 


Marble and Granite Works, 

617 K Street, bet. 6th and 7th, 

Monuments, Tomb and Grave Stones, 

All kinds of work done in Italian and Vermont Marble 
Direct importers of Hcotch Uranite iMonunients and 
Marblei/ed Slate Mantels. 
Orders fUlod for Duckhout'a Patent Hot-Air Grates. 

On Farms at Lowest Rates, 


408 Uontgoraorj St., San FrftDolica> 


pACIFie f^URAlo f RESS. 

[January 10, 1885 

ipdiiiills, tic. 






Is reco(;iuzciJ a- 


Alwavsfrivessutisfucti.m. SIMPLE, 
STRONG anil DUUABLK m all parte. 
Solid Wrou^ctit-iron Crank Shaft with 
DOUBLK BKARixos for thc CTank to 
work in, all turned and run in adjuat- 
able haljhitted boxes. 

Positively Sell-Regulating 

With no coil si.rint's. or «prin(,M of any kind. No little 
rods, joints, levers, or anythin); of the kind to get out of 
order, af. such things do. Mills in u»e 6 to 12 years in 
eood order now, that ha^ e never cost one cent for repairs. 
All ecimine Enterprise Mills for the Pacmc Coast trade 
come o,.lv through this ai-enoy, and none, whether of 
thc old o"r latest pattern, are genuine except those bear- 
ing the "Entcn'risc Co." stamp. Look out for this, as 
Inferior mills are bcins offered with testimonials appli«l 
to them which were pven for ours. Prices to the 
times. Full particulars free. Best Pumps, Feed Mills, 
etc., kept in stock. Address, 


GENERAL OFFICE AND SUPPLIES (as always before), 

San Francisco Agency-JAMBS LINFOBTH 
23 Main St., near Market. S. F. 




Santa Clara County A);ricultu- 

ral Fair in 18V9, 1S80, 1S81 and 
and at the State Fair in 
I 1^'i:!. THE CENTENNIAL is 
I tlic Most Powerful, Durable 

and Comiilcte Machine for the 
] utilization of « ind-powor ever 
I invented. Its advantaKCs are 
I armt power combined with 

S'lni'lii ity. Manufactured by 


I Corner 9th and St. James St. 
I ban Jose, Cal. P. 0. Box, 758. 

tiT Agents wante^l, and 
I County Rights for sale. 


Requires less atten- 
I tion, is more durable, 
and less complicated 
I y than any other mill. 
I • ' 1 The nmehiiiery is constructed 
on scientilic principles, and 
I so well proportioned and 
I securely fastened that brcak- 
ai^e is impossible. Took first 
I premium at thc San Mateo 
I and Santa Oara Fair of 1.S83. 


BENTLE"? & SMITH, Prop s Mfrs., 
San Jose. Cal. 


• nd Ka^iest Kfilulatfl Wind 
Enclnr In tho world. .<. iid 

Bncreuorv to R. ('. hrtttX h Co. 

All Worklne Parts 
in>/le ul .Miillt ablc Iron- 

and all kinds of Pumping' Machinery built to orders 

Beale .St., 



Restorative Pills. 

I'.UV .NnNi; lu i' IIIK CKNL INE. 

A Specific for Exhausted Vitality, Physical 
Debility, Wasted Forces, etc. 

Approved by the .\cadLiiiy of Mcclicine, Paris, and by 
medical celebrities of the world. Aoksts for California 
and the Pacific States: 

J. G. STEELE & CO., 
635 Market St., (Palace Hotel) San Francisco, Cau 
Sent by mail or express anywhere. 
PRICES HKDUCED.-Box of 50, ?1.25; of 100, $2.00 
of 200, Sa.oO; of 4IX), S6.00. Preiwrafcory Pills, S2.00, 


200*os Ixx Olose 0-i_i.ltlva,tlorx ! 



Comie Transparent & So (no 2 alike) Chromo Cards, 
MWi* on, 10«. ?rMent trefi. A. Hlnea, C4H\ille, 

Oakland, Alameda County, Cal. 



Embracing all the Leading Varieties of Apple, Pear, Peach, Plum, Prune, Apricots, Neetarinea and ClMfTieti 
Also the Largest and Most Complete .Assortment of 

3\rE:A7v j^.NJ[^ rt-A-iiE: r"nxjiTs 

On Uie Pacific Coast, including many California productions of great promise. 




The Greatest Plum for Shipping Long Distances, 

Remaining Solid Longer than any other. 
Ripens in September. The Earliest in Bearing. 

The Largest Fruit. The Smallest Pit. 

The Finest Quality. The Best Shipper. 

The Most Attractive. A Regular Bearer. 

A valuable acquisition to our list of Eastern Shipping Fruits, possessing all the merits of our best Plums, vtnth 
added firmness and brightness of color: hence, with Its immense size, it is the most profitable for market, and the 
most desirable for general use of all Plums. 

Headquarters for the 





Clematis and Flowering Plants, Small Frnits, Grapevines, Etc. 

Our Trees are grown on New Ground without Irrigation, and are 

iS' Before Purchasing elsewhere, people Intending to plant Trees will find It to tbelr 
Interest to come and see our Stock and learn our Prices. 


The University and Telegraph Avenue Street Cars Stop at the Nurserlee. 
COEBESPONDENCE SOLICITED. Address all Communications to 

%7i ITistb 8t, 0»U»p4, Gal- 

Cominissiop Hercliapts. 


319 California St., S. F. 



t^B&gB and Twine for Sale. 

Grangers' Easiness Association, 


No. 38 California St.. - San Francisco. 

Conaignmenta of GRAIN, WOOL, DAIRY PRODUCE, 
Dried FYuit, Live SU>ck, etc^ solicited, and liberal ad- 
vances made on the same. 

Careful and prompt attention paid to orders for the 
purchasing of Qrain and Wool Sacks, Wagons, Agricult- 
ural Implements, Provisions, Merchandise, and suppUea 
of all kinds. 

Warehouse and Wharf: 

At "THE ORANGBBS'," Contra Costa Oo. 

Grain received on storat^e, for Bhipraent, for sale on 
oonsignnient. Insurance effected and liberal advancen 
made at lowest rates. Farmers may rely on their gnin 
being closely and carefully weighed, and on having their 
other iutereets faithfullv attended to. 



Fruit ill Gtiiril Conuo Usrcliut:, 

And Wholesale dealers in California and Oregon Produce 
Also, Qrain, Wool, Hides. Beans, Potatoes, Cheese, 
Eggs, Butter and Honey. 

Rrirlr QtnnDC • i No. 40a Datib Strut and 
Dl lUn OlUICd. \ 120 Wa8HI1<otoi«St.,8. K. 

Prompt returns. Adnnce lilH-rally on consignments. 

Khtablishei) 186^. 


300 DavlH St., San Francl^rn, 

Consignments of Grain, Potatoeti, BeanB 
Fruit. Dried Fruit. Etc.. Solicited. 

^VAIso want Poultry, Etrgs, Hides, Pelts, Honey and 
Beeswax. Dairy Produce lari,'ely dealt in. Prompt re- 
turns made and satisfaction guaranteed. Interior orders 
i-arcfully flllc<1.-» 



Importers and 

Wholesale Grocers 

And Dealers io 


Front St. Block, bet Clay k Washington, San Pranciaca. 
iS'Spedal attention given to country traders. 
P. O. Box 1940. 

Gio. Morrow. (Estiblisiicd 1354.) Org. P. Morrow. 




SQ Clay Street and 28 Commercial Street 

San Frahcisco, Cal. 

tm" snippmo orders a specialty. ^ 


Commission Mercl\ants 




Qrain, Wool, Hides, Beam, and Potatoes. 

S08 and 310 DAVIS ST.. 
P. 0. Box 1938. SAN FRAKCISOO. 





Membera of the San Francisco Produce Exchange. 

810 California St., San Frtmclsco. 
1^ Liberal advances made on consignments. 

Commission Merchants 


No. 76 Warren St.. - - - New York. 

Referbkcbh: Tradesnsen's National Bank, N. Y.; K|. 
wanger ft Barry, Rochester, N. Y.; C. W. Beed. Sacramento, 
Old.: A. Lnsk ft Oo . San Franoisco OaL 

Tbl8 paper Is printed with Ink Manufac- 
tured by Charles Eneu Johnson Sc Co.. 500 
South 10th St., Philadelphia. Branch Offi- 
ces - 47 Rose St.. New york ■ and 40 La Salle 
St, Chicago. AKent for the Pacific Coast— 
Joaecb H. Oorety. 629 Commercial St.. S. F. 

January 10, 1885.] 


state Board of Silk Culture. 

A meeting of the State Board of Silk Cultur- 
ists was held Dec. .SOth, at 40 f California street, 
but owing to the lack of a ((uorum, President 
Backbee immediately declared it adjourned, 
until Jan. Cith. Business was considered, how- 
ever, by the Kxecutive and Health Committees, 
in semi-formal session, immediately after the 

The Health Committee thought it advisable 
that the public should be informed through the 
press, that the Board had at present on hand a 
large quantity of ailkworm eggs, for sale and 
distribution, all of which are of the finest va- 
riety ever brought to this country. They were 
raised by an experienced silk culturist, and 
their health and purity are vouched for. 

The Kxecutive Committee recommended that 
President Buckbee go to \ aoaville and deliver 
a lecture there upon silk culture for the benefit 
of something over 100 families, who, living in 
the vicinity upon small fruit ranches, were 
anxious to combine silk culture with their other 

During the proceedings President Buckbee 
stated that from all the indications, at least 50 
ounces of eggs would be needed this spring to 
supply our State. Between one and two hun- 
dred people will begin producing this year, 
their mulberry plantations being sufficiently ad- 

_ Before the members separated, it was men- 
tioned that the silk exhibit at the New Orleans 
Exposition is one of the chief attractions of the 
California display, as evidenced by dispatches 
received by the Board. On .January .5th there 
was no <|uorum, and the Board adjourned to 
the next regular meetine:. 

Hoi.sTKiN Cattf.e. — We would call attention 
to the advertisement of Holstein cattle in this 
issue of the RuRAl, by William Niles, of Los 
Angeles. Mr. Niles recently brought in a car- 
load of this popular breed of cattle to add to 
the business w. ich he has already done in this 
line. The efforts of tlie several breeders and 
importers promise to make the Holstein interest 
in this State active and extended, and we are 
glad of it. 

Don't Fail to Write. 

Should this paper be received by any subscriber who 
does not want it, or beyond the time he intends to pay 
for it, let him not fail to write ua direct to stop it. A 
postal card fcostinif one cent only) will suffice. We 
will not knowingly send the paper to anyone who does 
not wish it, but if t is continued, through the failure of 
the subscriber to notify ua to discontinue it, or some 
rresponaible party requested to stop it, we shall positively 
demand pavmnnt for the time it In nnnt. 

At the World's Fair. 

Back numbers and the latest files of this paper will be 
fiMiul in the ('alifornia Department, and also in the 
Newspaper Exchange Department, of the World's Fair, 
New Orleans. Mr. W. H. .lessiip, of the horticultural 
section of the California Department, can be? consulted on 
business terms for this oftife, extra copies, etc. 

Dewey & Co. s Scientific Press 
Patent Agency. 

Our U. S. and Forkign Patent Agency pre- 
sents many and important advantages as a 
Home Agency over all others, by reason of long 
establishment, great experience, thorough sys- 
tem, intimate ac juaintance with the subjects of 
inventions in our own community, and our most 
extensive law and reference library, containing 
official American and foreign reports, files of 
scientific and mechanical publications, etc. All 
worthy inventions patented through our Agency 
will have the benefit of an illustration or a de- 
scription in the MiNiNd and SciENTtKio Pres)?, 
We transact every branch of Patent business, 
and obtain Patents in all countries which grant 
protection to inventors. The large majority of 
U S. and b'oreign Patents issued to inventors 
on the Pacific Coast have been obtained through 
our Agency. We can give the best and most 
reliable advice as to the patentability of new 
inventions. Our prices are as low as any first- 
class agencies in the Eastern .States, while our 
advantages for Pacific Coast inventors are far 
superior. Advice and Circulars free. 

DEWEY & CO., Patent Agents. 
No. 252 Market St. Elevator, 12 Front St,, 
S. F. Telephone No. 658. 





o o 3\r js XT 3vt 3F»T I o ixr. 

Bronchitis, Influenza, Asthma, 

Soi.D HY ALL DR(_r(;r;iSTS FOR FlKTV Cents. 

J. K. <iATKS A <'4». Proprietors, 

417 Sansome Street. San Francisco. 

List of D. S. Patents for Pacific Coast 

(From the official list of U. S. Patents in Dewry & Co.'s 
SciKNTiFic Prbss PATENT AoKNCY, 252 Market St., S. F. 


30Q,6io. — Sticam Actuated Valve— Geo E 
Dow, S. F. 

309,787.— KxpLOSivE CoMi'OUNu— E. Tudson, 
S. F. ■' 

309,634. — Mechanical Movement — Lowe, 
Westgate & Banks, Logan City, A. T. 

309.5S9- — <^AR Coupling — S. T. Northcutt, 
Brooks, Or. 

309,645.— Windmill— Orcutt & Wood, Los An- 
geles, Cal. 

309,650.— Pi,ow—J. f). Rollins, Chioo, Cal. 
309,671.— Cultivator Tooth— Jos. Williams, 
San Jose, 

FOR WEEK ending DECEMBER 30, 1884. 

3C9.8S5.— Oatmkal Mill— Holloway& Hudson, 
Sal mas, Cal. 

309.852.— Ullipsograph—H. T. Hazard, Los 
Angeles, Cal. 

309,960. — Binnacle Lamp— J. Keane. S. F. 

309,865.— Hydraulic Gate and Valve— Jos. 
Moore, S. F. 

310,078.— .Sled— N. B. Peterson, Seattle, W. T. 

310, 149.—, Drawer, Step and Shelving 
for Stores -F. J. Protzman, Portland, Or. 

310,084. — Lock- (ieo. W. Robert,, Walla Walla, 
W. T. 

309.982. — Tube Structure for Cable R. R. — 
Henry Root, S. F. 

309.983. — Switching Device — Henrv Root, 
S. F. 

309,997.— F-xtension Ladder— S. S. Thompson, 
S. F. 

310,100,— Jack Screw— W. W. Vaughan, Stock- 
ton, Cal. 

f Note.— Copies of 11. S. and Foreign Patents furnished 
by DKWRY& Co., in the shortest time possible (by tele- 
graph or otherwise,) at the lowest rates. American 
and Foreign patents obtained, and all patent business for 
Pacific ('oast inventors transacted with perfect security 
and in the shortest possible time. 

Rone Fertilizers.- Much has been written 
of the value of bone fertilizers for orchard, vine- 
yard and field use. An advertisement on page 
40 tells of an auction sale of a large lot. It will 
probably be a rare chance to secure fertilizers 
at a low price and is worthy of attention. 

The Rural Press.— The Pacific Rural 
Press closes its twenty-eighth volume with the 
issue of the 2Tth instant. The Rural Press 
is a most excellent agricultural and family 
paper, and should brighten the home of every 
farmer in the State. Tne valuable information 
gained from readiiig one number of the paper is 
worth more to the practical farmer than the 
price of a year's subscription. May the Rural 
Press continue to grow in usefulness. — 
Helciii! Star. 



Thorough and Practical in all Departments. 

■Senh for Catalogub. 



International Patent Bureau, 

WM. A. BBL.I., Manager, 

No. 507 Montgomery Street, 

8an Francisco, Cal. 


Throughout the U. S., Canada and Europe. 
Foreign Office International Patent Bureau, 

a. DITTHAB, Uanager, Berlin, Oermanv. 


The Annual Meeting of the .Stockholders of the 
Grangers' Bank of California for the election of Directors 
and the transaction of such other biisincBs an may come 
j before the meeting, will be held on Tuesday, the lath 
d!vy of tlanuary, ISSf), at 1 o'clock 1'. M., at the office o( 
the liank, corner California and Battery Streets, San 
Francieco, Cal . 

FRANK MrMULLEN, Secretary. 

D. N. & O. A. HAWLEY, 

AOl to S07 1VI4RKET STREET, 8. V, 




Soxxcl fox* On.t^log;xi.e. 

( .SAI.KSI400M. Market .St., rlalll/ISLU, Ual. 

WAREHOUSE. S. W- Corner I 
( 75240 feet.) 5tli & Klnff Sts. i 

N K. HASTEN, President. 

M. T. BREWER, Manager. 

C. B JENNINCiS, Treasurer. 



California Green and Dried 


408 and 410 Davis Street, - - - San Francisco, Cal, 

We have Uasurpaased Facilities for Selling and Disposing of Goods. 
es'Try us and be convinced 



Patent Straw-Burning 



All kindf of aecond-hand Portable Engines (Straw and 
Wood Burning) for sale and to rent on reasonable terms. 



San Joae. OaI. 


Best Fertilizer In tho World. For Sale In 
Lots to Suit. 


121 California St.. 8. F. 
Or PACII-'KI KHUIT CO., 40« and 110 Davis St. 


A. & J. HAHN, Prop'rs, 
Nos. 278, 275, 277 and 279 Main Street, Stockton, Cal. 
Raten, $1.85 to $3 Per Day. 

Stage offieea tor C'ollcgevillc and Oakdalo, Roherts and 
Union Islands, and Lanc'» Mineral Springs stages. The 
most desirable location in the city. Refurnished and refit- 
ed In the best style for the accommodation of the public 
trne nnaoh from all trains and steamboats to the hotel. 

ncu/cv JL m 'C sc;ik:<tific press paten r 

UCl¥ C I (X l/U. O AUENCY is the oldest estab- 
lished and most successful on the Pacific Coast. No. 252 
Market St., Elevator 12 Front St., S. F. 



Four-Hand Treasure.— .lust out. Collection of tho 
best Piano Duets, by fatuous composers; generally 
(|iiite aasy, and a good and entertaining book for all 
homes where there arc two piano i)layers. 

Minstrel .Songs— Old and New.— Immensely popu- 
lar. All the best Minstrel, Plantatiun, and Jubilee 

Mu.sical Favorite. | 

Gems f»f Strauss. . pu^o Mtsic. 

fiems of the Dance. ) 

fiems of English fioug. \ 

Beauties of Saered Song. . Vocal Mi sic. 

FrBn7,*9 All>uin of Songs, j 

The above eight books arc uniform in binding; each 
contains 200 to 2.W sheet muMC size pages, and each costs, 
In Hoards, *2; Cloth. $2.M; (!ilt, ^3. 
Students' Life in ,Song. SI. 50. 
Rhymes and Tunes. Boards, «1.26; Cloth, #1.50; 

$:j.OO; Gilt, $2.00. 
Norway Music Album. Boards, $2 r>0; Cloth, 

Gilt, i=-4.00. 

Also 20 Volumes of Musical Literature, attractive, well 
bound, and interesting, among which are Ritttir's .Stu- 
ilent's History of Music, *2 .W, and the Lives of 
the various Great Masters of Music. 

Also, many Christmas Carols. 

Send for lists. Any book mailed for the retail price. 


C. H. DITSON & CO., • • 867 Broadway, New York 

tree. J 


liy mailSJic. Circularg 
8. ButoB & Co.. 88 Dot St. N. Y ■ 

THEO. SKILLMAN. Petaluma, Cal., importer and 
breeder of thoroughbred Poland-China Hogs. 


fAeiFie R.URAL f RESS. 

[January 10, 1885 

Lapd? l^of ?ale apd Jo Let. 
For Lease and for Sale, 

40 000 ACRES 

Of good 1 .ml in Fresno, near the County Seat. 
.Some of this land is already irrigated, and 
all can be easily irrigated. It is 
adapted not only to (irain, 
but aUo to Alfi'fa, 
Kruit r.nd N'iues. 

I 000 ACRES 

Of the above land for sale at the low price of 
§•20 per acre. Apply to 

402 Kearny St., San Francisco. 

THE "73 


Of Fresno and Tulare Counties. 


Fruit, Vine, Alfalfa, and Grain Lands, 


IjOCATION.— The lands of the 78 Laml ami Wafer 
Company are located in Kresno and Tulare Counties, Cal- 

WATER- - Tliesc lands are irrisated by the "6 Vana\, 
wliich takes its water out of Kinjj'a Kiver, alnne all 
ditches, is 100 feet wide on bottom, with capacity to irri- 
gate 220,000 acres of land. 

QUikLITY- — The soil varies in character, among 
which are the celebrated Ked Land, White Ash or Pumice, 
Sandy and Clayey Loam and Dry Bog. 

ADAPTATION.- Oraijcs (wine and raisin), all va 
rieties of Fruit, Alfalfa, Corn, Potatoes, Wheat, Barley 
Broom Corn, etc., all of which can be produced in im 
niense quantities. 

HEALTH.— One of the most healthy locations in the 
State; summer days warm, but Dot oppressiTe; nights 

LEASING.— Lands with water, for terms of year5 
or cash or portion of crop. 

PRICES.— From *10 to ^40 per acre, with pennancnt 
Water Kight included. Colony Lots, in tracts of 20 acres 
each, adapted to Fruit and Vines, within one mile of Kail- 
road Station at Travcr, at $40 per acre, with permanent 
Water Riglits. 

TERMS-— One-fourth cash; balance in three years; 
interest, 8 per cent per annum. 

TITLE-— Perfect V. S. I'atent. 

VALUES.— Lands are rapidly inhancing in value, 
and no better opportunity can be found for safe invest- 

0"For further particulars and pamphlet, address 

Kltcla-oxxox* efis Bfils-Ol", 

Agents 76 Laml and W.iter Co., 

Traver, Tulare Co., Cal. 

New and Valuable Fruits! 


Now for gale for tlio llrMt time, at $1 oach 
or G fi»r !^(>. 

This is a fine Ornamental I'lant, hearing fine 
fruit all the year round. Also: 

riTAYA, the Clinibing Cactus, producing \cry fine 
Frnit and Flowers. 

ANONA, the Guatemala Custard Apple, very fine flavor 
and very harily. 

PKAU-FORMED GUAVA, larjest and best for Jellies. 



Central American Tropical Nursery 


One thousand acres of VINEYARD. ORCHARD ANl: 
ALFALFA fj.\NU in FreHim County, near the town of 
Fresno, at $15 per acre, as a whole, or $'40 per acre in 
subdivisions. Apply to 


402 Kearuv St.. S. F. 


AVitlioiit Irrijfftti ion, 

Fre*? by mail, ajMiclmen numl»er of "The Cali/ornian Rtal 
Sit\9Ai ExcfuiHut and Mart," full of reliable iuformatioD ou 
ate, pruductiuud, etc.. of 


Address. "EXCHANGE ANl) MART." Santa Onii. OaL 



This old and reliable firm is now located at their 
New Building, 
Number 750 Misition .Street, Sau Francinco, 
This immense structure is 00x160 feet, four stories and 
basement The first and second stories are used ai> sale- 
rooms for a new and select clas.'^ of goods of latest designs 
and i>attern8. Parties » ishing to furnish a bouse will save 
from 15 to 2.') per cent by purchasing their goods here. 



by practical exiwrience, found that the JUUSON POWUEK especially, is the best adapted to RtlMOVE 
STUMPS and I'llKKS. 

FKOM 5 TO ao POCXnS OF THI.S POWDER will always bring any sized stump or tree with 
roots clear out of the ground. The l«.\I'KNSE IS LKSS THAN ONB-HALF the cost i>f Grubbing 

In most instances, Giant Powder, or any other "lli'.;h Kxplosive," is too ui. k, -ind ordinary Blasting Fowiler 
not -strong enoULrb. 

i^'For particulars how to use the same, apply to 

BANDMANN, NIELSEN & CO., General Agents 





It Is the best selling 
tool on earth. 

'Clod Crusher, 
and Leveler. 

The "ACME" subjects the soil to the action of a Steel Crusher and Leveler, and to the Cutting. 
Lifting, TurniDK procesc of dnvMf gangx of CAST STEEL COULTERS, the peculiar shape and arrange- 
ment of which gi\c immense ctitting power. Thus the three operations of crushing lumps, leveling 
otT the ground and thoroughly pulverizing the soil arc iierforuiecl at tlie same time. The entire ab- 
sence of Spikes or .Spring Teeth avoids pulling up rubbish. It is especially adapted to inverted sod and hard 
clay, where other Harrows utterly fail; works jwrfectly on light soil, and is the only Harrow that cuts over the 
entire surface uf the ground. We make a variety of sizes, 3 to 15 feet \vi4le. 

The " .\CME" is in praetir;il use in nearly every Agricultural County on the I'acilic Coast, and has proved itself 
(o be just the tool for use in VINKY.VKOS, ORCHARDS, and GRAIN riELUS. 

««"Send for Pamphlet containing Thousands of Testimonials from 48 different States 
and Territories. 

Manufactory and Principal Otlice, Millinarton, N. J. 
N. B. — Pamphlet "TIL1..\(1E IS MANURE, and Oiiikr FiiSAVS," sent free to parties who name this paper- 


Geo. Bull Si Co-, 21 and 23 Main St-, San Francisco; G. B- Adams & Son, San Gabriel, 
Cal.; Staver la Walter, Portland, Or , and Walla Walla, W. T- 




3,000 i]xr TJiSU : 

Something New, Shaw Slip-Share Gang Plow. Send for Circulars 


S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Avenue, San Francisco. 

tr Free Coach to and from the House. J. W. BECKER, Proprietor. 

\\J R SANOSTEU, SAN JOSE, CAL., HA.S BASKET OPLBKiiiu!— Latent Style ehronio cards- name, 10a Pre 
\y , Willow for sale. 1 O niiuni with '1 pack*. K- U- PAKUEE, New Uaven,Ct. 

bfeeder?' directory. 

Six Uaes or leas in this Directory at EOc. a line per nioiith 


O. W. SESSIONS, San Mateo, Cal. Thoroughbred 
White and Brown I.eghorns, *2 each, eggs 10 cents eaeli- 
I.angshan eggs, vi\ Plymouth Rock eggs, ;<1--W- Gulden 
tJate and Axford Incubators cheap, used one season. 


further information address 1. V. Clarke, Hayfield, Cal. 

1 It., boxes, 40 cts.; 3 lb. boxes, <l; 10 It. traxes, $2.60; 
26 Bi. boxes, $6. This is the only pre|«ration in the 
world that will positively prevent every disease of poul 
try and make hens lay. Aak your grocer or druggist for 
it. B. F. Wellington, Prop'r, *2» Washington St., 8. F. 

CUTTING & ROBINSON, P. O. Box 7, Stockton, 
Va.\., lni|>orters anil Breeders of all kinds of Land and 
Water Fow Is- Send 2 c-cnt stamp for Circular. 

GEO- B- BAYLEY, 1317 Castro St., Oakland, Im- 
porter and Breeder of all the best known and most 
jirolitable Land and Water Fowls, and manufacturer 
of Poultry Appliances in great variety. Send stamp 
for Circular. 

MRS. L. J. WATKINS. San Jose, Cal. Purebred 
Fancy Poultry. White and Brow n Leghorns, Plvmouth 
Hocks, Langslians and Uoudans. Eggs and Fowls. 

H . STODDARD, Santa Barbara, breeder of pure Dark 
Brabnias, ■'Philander Williams" strain; also Peacocks. 

MRS. M. E. NEWHALL, San Jose. White and 
lirc.wn Leghorns, Langslians, Plymouth Kocks, Light 
Bralinias, Pekin L>ucks ami Bronze Turkeys. 

T. D. MORRIS, Sonoma. Cal. Tuolouse and Embden 
Oeese, Bronze and W. Holland Turkeys, and all leading 
varieties of Thoroughbred Poultry. 

W. C- DAMON, Na|>a, Cal. Pure White Leghorns a 

specialty- Fowls, isi; eggs, 10 cents each. 

D. D. BRIGGS, Los Oatos, Cal., importer and breeder 
of Langshans, W. F. Ul. Spanish, Bl. Hamburgs, B. B. 
11. Ked and White Pile, and Uolden Duek Wing Uames, 
Bl. Samatra's, Malay's, Colde.i Polan.l's, Pukin and 
Mascovy Ducks. Circulars free- 

SMITH'S POULTRY YARDS, Blanding avenue, 
bet- Everett and Broadway, Alanieda, CaL Address, 
Chas. W- Smith, P. O. Box 57, Oakland, Cal. 

Cal. Thoroughbred Poultry and %g8 (or wle. Also 

O. J. ALBEE, Santa t'lara, Cal , Box 'J'29, Breeder of 
Thoroughbred PouUr>'. 


SEE H. PIERCE'S Jersey advertisem't in this pa)>er 
P. J. SHAFTER, Olema, Cal. Breeder of fine Jerseys 

J. R. ROSE, Lake\ ille, Sonoma Co., CaL Breeder 
of Thoroughbred Dcvons, Koadslers and Draft Horses. 

SUtion, S. F. & N. P. K. K. P. O., Penu's Grove 
Sonoma Co., Cal. Wilfred Page, Manager. Breeders 
of Short Horn Cattle, English Draft Homes, Spanish Me- 
rino Sheep and Berkshire Swine. 

MRS. M. E. BRADLEY, San Jose, Cal. Brecdei 
of recorded thoroughbred Short Horn Cattle and Berk- 
shire Hogs. A choice lot of young stock (or sale. 

PETER SAXE & SON, Lick House, San Fraocisoo, 
Cal. Importers and Breeders, for past 14 years, of 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

J. A. BREWER, Centerville, Al.inieda Co., Cal. 
Short Horns and Gratles. Corresjiondenee solicited. 

SYLVESTER SCOTT. Cloverdale, Soni>ma Co. 
Cal., breeder of Thoroughbred Short Horns. 

GEORGE BEMENT, Redwood City, San MateoCc, 

Cal. Breeder of Ayrshire Cattle, Southdown Sheep aud 
Berkshire Dogs. All kinds of stock for sale. 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Thorough 
bred Poultry, Cattle aud Hogs- Write (or circular. 


WM. MUTH-RA8MUSSEN. Independence. Inyo 
County, Cal., dualvr in ilont-y, Comb foundation, and 
Italian (Queens in 8c>a»i>n. Bee-hive and frame ma- 
terial sawed to order. 

J. D. BNAS, Sunnyside, Napa, Gal., breeds Pure 
Italian l^ucens. No foul bruod. Cunib Foundation, 
Kxtroctors, etc ''Cook's Manual of the A|>iary." 

HICKS* HIVE— The best movable frame hive in use. 
Alsu all kinds of Apiarian supplies. "North Amerii'an 
Beekeepers' Guide." Send for Circulars and price list. 
<jucen Bets, tta C.R Wliiting, 42 Merchants' Kx.,S. F. 


JULIUS WEYAND, breeder of pure blooded An- 
gora Cioat«, Little Stony, Colusa Co., CaL 

L- U- SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and breeder 
of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Red Duroo 
and Berkshire Swine High graded llama (or sale. 


WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, CaL Thoroughbred 
Poland-China and Berkahiro Piirs- Circulars fre«. 

JOHN RIDER, Sacramento, Cal. Breeder o( Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My stock o( Hogs are all 
recorded in the Amerioan Berkshire Reoord. 

TYLER BEACH, San Jose, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
ouirhbred Berksbiren. 


••>h VruAhrr. aim Hievn 

ii TliiV take LESS* 

^POAVKK, do >Iore Work, 
uiitlan.- morftdurttblf ihtiii any 
otheriiiill. Sf^i<l /nr JfeneriiiiivA 
<\ualo>iur. aIho man'frs Of tha 
Union Eorae Power, vlth L«vol 
Tread. Thresh^n amt ClMnff, 
Cuttm, Circular Sate*, etf. 

January 10, 1885] 







NORMAL, ilii 



(Formerly of firm of E. Dillon & Co.) 


Arrived in fine condition June ISth, 1884. Have now a 
large collection of choice animals. 

Stables & Headquarters Located at Normal, 

Opposite the Illinois Central and Chicago and Alton 
Depots. Street cars rnn from the Lake Erie 
& Western, and Indianapolis, Bloomington 
and Western Depots, in Bloomington, di- 
rect to our stables in Normal. 
Address, DILLON BROS., Normal. Illinois. 


The nndersig"ned has a few choice Registered Calves of 
this breed for sale at reasonable prices. 




Lo3 Angeles, Cal. 

Regist';red in the A. J. C. C and A. Q. C. C, 
'»f New York, only Standai'd 

Jersey Belle of Scituate that Made 25 lbs. 
4i OZ3. of Butter In one week. 

A grandson of above cow is now in use in the Yerba Buena 
Thisherd won all the herd prizes for 1382. Since then have been 
added yoimg animals from Mr. Pierce's valuable herds East. 
He now has Jersey Belle of Scituate, Coomassie, Mivry Ann 
of St Lambert, Parmer's Gloiy and Eurotas strains; also 
large selections from the Islands, withoiit regard to cost. 
He has interest in Eastern herds of 200, at the head of which 
stand only livmg sou of Jersey Belle, Romeo de Bonair (87J 7, 
Mary Ann's blood), and Pierson, the best show bull iu Amer- 
ica These bulls are valued at 810,000 each. 

HENRY PIERCE, San Francisco. 

Thoroughbred and Graded Short Horns 

At San Mateo Rancho, San Mateo, Cal. 

Apply on premises to S. U. GOODHUE, or 

523 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 


That the public .should know that for the past Fourteen Years our Sole Business has been, and now is, 
importing (Over 100 Carloads) and breeding improved Live Stock—Horses, Jacks, Short Horns, Ayrshires 
and Jerseys (or Alderneys) and their grades; also, all the varieties of breeding Sheep and Hogs. We can sup- 
ply any and all good animals that may be wanted, and at very reasonable prices and on convenient 
terms. Write or call on us. HETEH SA.\E and HOMER I*. SA.XE. 

.San Francisco, Cal., Oct. 22, 1884. I'ETKK SAXE & SON, tick House, S. K. 

300 Mckens^h'Se 


Poultry Association 

Send for Circulars and Price List. 

E. VAIT ^OORDEIT <Sc CO., Boston, Mass. 


r>50 HEAD ON' U.\ND. 

Largest and Choicest Herd in this Country. 

'V-~-, . - J.*,i£V..£i^-l<^ - 

Every Animal selected by .a member of the 
firm in person* 

Over thirty yearl>' records made in this herd average 
14,212 llis. 5 ounces; average age of cows 4^ years. 

In 1881 our entire herd of mature cows averaged 14,164 
His. 16 ounces. 

In 1882 our entire herd of eight thrce-year i Ids averaged 
r2,HSS lbs. ounces. 

April 1, 18.S4, ten cows in this herd had made records 
from 14,U00 to 18,00(1 each, averaging 1. '5,608 lbs. 6 ,3-10 ozs. 

For the year ending June, 1884, five mature cows aver- 
aged 15,621 U.S. I 2-5 ounces. 

Seven heifers of the Netberland Family, five of them 2 
y<'.ars old and tw II y years old, averaged 11 His 12-.^ 


Nine cows a\ eragcd 17 lbs. 5^ oumtes per week. 
Eight heifers, :i years old, averaged 13 lbs 4;j ounces 
per week. 

Ele\ cn heifers, 2 years old and younger, averaged 10 
lbs. :i ounces per week. 

The entire original iini>orted Netberland Family of six 
cciws (two being but 3 years old) averaged 16 lbs. 7 7-12 
ounces per week. 

i^When writing always mention 





1884.-TW0 Gold Medals this Year.-1884. 

The Petaluma has led four years in succession. 

3 Gold Medals, 1 Silver Medal, and 14 
other Premiums. 

No other iNcucAToa in the United States can show the 
record the PETALUMA can. «®-Seiid for full Descrip- 
tive Circular, No. 9. Address 

P. O. Box 242. Petaluma, Cal. 


Of this Society will be held 

... AT. . . . 


Cor. Stockton & Geary Sts., San Francisco, 

. . . .FKOM THE. . . . 

19th to the 24th of January next, 


i^Entry List positively closes January 15th. 

For Prcmiuin Lists and any further Informati n, ad- 
dress the Secretary, 


Box 1771, San Francisco. 

Imp<u-ter and Breeder ol dudce l*»>ultr>'— L.-ingsbajis, 
Light Brabmas, Partridge Cochins, Plymouth Ror'ks. A 
trio of Langshans, imported direct from Croad'g Yard, 
England. Eggs and young stock for sale. Send for far- 
ther information. 

0\ Short Horn Cattle and Dairy Cows. 

Catalogues and Prices on application to 

Baden Station. ... San Mateo Go 

For Sale at our Farm at Mountain View 
From our Thoroughbred Berkshire Boar and Sow, 
which we imported from England in 1S80. Pigs from Im- 
ported Boar and Sow. $2t each; from Imported Boar and 
Thoroughbred Sow, $10 to *20. Our Imported Piga are as 
nice PiK8 as there are in the State. Address : 

I. J. TRUMAN, San Francisco, Cal. 



nnn tons capacity. 75 OOO 

/ OjUUU storage at Lowest Hates. * 

CII.Vni>ES H. SINCtAlK, Supt. 
V.M. DRV ItllCK rO.. Hrop8.-Oflicc 318 Cal. St., room. 3. 

ANQEbu's Liver Pills cure rheumatism and headache. 


Combined Toggle Lever and Screw Press, 

I desire to call the 
attention of Wine and 
(.'ider makers to my 
Improved Press 
With this Press the 
inoveincnt of the fol 
lower is fast at the 
ctimnicncemont, mov- 
ing one and a half 
inches with one turn 
of the screw. The last 
turn of the screw 
mo.ea the follow 
one-sixteenth of an 
inch. The follower 
has an uj) and down 
movement of 26.J 
inches, with the 
double platform run on a railroad track. You can have 
two curbs, by which you can fill one while the other is 
under the press, thereby doing doulde the amount of 
work of any other press in the market. I also manufac- 
ture Horse Powers for all pur))oses. Ensilage Cutters, 
IMum Pittcrs, Worth's System of Heating Dairies by hot 
water circulation. rfSTSend for a Circular. W. H. 
WORTH, Petaluma Foundry and Machine Works, 
Petaluma, Sonoma Co., Cal. 




From f ao up. Send 
for descriptive price hat. 
Tborou!;hbi-ed Poultr) 
and Kggg. 

1011 Broadway, 

Oakland. Tal 



Price Reduced to 



''^ mouth Rocks, Light Brah- 
iias, Langshans, Brown Leg 
burns, B. B. R. Game Bantams, 
Pearl Guineas, Homer Antwerp 

J. N. LUND, 

Cor. Webster Av. & Booth Sts. 
P. 0. Box 116. 


Fruit Vale, Alameda County, Cal. 

• roughbrcd Fow ls. Fggs and Fowls for sale. Brown 
and White Leghcirns, .Jl per setting. Plymouth Rock, 
White Face, Blatk Spanish and Houdans, Light and 
Dark Br.ihinas, Partridge and Buff Cochins, SI. 50 per 
setting; Langshans, *2 per setting; Pekin Ducks, $1 per 
setting. Money to accompany order. Address, R. DU- 
BERNET, P. O. Box 75, BKonkL,VN, Alameda Co., Cal. 

^ Twenty gallons of fluid 
mixed with cold water will 
make 1,200 gallons of Dip. 
It is superior to all Dips and Dressings for Scab in 
Sheep; is certain in effect; is easily mixed, and is applied 
in a cold state. Unlike sulphur or tobacco, or other 
poisonous Dips, it increases the growth of the wool, stim- 
lates the fleece, and greatly adds to the yolk. It destroys 
all vermin. It is efficacious for almost every disease (in- 
ternal and external) sheep are subject to. 


San Francisco, Cal. 

Calvert's Carbolic 


9ii p«r G&llon. 

After dipping the Sheep, Is use- 
ful for preserving wet hidea, de- 
stroying vino pest, and for 
wheat dressings and dialnfectlng 
purposes, etc. T. W. JACKSON, 
S. F.. Sole Agent for Pacific Coast. 



Free from Poison. Prepared 

by the Italian Government 

Oo. Cures thoroughly the 

remedy known. Reliable tesfci- 
monialB at our ottlce. 

For particuUrs apply to 
0HA8. DUIBENBE itG k CO.. Sole Agenti, 314 Saoramento 
4frA«4t Rat, Frftnnltirto 

WcwiliHcml voun wntcTiorachoIn 
nv .iiAiMiii I', c.o. D .tobo 

c.r.iMUTic.l l« I..M.|,ii,viiik'^oi.viiiiilicy 
niMl H iM.t s:,tlsf;H'torj .rct\li Mi ll .nt 
oiii »'\]i( iisi-. We niaiiufnctui c .-ill 
our \v:ilcl><.s iiiid save you .'ifl per 
cent. ( ' .iMb.prni! of am styles free. 
\ w„i,.|i Will l iiiilcd. AiUircss 


PITTS. 111(1111, P.v, 


Headquarters for Pure Langshans — the 
Great Egg Producers. 
Early Cliii'ks for sale -single pairs, trios or pens, 
Also, a few choice Li'jht Bralimas and Plymouth Rocks. 
Stock large, ttroiig and vigorous. Eggs that will hatcii, 
¥:i.oO per 13. 

Frultvale, Alameda Co., Cal. 
£yVisitors take horse cars at East Oakland. 


Wyandottcs, Light Brahnias, 
Plymouth Rocks, Brown and 
White Leghorns, Langshans, 
Partridge Cochins, Hulf Coch- 
ins, iloudans. Silver Spangled 
Uamburgs, W. F. B. Spanish, 
and Pekin Ducks and Broniie 
Turkeys— a fiO lli gobler. My 
fowls are raised on 7 different 
farms, thereby making them 
bealthv and vigorous. Cata- 
s TIIOS. WAITE, Brighton, Cal. 



I'girs from lincst imported stock, s:{ per sitting. Early 
hatclicd coi'krcls .and pullets for sale. Address 

623 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 



Knig-ht's New Book Sent Free. Address 
15 East Third St., Cinciniiati, Ohio. 

4a"MKNTic>( Particiilarlv this Papkr.-SJ 


fACIFie F^URAId p> ress. 

[January 10. 188."') 

Note,— Our quoiationsare for Wednesday, not Saturd«j 
die d«te which the paper bears. 


[Fiiniished (or publintlon in this paper hf Vnhnos Gorom, Sergeant Bignal Service Corps, U. S. A. 

Weekly Market Review. 


San Francisco, Jan. 7, 1884. 

The Wheat market has livened up considerably 
all around and much interest is manifested. Of 
course the ships are alert to advance freight' and thus 
take their share of the advance which is all they can 
get. The advance so far is about loc pfr ctl for all 
descriptions of Wheat. 'I he following is the latest 
from abroad: 

Liverpool, Jan. 6.— The spot market is higher, 
at 7s sd(a 7s Sd. Cargoes are higher, at 37s for oft 
coast, 38s for just shipped, and 37s for nearly due. 

The English Wheat and Flour Market. 

IKeported by Antox Ki kkkk 4i Co., tilasgow, Scotland.] 

Owing to mild, though stormy weather, which has 
again opened all ports, and to Ihe constant decline 
reported from America, our wheat markets have lost 
all their firmness, and very little business has been 
transacted. A reduction of 3d per quarter did not 
tend to enliven the trade or to increase the demand. 

Little or no change can be reported in flour; con- 
sumers have now bought as much as they require till 
the end of the year, and trade will be very quiet now 
for a month or so. Minnesota flours still command 
what little attention there is going. Patents are be- 
ing sold at from 30s 6d 10315. Extras at 24s to 24s 
6d both of 280 lb", delivered. The position of winter 
wheat and Milwaukee grades remaining unchanged. 

In anticipation of the increased duty to be imposed 
upon all wheal and flour imported into France alter 
31st inst, Hungarian millers have their hands lull 
of orders from that country, and are holding their 
goods at outside prices. So business can therefore 
be done in the V. K., as they cannot compete with 
the American quotations. 

The following shows the gross imports of wheat , 
and flour into the L'. K., Aug. 30 to Nov. 29. 1884. , 
18S4-.'i 18SS-4 18S2-3 j 


Red Bluff. 


S . Francisco. 

Los Angeles. I S an Diego. 

1 DATE. 

.Tiiu 1 .Fan 7 




Weather.. | 



































Thuradar. . . 





























































































Mooday. . . . 
























Tuesday .... 





















































1 .OS 


E.XPIANATIOS.— 01. for clear; Cy , cloudy; Fr , fair; Ky., foggy; — indicates too small to measure. Temperature 
wind and weather at 11:58 A. M. (.San Franci.sco nu^n time), with amotuit of rainfall in the preceding 24 hours 

Total quarters of 4S0 lbs. 

4,261,122 5,0in,722 6,378,771 
— G/axff..", Dee. II, im. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

Boston, January 6th.— Wool is steady and prir.-s 
Well sustained. I'nw.ished wools, including Texas, 
Territory and Western, are in demand, and sales 
were made at low price'; pulled wools are steady 
and sales moderate at previous prices; foreign wools 
are quiet, and no sales of any importance have been 

PHll.AnF.I.PHiA, January 6th. —Wool is steady and 

Foreign Review. 

LvlNDON, Jan. S-— The Af.iri l.ant Express, 
in its weekly review of the British corn trade, says: 
The autumn sown acreage of 1884 is from to to 20 
per cent below that of 1883. Young crops continue 
to show health and a promising appearance. Karm- 
ers' deliveries are greatly diminished, enabling 
holders to obtain from is to zs and sometimes 3s per 
([uarter advance. Sales of English wheat for the 
past week were 35,021 qu.irtcrs at 31s iid against 
35,136 quarters at 39s for the corresponding 
week last year. Flour, 6d(ff IS lower. Barley, is 
higher. Foreign wheat, itfq2S higher. Market 
against buyers. It is evident that Waterside stocks 
have been reduced to their normal level. Foreign 
flour is generally is higher; American, is(«2s higher. 
(Juotatious for maize unaltered. Barley firmer. Oats 
r.teady and slow, tlargoes ofl" the coast materially 
advanced. One cargo of American red winter, pe.- 
sale, brought 34s per quarter. There wi-re four ar- 
rivals and seven sales. Two cargoes remained, one 
of which was from California. Trade is forward and 
livelier. There was a large business at advanced 
rates. Xo' i California afloat is worth 37s per quar- 
ter, which repn-sents an advance of 25. At to-day's 
market wheat was excited, and there was a general 
advance of 2s(ct2s 6d. Some sorts advanced 3s. 
There was a moderate business transacted. Flour 
generally was 2s de.arcr; American flour 2S 6d dearer. 
-Maize was scarce at 6d@ is higher. 

BAGS— Calcutta Wheat, held at s^^sHc spot, 
and 6c for future delivery. California Jute, nominal; 
Potato Gunnies, io@i2c. 

IL^KLEY— Barley is unchanged and dull, with a 
lower speculative demand. Call sales were: Buyer 
season — 100, $1.07^; 100, $1.07; 900, $i.o6>i; 400, 
$i.o6>^ ; 1,000, $i.o658. Buyer season — too, $i.o6H; 
100, $i.o6;^ ; 400, $1.06^8. 

BEANS — Trade is still slow and rates depressed. 

CORN — Corn has had a bad week and is some- 
thing lower than at our last report as shown in our 
table of prices. 

DAIRY PRODUCE— Butler is well taken up and 
prices uncharged. Cheese is at the old quotations. 

EGGS — I'.ggs are 2 ' ; c lower all around, in fact 
34c ^ dozen is about as high as most choice ranch 
lots go this week. 

FEED — Hay is unchanged. Bran and Middhngs 
are cheapened about $2 ^ ton. 

FRESH ME.M" — Prices for everything but Pork 
have advanced considerably. Our table gives exist- 
ing rales. 

P'RUrr — There is no change of any account. 
Choice .\pples are still scarce. Oranges and 
Lemons are unchanged and selling rather slowly 
because of the cool weather. 

HOPS — Hops are still dull and depressed, and 
prices no better. 

OATS— Oats are dull and unchanged. 

ONIONS — There is still wide rang^ according to 
quality, with an average a little lower than last 

POT.\ TOES— Potatoes are doing pretty well and 

rates of most kinds better than last week. Prices are 
given in our table. 

POL'LTRY AND GAME— All kinds are lower 
this week as holiday supplies were excessive and held 
over. Dressed Turkeys have been very abundant 
and sold low. 

PROVISION— The trade is still rlnll at the prices 
fixed in our last report. 

X'EGF.TABl-E.S — There is no change ihis week. 

WHEAT — The market is strong and prices ad- 
vanced as stated above. The slock of Wheat in thi.s 
city January ist, as taken by the Produce lixchange, 
was 424, 282 ells. , against 415,000 at the same date 
last year. Call sales were: Buyer season — 200, $1- 
.40; 1,500, $1.39X1 800, tr.39ie; 200, $1.39,^; do, 
city — 500, $i.40'...; 100, $1.40^. Buyer season — 
100, $1.39^^; 300. $1.39; 400. $i.38?«; 3°°' *i-38K: 
100, $1.38^8; do. city — 200, $i.39M.; 100. $1-40!^. 

WOOL — There is no change in Wool prices. 

Domestic Produce. 


Wednbmdat. .i.iu. T, 188.'i. 
BEANS AND PEAS. 1 do Chile.. 7i@ 8 

Bayo,ctl 2 r« ^ .1 iXi Almonds. bdaU. 7 @ S 

Butter 1 25 # 1 50 Soft shell 12 f* 13 

Castor 4 110 C<* — Brazil 11 (it 

Pecans 13i@ - 

Peanuts 5 (S 6 

Filberts 14 (<? 


New, * It 1 @ Ij 

Early Kose 75 (0 S5 

Ciilfi-y C..V.- ... I CIO OT 

IVtaluma 1 1(1 1 25 

Tomales - (tf — 

River reis 7.5 (n W 

Uumholdt I 05 (a 1 ::() 

do Kidney.... 1 25 @ - 
do Peachblow. — W — 

Jersey Blue I 10 @ 1 I.'. 

Chile bu @ 'M 

do Oregon... 1 lu 65 

Peerless 1 (Ki ^ 1 2.1 

Salt Lake @ — 

.Sweet ctl .'iO @ 1 .'iO 


Hens, do/. 1; 50 @ 8 00 

Boosters « 00 (8 7 50 

BroUera 3 .50 (« 4 50 

30 @ ;I21 

14) Ducks, tame. 

I do, Teal 

5.5 do, Mallard . . 

32, pair 

22*,! WUdeiray.doi 
— I White do... 

31) jTurkeys, lb 

do Dressed.. 

Pea 1 75 (8 1 W 

Red 2 00 @ 2 00 

Pink 1 75 <s^ 1 8;i 

Large White.... 3 10 c<* - 
Small White.... 1 35 (ie 1 i;5 

Lima 1 75 (rt 1 HO 

F id Peas.blk eye 2 50 ig, 2 75 

do green 2 75 @ 3 IHJ 


Southern 3 @ 3i 

Northern 4 6 


California 4 @ 41 

German 6}c* 7 



Cal. fresh roU, lb. 24(^ T,' 

do Fancy br uda 28 Id, 3U 

Pickle roU 24 25 

Firkin, new 'J» (ji 21.i 

Eastern \o (g IS 

New York — @ — 


Cbeese.Cal., lb.. II @ 


Cal.. ranch, doz.. 34 @ 

do, store 30 

Ducks 20 a 

Oregon — ttft 

Eastern, by ex . . 27i^ 
Pickled here. 
Utah PEED 

Bran, ton 13 00 &U 00 

Commeal 27 50 

Hay » 00 (S(15 00 

Middlings li: IK) tftlS 00 

Oil Cake Meal.. 30 00 <^S2 50 

Straw, bale M I." 

Extra. City Mills 4 !5 @ 4 HO 
do Co'ntry Mills 4 tKi @ 4 50 

Superfine 2 M (ct 3 .50 

Beef. 1st qual., lb 




Spring Lamb.... 
Pork, undressed. 


Veal S 

Barley, feed, ctl. 8.5 <g 95 

do Brewing.. 1 WH(a 1 121 

CbevaUer 1 20 (se 1 30 

do Coast... 1 10 (a 1 20 

Buckwheat I 70 (O 1 80 

Com, White.... 1 00 1 .17' Hemp 

Yellow 1 110 @ 1 lU I Italian RyeOraM 

Small Round. 1 15 1 2>l , Perennial 

Oats, choice 1 30 ((^ 1 40 Millet, German. 

do No. 1 1 25 c« 1 35 I do Common 

do No. 2 1 liivi 1 13 iMnsiara. white. 

do black 1 10 (rt 1 15 I Brown 

50 @l 
1 00 ' 

tail and wing.. 
Snipe, Eng., doz. 
do Common.. 


Rabbita 1 00 ^ 1 25 

Hare 2 00 @ 2 25 

Venison .... 

Cal. Bacon, 

Heavy, lb ^'^^ 

Medium lU^ 

Light 12l@ 

Kitra Light . . 14 (A 




Hams, Cal 

do Eastern.. 


Alfalfa 1219 

do Chile 


Clover red. 
While .... 


Flaxseed . . . 

- ® 

4 m 

46 @ 

ao @ 

26 @ 
36 ^ 

^7 % 

2 & 

Rye 1 10 (n 1 

Wheat, No. 1... 1 35 c<* 1 3?! 
do No. 2... 1 30 (ct 
Choice milling 1 37i@ I 40 

Dry 16|@ 17 

Wet salted 7}@ «i 


Beeswax, lb 24 @ 27i 

Honey in comb. ij (0 li 
Extracted, light. & 5 
do dark. 4 @ 

Oregon — & — 

CalUorma 12ig 15 

Wash. Ter — @ — 

Old Hops — @ — 


Red - @ - 

Silverskln 5i» @ 1 75 

NUTS— Jobbing. 
Walnuts, CaL, lb 8i@ !il. 


Ky. Blue Orass.. 20 
2d quality 16 

Sweet V. Grass. 75 @ 

Orchard 20 (f 

Red Top 15 " 

Hungarian.... 8 

Lawn 30 

Me»iuit 10 

Timothy li 


Crude, lb 51 

Refined Si® 

8PRIN0— 1884. 

Eastern Oregon. 15 @ 
FALL 1884. 

Northern free.. 10 (it 
do defective.. » tfO 

Mountain free.. 10 (it 

San Joaiiuin 

.South tVtast 

6 «r 
6 (q> 

Fruits and Vegetables. 



Apples, box 50 (a 2 00 

Bananas, bunch. 1 5n (it 3 uO 
Cocoanuts, 100.. 6 00 ^ 7 00 I 
Cranberries, bbl. 18 00 (1*23 00 

Limes, Mex 10 00 (all 00 

.1.. Cal. liox ... 1 00 t« 3 00 
Lemons, Cal .bx 1 23 @ 1 75 
do Sicily, box. 5 00 (f 6 00 
do Australian. — @ — 
Oranges, Cal , bx 1 50 (de 3 00 
do Tahiti, bx 3 25 @ 3 50 
do M«xican,M 10 00 @22 00 
do Panama. . . — @ 1 00 


Wednerdat, Jan. 7. 1886 
Peaches 10 0t 

do pared 

Pears, sliced.... 

do whole .... 

do pitted..,. 

do French 7 (^ 

Raisins, Cal. bx 1 60 1 85 

do halves.... — (« — 

do iiuarters.. — @ — 

do eigfaths... — @ — 
New raised 1 90 (ij 2 25 

1 W)((t 

2 00 

Persinunous, l>x . 

50 ■<( 

1 00 

Pineapples, doz. 4 SO (tf 

5 00 


75 (t( 1 00 

25 ® 


Strawlierries, ch 

7 00 (^ 

2 00 



Apples, sliced, lb 

3 (8 


do evaporattMl. 

1; m 

do quartered .. 

2 (* 


10 m 


10 @ 




9 & 


Figs, pressed.... 

4 @ 



3 § 

11 ® 

Zante Currants. 8 (4 
Artichokes, doz. .30 (9 

Beets, ctL 50 @ 

Cabbage, 100 Bw. SO @ 

Carrots, sk 40 (g 

CauliUower, doz. 30 @ 

Culi ry, doz 50 6* 

Garlic, !b , 

Lettuce, doz. . . , 
Mushrooms, lb.. 
Okra, ilxy, lb.. 
Parsulps, ctl — 
Pepi>er», dry , 
Squash, Marrow 

flit, ton t;;oo & 

do,iliil>b'd,bx,15 CO at 
Turnii», ctl.... 50 (g 

10 <n - 

sm 10 

30 (B — 

1 00 ^ - 

. 15 18 

Our Agents. 

Oi;r Frirnds can do much in aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and scienoe, by amisting 
A'j;cnt» in their labors of canvassing, by lending their in- 
RueiKv and enooura^nnK favors. We intend to send Done 
hut worthy men. 

Jarbd C. Uoao — California. 

J. J. BARrELL--S.ior;imeiit<> aiul San .1oai|uiii Counties. 

A. C. Knox -San lifnitu and .Montertj Counties. 

Oho. McDowrijI, -S.^nta Clara County. 

Wm. H. CofiK — Krc«no County. 

O. W. IxoALLH— Arizona. 

\V. WiHTWKi.i. Orc(,'"n. 

.M. S. I'KiMR— Alameda County. 

Mrs. 07.IKH Miiniliolilt Countv. 

CoMPLi.ME.NTARY Samples of this 
Pai-f.k are occasionally sent to parties 
connected with the interests specially rep- 
resented in its columns. Persons so receiv- 
iug copies are requested to examine its con- 
tents, terms of subsoiiijtioii, and give it their 
3wn patronage, and, as far as practicable, aid 
in circulating the journal, and making its value 
more widely known to others, and extending 
its inliuence in the cause it faithfully serves. 
Suljscriptioii rate, a year. Kxtra copies 
mailed for 10 cents, if ordered soon enough 
Personal attention will be called to this 
(as well as other notices, at times), 
by turning a leaf. 


The recent .is-i'sjiiuient of the .1. I. Case Plow Co., will 
not hinder or delay the tillinfr of any orders for the .1. I. 
Cjse <;hilled :ind Steel Walkini; and Riding Plows. Covu- 
)de*e airaiiK«nu*iits have been made to contiiiiie the 
biHiness, and the undersigned, Sole AKents (or the 
I'teitii' Coast, arc receiving by rail their full line of goods. 
The J. I. Case Threshing .Machine Co. has no connection 
with the J. I. Case IM<>u Co, and is now filling large 
orders for the undersifpied. Sole Agents for the Paeitie 
Coast in F.ngines, Iniprove>l Se|KirutorH and Headers 
niaile expressly for the California tcade. 


Friday January 16, 1885 

.\l lO n'rlot-k \. M.. 

. . \ I . . 

To Pay Advances : 


1,200 BAGS 

The above Fertilizer is stored at the Ihiiiiboblt Ware 
houw, and can be examined upon applitaiioii to the 
Auctioneers, from whimi all iiiforni.vtion ran be nbtiined. 

S. L. JONES & CO.. Auctioneers, 

207 & 209 California St , S. F. 


The Rising Sun Baking Powder. 

.\I.innfact\irid and suld onl> li.v 

Big Tree Store, 


Strictly Pure. No Adulteration. 

No Stareh. No Ammonia. No Chalk. No Alum. 
Pure ( ream of Tartar ami Bi-iarb. of Soda. 
Send for our "Grocery Herald and Consumcm' Guide. 
Corner 8th Mid J Streets, Sacramento, 0*1. 



Hatches Eggs Better than a Hen. 

iSf Send stamp for Illcstratpd Circclak to 

GEO. B. BAYLET, Manufacturer, 
1317 Castro St, Oakland, Gal. 
N. B. — A lari^c line of l'oiiItr> A|<)iliuii< ett, Aueh aa Wire 
Netting, Bone Millfl, (.'lioppintf Macbines, etr., (or mie 
at the LowmT IUtbs. 

Wayne, Cu Page Co., IlUnois, 


I'erehi ron llor^i a viilu.-il at l<>a,OUO,U0U, 


VVuoSH |>\ii'i!v .iflilciiil is<-slul>li-h. [| 1.1 th. 11 lll.■JlL^ » 

r .It il ill thuhTl l» RMOkX*!'' KliAAt i;, 




liuibirtt'dCt'Ouil Mures 

liiipnrti'il Stullioiis 

llld 1 M..iii,-h fur 


u > t'lirn old aii'l 
Ufcit^TiizinK tL'»' prin- 
.-ii.lf 11'-. t-iiii d by all 
it liii.'( iit bift-iU'i !* that. 
tcM-r vk-fll hrt'itiitutnaJit 
l« t.. t« , it then 

["t'ditriTt-ft are noi rw •nl*'*!. unJc-uniu>t Ik- auOii rttically 
(nveii. thrv should bt* valued >mly iw^rade^. I w ill Hell all 
Imp<tr!fl Stiirk til (h-iutf I'ri'-f-* when I ruiiiMit furuiiih 
Mith the nttlniitl Xfhl iiedi^frte vciitUnl by thi* orj)rinal 
Krem h itTtlliente - I its iniinlter mid le.-md In the Blud 
Hook ill Knaiee. I M Vmav st iit frii*. It it> 

illusirat*-d with Six Vrize Hoi .<es o| iTie Kxhitiition ol the 
StM-ttte nintttiiue /VccAf-ronn. 1. ance. I nn4 : pur 
eha^^ed l)v M W. Duiihaiii iilut drawn riom life hi RoMh 
Uonhour, the mosT fuinotiH of iitl uninml i>uiiiT«'i>. 




One pound of Lye to one gallon of Water. 


Kmk s.»i.r hv 

202 California St , San Francisco. 

N. B. —In writing for prirefi state iiumlier of oaies (41 
pounds each) re<|uired. 

^^ggl-SS SNOWFI..\K I 

FINE Imported 

If you want a Norman Stallion, get the Best. 
T. SEILLMAN. Pioneer Importer, 

Has Home of tin l)e>.t in the Stat.-, » h:eh he offers lor 
sale as cheap m the same class of llorws can he hnught 
in the EHiit<Tn States. 

j^t-'atalo^ue i^rnt on application, 
in Breeders l*oluniri. 



Petaluma, Cal. 


RANSOUE, 204 tfonteomery St, 8. F. Send (or Circnla 

In Oakland go straight to Ueo. Hunt's City Hall Btablep 
weit o( City Uall, (or good reliable livery tekmi. 

January 1885.] 






REV. H. E. JEWETT, PniiciiiaL 


TUESDAY. - - JANUARY 6Ch, 1885. 

1. Day Si'lioiil for \ oung Men .ami Bo^s, l^M Mission 
St., San Francisco. I'rcjiares for College and University. 
Kaster Term opens .Monday, .lanuary 5, 1885. Refers to 
Wm. V. Bahcock, Ksi|., Col. E. E. Eyre, .losciih Pownin<j, 
Esq., Gen. L. II. Allsn, Wni. '1'. Coleman, Esq , Oco. W. 
Gibbs, Esc|. t^Por information, address, Uev. E. B. 
SI'AhDI.Niji, Kwtor. 

?eed?, Wapts, tie. 

^eed?, Hapt?, ttc. 





317 WASHINGTON ST., bet. Battery and Front, SAN FRANCISCO. 


Myrobolan Plum. 

St. Julien Plum. 

Mazzard Cherry. 


The above are all impoitcJ, havinj; arrived in fifteen days from New York in the best possible order. They are 
first-claos in every particular, and of extra grafting Bize. Samples will be mailed on receipt of ten cents in stamps. 



516 Battery St., San Francisco. 



DIPLOMA of Mechanics' Institute Fair, 1884, awarded 
to this College. 

"Our College I.e<1g:er," contains full p^rticul.ars 
regarding the College Departments, Courses of Study, 
Terms, ctu. , .S«mii1 for a Copy. 

The Business Training 
School of the Pacific 
Coaat. Graduates as- 
sisted in obtaining em- 
ployment. Send for 
, ^y-^^ f^oUege Journal. Ad. 
KZ^U^m^ dress, E. C Atkinson, 
" " Sacramento, Gal. 

Send for "Interest Made Easy." Price .^0 cents. 

nxr t i o n ct 1 


Perfectly Wonderful How Quick This 
Medicine Cures Flesh Wounds. 

The BEST SPAVIN CURE in the Market. 

No farmer or Stock Raiser shoii d be without it. 1 
will guarantee it to do all I claim for it, and refund ihe 
money should it fail. 

LANOLY & MICHAELS, Wholesale Ag'ts, San Francisco. 
For full particidars and special contracts, address 


StocKton, Cal. 




lull KdilirMi. I'W l',ii;c^, explain- 
ill- 111"' I'litire l>ii^itic^>. (iivps 
^VInIlt"nls uiifl l» sl rciiicdii'^ tin- 
all ilisi-iises. A .'iii-pii'.:'-- Illii-lnitfd 
Caliilo^'iie. .Ml for '.'.'ic. in >lunip.s. 

A. M. LANG, 
Cove l>al<'. Lcivis <'f>. Ky. 





^ \358 MARKET ST. S.F. 

Buy no Grafted 

25,000 Genuine Le Oonte Roots, all Sizes, 

ton. B.\I,E IIV 

OiiTUlard Free. Oakland, Cal. 

(See Ri RAl, I'RKSS, .Uu. li, 18H.'., pp. 13 and -'u.l 

John Hannay's Nursery, 



From 5 to 7 feet high. 

80,000 Peach, 20,000 Pear, 

50.000 ApricoN 10,000 Apple, 
8,000 Yellow Egg Plum. 
7,000 Cherry, Black Tartarian, and Na 
poleon, Biggareau (or Royal Anne), 

Hungarian, Itali-Tii, and Silver Prunes; and Plums 
Almonds, Figs, (Quinces. Pomegranates, etc. J^Special 
inducements are offered to those who buv in large quan- 
tities. Address JOHN HANNAY, 

San Jose, Cal. 


200,000 Resistant Vines 

Seedlings and Rooted Vines. 


Of Wine and Table Varieties. 




Cat;ilo"ue mailed to all applicants. 

814 N. 4th St., St. Louis, Mo. 

iVawe thin Papev. 



Splendid Stock of Fruit and Ornamental 

Trees to Planters and the Trade, 
Consisting in part of Orange, Lemon, Lime, Olive, Fig, 
Pomegranate, Apple, I'each, Pear, Prune, etc. We ninke 
a specialty of Semi-Tropic Trees and Flaiitf. 
Prick List F^rkb. Address 

THOS. A. GAREY, Agent, 
p. o. Bii.< v>'i. Los Aneeles, Cal. 


PEACH TREES suited to all sections. 

Apple Treei, i vtra long kueping kiolis. 

HI, Kieffer & Le Conte Pears. 

C / .\ Fri.l. MNKurull kindaor 
1-M KSKRY ST«< K t IIEAP.J:jj 
)Ti*(M*s, (^riiiie Vlni^H, Siiiiill 
•'I'liit, mill oilier plaiils by mail. 
i»-p:i;;*.il ralalimiM- showing how 
ml u hut lo plant. Willi niilch 
aliiiibli- iiil'oi iiial ton, luvi-:. 
RANDOLPH PETERS. Wilminaton. Oelawara. 


Rooted Trees and Cuttinga for sale in lots to suit pur 
chasers, at the 

Five miles west of Santa Clara, on tin; Saratoga A\eiiuc. 

Apply to LUUOVICO OADUI, on the premises, or to 
A. T. MAKVIN, 516 California St., S. F. 


. , , , ANli, , , , 


We have now to offer the following Stocks. The 
lirices include Stocks, Box, Padting, and Prepay- 
ment of Freight to principal points in California : 

I'KAK -l irst- class, sl7; second-class. *10.50 per 1,000. 

MAZZARn CHICKRY— First-class, $11.50; third- 
class, ,«4,50 per 1,000. 

MYROBOLAN I'LUM-First-oIas?, *14; second- 
class, .sin per I, oco. 

APPLE, .$10.5^1 pn bushel. PFAR, S2.:i0 per 11.. 

By shipping through the South in the Winter time, our 
goods arc <iuite secure from frost the who'e way 

jlTifFull Catalogues ready. 

Germantown, Philadelphia, Pa. 

James Hannay's Nurseries 


js A Ij e: 

50,000 French Prunes, 3O,0OO Apricots, 

20,000 Poaches . All on Peach 
Also, 10,000 Apples. 20,000 Pears, and a gen- 
eral variety of other trees. 

All of these Trees are of the best known varieties, 
grown without irrigation and ha\ c made a very large 
and fine growth. Address 


San Jose, Cal. 


beautu- Ol. hvkr-bloomino 


Our (-rcaf Spcciall v is t;rnvvine and distributing 
ROSE.S-w.i' P"t Plants, suitable tor 
uiimr.l,,,!, 1,1, „,m, sili-l.v by mail at all Post Offices, 
5 .Splendid Varictien, i/">/rr/,oi>,.. all labeled, for 
»1; laiorsa; 3.J for ; lOOforSl^. Also 


according; to vol lit-. Send for our Nr \v Guide) 76 pp 
elegantly illuH. and cIumiho from <)ver 500 finest sorts 
Address. THK I>IN(;EE & <;ONARl> CO., 
Rose Urowere, West Grove, ('liester C'o., Pa* 


100,000 Rooted Vines; also. Cuttings 
from 35 Acres Bearing Vines; also, Rooted 
Zinfandels, Muscatels, Empereur, etc., etc. 


Woodland, Cal. 

H. W. MERK, San Lorenzo, Alameda Co., Cal., breedir 
of thoroughbicd Holsteins. Correspondence solicitid. 


C. W. Reed & Co.. 


Ua\ e in stock for the present season a choice lot of 
Fruit Trees of the following varieties, viz,; Apple, i'ear. 
Peach, Plum, French Prune, Apricots, Cherries, etc 

Also, 300,000 Pear Seedlings, 

150,000 Plum Seedlings (St. JuUen). 
And M\roliidan stock. Write for prices, etc., to 
C. W. REED & CO. 

Sacramento, Cal. 


1 have .00,000 Hooted \'ines of the Muscat ot Alexandria 
\ ariety, ore year old, grown on my vineyard in Placer 
county, on new land without irrigat'on, and warr.antcd 
free from disease, that I will sell for ><12.riO (cash) per 
1,0011, and deliver at Lincoln for shipment. Correspond- 
enite solicited. Adilress 

North BloomHeld, Nevada Co , Cal. 

^eedj, Plants, ttc. 



Chauche noir, ('hauche griv (gray Riesling), Mounier, 
Teinturier, for sale at moderate i>rices in lots to suit. 

UU nwood, Santa Cruz Co., (Jal. 


The Undersigned Offer the Following 


At an Immense Reduction 
on Regular Wholesale 

3,000 Coe's Golden Drop Plum. 
2,000 Yellow Egg Plum. 
2,000 Columbia Plum. 
3,000 Washington Plum. 
6,000 Glaister, or Early Yellow 
Egg Plum. 

5,000 Silver Prune of Oregon. 
2,000 Fellenberg or Italian Prune. 
1,000 Hungarian Prune. 

1 A»D 2 ^EAR OLD. 

10,000 Almonds, Pecans, Chest- 
nuts, Praeparturiens Walnut, 

50,000 Rooted Grapevines of Mus- 
cat, Tokay, Malaga, Cor- 
nichon, Hamburg, Rose of 
Peru, etc. 

Layered from bearing bushes 

500,000 Cuttings, Resistant vines 


Peaches, Apricots, Cherries, 
French Prunes, Pears, 
Apples, etc. 


Napa Valley Nurseries. 


fA^IFie f^URAL J^KtSS. 

[January 10, 1885 

COrS $1.00 CollectiOl Of NEff aii SCARCE SEEDS. 

In orilor Ut indiir'^ every ono to u'vo nnr 
scimIk a trial, will s-ciid by mail. jioKt- 
paid, on r.'eeipt of SI OO, one piick«(;<' 
each of the fullowin;^ choice varitties : 
Sc:ily 15j»i k "Wat*" melon, n choice new 
Eastern melon; <.'iibHii Oueeii "Water 
melon, the largest of all; (prize niehms 
have weighed from 80 to IdO Ihs.j ; l.»r«re 
}'»MSit>>i i^ettuue, the best InrKft )iea(l let- 
tuce; ItlM('k-H< eoed Miiipsuii \ ettii.e, 
an* xcellent curled variety; lOulipse Iteet, 
iicw. eat ly Bl(»od Beet; i HltfoniiH- Mntii- 
liiiilli Vt-llow Oiiiuii. th ' lar.;iFt < f the 
jelh \v < iiion; Cox'h iv • im inf; C'xl)- 
i)>ii;i-,the early cabbtifjo oV Ih" Ran Fr«ii- 
eisco gudeners: Jiariy f«ii>>»l>:ili Canl- 
illowi'i; C'eleiy, new golden heart; Cii- 
< umber, while spine; I'Hr-ley, extra 
Mirled; ^ qu.isli, Terfef-t Oem. yield very 
large--rB jnany as i4 piiuaHhes liave been 
l.rocluc dona sint; c vin- ; Ili>ilfi\vCrii» ii 
I'Hrsiiip. Ml iniproveil siitt^ar jtarsnip ; 
Cox"* ^eleele(l Flat liiiK-ii Cabbiitre. 
the finest < f all the larj^fl Intii varieties; 
i>aiivers Ualf-Uing^ Carrot, the best f. r 
table use; Onion, Early Italian Ked ; Hub- 
l>ar<l Sci'iasli; Early Scarlot Tnrnii) 
I.":nli«Ii ; Turnip, riir;): i p :'.iuu.tli ; S i :»i l>, prickly seedeJ ; Mnsknielfui, Large Netted Nut- 
iiici,'; Tomato, select<;d Tr(»phy; Wel'-oin i» O.ilH. the heaviest, ban 'Homest. and most priuliictive 
kni.iwn. No alteration can 1)0 imdo i i collection. Sin ;lo jjaeKeiij at t alaloKue prices. i;t)X'S S<'«'d 
Catalogue for IKS.l, ma led fr<'0 on ippMfation. Itcc ntaii R d Fcription and prico of Veaetable, 
I'lower, Gras":, Clover anil Tree Seeds. Anstr ilian Tree ami Shrub tiei da, JapancBu Plants and Trees, 
Tree Seeds (native of Pacific Coast) - Fruit 'J'rees and ftiuall Fruit. 



il Store, 400 Sansome 

.,:! Xi w ,Mc.ii(-uiii. rv 




C H <3 I O El 



13 3P«,cls-ots for 30 Ooixts ! 

Our KIowtT Seeds arc e(|ually as fine in quality as our Vi!ife- 
tab't! S(" il-i, and wu fio^iu- tn hn.* e t^vcry lo^er of Flowers jfive 
tiieu; II t i ial tlii?) sesi'-oii. u ^^ 'xU f ir W ix'nts in stamp? or sil- 
ver, ^vuil oiiu jarku^ of each oC thu ftdluwiii:,; popular varieties: 
]*aii<43'. choice mixed: l*et.iiiiia hybri«la, line mixed; Can- 
ffThury Kells, finest mixed; Marigold, French and 
tfr-<-Ai) mixed; I'urtulaoa, fine mixed: T^obelia. fine mixed; 
M iciioiK^tti', sweet SL-entiid; Ver1»»"iia, choice mixed; 
.Moi'ks, Uernian, ten weeks; NaHturtium, Uill mixed; 
Sw^^et IVilllam, choice mixed; China Pink, all trolors; Wallflower, choice mixed; A^terH. mixed 
varieties; Carnation, fine Gennan mixed. At our retrular CataluKue prices these varieties amount to ¥1.25, 
hut wc will mail this collection ti> any a-ldress for 50 Cents. Our Seeds arc carefully jrrown and warranted 
pure and true t ) oanie. ^#*Our l>KS0Kri'Ti\ e Skkd L'ATAU"ir k mailed free on ai'i»iicatioii. 

THOMAS A. COX & CO., 409 Sansome Street. SAN FRANCISCO. 


We have greatly enlartred our C A PITAL NURSERIES, and art- now enabled lo furnish to the Trade the 
finest and lifrtfest stock of Fruit, .Shade and Ornamental Trees. .Mirubs, ering I'laiits, Grape 

and other roots to he found on the Paiific t oast, which wu will sell at the lowest niiikct rate* 

Besides the leading Standard Fruit", we have a larjie number of new and rare kind^ of ;; <;■■<>. promise. We will 
furnish the widely advertised (Kclsey) Jaiianese I'lnm at half the price usually a'-ked. 'Ihis is true of other 
new and choice Fruits, etc. We h.a\ e propajj^ated and distrihuteil many new and choice \arieties, aiid will continue 
to do so at whate\ er coat. 

We call especial attention to the following: Stitson, Boquior, Twenty-ounce Clintf, Edwards' Clinfir, French 
Clin?, Blood Leaf .Muir and Wheatland Peaches. Tlie New Faciflc White Fig. CUniax and Markley Apple 
and other varieties named in our ( utaloiiuu. 


Embraces every description of Field, Garden, Floiver, and Tree Seeds. Our lonj; experience in this line 
enables us to know Just u hat is best ailapted for cultivation anil for profit. Our Seeds are Fresh, Kcliable, and 
their t'emiinatin^' (|U.alitv well tested before i.fferin;; fur ^ale. 

Our SEED and TREE OATA l,0«; I'E for 1«85, with its beautiful lithograph cover and plates, is 
the finest ever publislicd on the coast, and will be an ornament to an.v parlor table. These Catalogues we furnish 
free, on application, to anvone reipiirin.,' Seeds and Trees. 


Is very extensive. This is cunstantlv rillud «i!h the best the ni:irket affords, of Crecn, .Machine, and Snii Dried and 
Canned Fruits, etc.. Nuts, Hiinc.\ , and General 1-arni Produce. 

Bein;; so closely identified with the interest of the producer anil grower, we are able to know and meet their 
wants in furnishing' Seeds or Trees best for culti\ation and iirotit. Orders tilled with dispatch. Consignments 
and Correspondence solicited. 

W. R. STRONG & 00., 

Cor. Front and J Sts., Sacramento, Cal. 







Importer, Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 
A L.VKtJK STOtK OK Al'STKlLIAN PKKKNNIAL KVK til{.\S8 at Kedufded Kates. 


Timothy and Orchard Crass, Kentucky Blue (Jrasa, llun-arian .Millet Gr.iss, I'.cd 
Top, etc., etc. Also a I,arjrc and choice Colle. ti.m of 

iS'Buddinsj and Pruninf,' Knives, Greciiliouso S\ riiifjcs, IIedi,'e and Pole Shears. 

(p.o.Boxeora.) THOS. MEHERIN, 516 Battery St., S. F. 

ir-;T- Price List Mailed on Applicatlon.Tgl 


We now offer for sale a larj^e assortment of Ever^ireens and ornamental Trees, incluilint; Spceinun Araucarias 
Azaleas, Bamboos, Black A>:icia8. Camellias, lAurustina, Flowerinj,' Magnolias from Layers, Pinks KhndodenilronV 
etc., etc. Koses, o'irspecialty, of which, we believe, we offer the largest and most coniplete slock on the Pacitii' 
Coast, mcludni- Standards and Half Standards. We have an immenfe .Ktuck of Monterey Cvpre s for hedires one 
two and three years old; also, a larce lot of Pines and Bine and l!ed Gums at bed rock prices Parties wishi'ii" to 
purchase any of the above articles, or anything in the nursery line, will find it to their profit and advantage to "call 
and examine our stock and prices. Descriptive Cataloi»ue on application. .San I'ablo Horse Cars pass two blocks 
fron> Nursery. Address, or call on g. GILL, Nurseryman, 

Twenty eisrhth Street, near San Pablo Avenue, fiakland, Cal. 

^eeds, Hapt?, ttc. 

^eeds, Wa|it5, ttc. 

19th YEAR. 

190 ACRES. 


The Laiy^jst and Most Complete Stock on the Pacific Coast. 


Magnolias, Palms, Roses, Clematis, Etc., Etc. 

Trees are well grown by experienced men on new soil, and are 

An inspection is solicited. -Ml those intending to plant Trees will find it to their 
interest to come and examine our stock and inform themselves of onr prices. 


Is now ready, coutnining many new and rare varieties never ollered before on this Co-ast, of 





12 Varieties of Olives. 

No, I. -Fruits, Grapevines, Olives, etc., 4 Cents. 
No. II. Ornamental Trees, Evergreens, and Plants, 4 Cents. 
No. III.— New Roses and Clematis, gratis. 

JomsT H.OOI5:, 




500,000 Mf TSEES 5 







419 & 421 Sansome St., S. F. 



For sale in lots to suit, a large and well assorted stock, healthy and free from insccls, em- 
bracing all the leading varieties of Apple, Pear, I'cach, Apricot, Nectarine, Plum, Prune 
Cherry, etc. 

Kieffer's Hybrid, Le Conte and P. Barry Pears. Eelsey's Japan Plom. 

Rooted (irapevines and Apple Seedlings. A fine stock of the elegant rapid-growing Orna- 
mental TKXAS UMBRELLA TRP;E. New Catalogue and Price List on application. 





Timothy, Clo'er, Flax, Hungarian, Millet, Red lop, 
Blie Gnzt, Lin On:s, Orchard Crau, Blrl Sctdi, kc. 

Office, 115 Kmzie St.. 


IIS, 117 & 119 Kin/ic St. 
104, 106, io8 iS: iioMicliiKan St 


(^nalit.v and (rrowth of stock unsurpassed. Xo Irrigation. No Insect Peritit. No Mildew. Muir 
l*earli, irlaiHter l*luiii, Keltiey .Japan Pltiiii, I\Ii'Cou-aii'r( Cllnf; I'eacti, Maruliall'H .Seedling, 
or Ked BellHoweJ Apple, Kentisli Colj Filbert, J'neparturlens Walnut, I'ecanx, CheHtuiits, etc., 
are anion^s our noveltfes for this season. Kiparia and other Ke^iHtant Ijrrapeviiie Stock. 

Senil for Nrw CATALOotnL OO-A-TIESO tfc TOOIj , 

Napa City, Cal. 

January 10, 1885] 


^eed?, Wapts, ttc. 


Cuthbert or Queen of the Market 


Firm anri Luscious, stands travel finely, Ijcars'imniensel.v, 
and lias two crops a year. Also the SHAKFLESS 
STRAWBEKKY, Creat Bearer and Largest Straw- 
berry Grown. PRICE i— Cuthbert liaspberries, per 
dozen; Cuthbert Raspberries, ?4 per 100; Sharpless 
StrawVicrries, 50 cents [icr dozen; Sharpless Strawberries, 
$2 per 100. 

L. U. McCANN, Santa Cruz, Cal. 

Del Monte Vineyard and Nursery 

M. DENICKE, Proprietor, 
Fresno, Fresno County, - - California. 

Cuttings and B.oots 


Grown without Irrigation, and Large, Healthy Grcwth 

CLARET— Mataro, Grenache, Carignane, Cabernet, 
Malbec, Teintiirier, Zintandel, Le Nair, etc. 

BURGUNDY -Pinots, Trousseau, Mennier, Plussard. 

PORT— Tinto Cao, Amarillo, Mourisuo, Bartardo, Tau- 
riga, Morretto. 

WHITE— Sanvignon Vertc, Columbar, Folle Blanche, 
Burger, Sultana, Coryuths, Muscats. 

RESISTANT— Riparia, Californica. 

Prices very moderate. 


fine assortment of 


Consisting of 

Apples, Pea'-s, Peaches, Plums, Prunes, 
Apricots, Cherries, Quinces, Etc., Etc., 

Of the Best Varieties f r Market Canning and Drying. 

;\l8i). Rooted Grapes, Currants, Ci'Osebeirics, etc. My 

tree} are well grown, clean and healthy, taken up with 

care and jiackcd for shipment to anv i art of the country. 

A good co'lettion of Ornamental Trce-i, Hoses, Shrubbery, 

(Jreen House Plants, etc. 

Nursery a' d Office— Corner of Twelfth Street and 

Berryossa Read, San Juse, Cal. 


Send in your Orders Early. 


A. CLEVELAND and J. LYTLE, Prop's. 
Office- 012 Broadway, - Oalsland, Cal. 



Apple, Pear, Peach, Plum, French Prune, Apricots, 
Cherries, etc , and the Rarest Table Fruits. «W .lapaii 
Plumn. Fi>r Sato In Large or .Small Lots. 

^"Write for prices and furtbur information. 


Folic Blanche, West's Prolific, Fiber Zagos, Vcrdal, 
Muscatel, Gordo Blanco, and other iirime varieties 

In lots to suit, carefully picked and on board cars. All 
healthy, well rooted vines, and all true to name. 

Apply to 


Madera, Fresno Co , Cal. 


Los Gatos, Santa Clara County, California. 

I offer the public a general assortment of Fr\iit Trees, 
a good stock of Figs, English Walnuts, 12,000 Petite 
Prunes on Almond (very large). Peaches, Apples, Pears, 
and Plums, etc. All without scale-hug or any other 
insect pest. Stone Fruit Trees raised without irrigation. 


Los Gatos, Santa Clara Co., Cal. 

If You Want to Save Money and avoid a life of trouble, buy Trees Free from Scale, 


a. ' 



375,000 TREES. 1.000,000 ROOTED VINES. 


Apples, Pears, Peaches, Apricots, Nectarines, French and Hungarian Prunes, Plums, Figs 
and Cherries. Cypress, Gums, Acacias, Ornamental Shrubs, Greenhouse Plants. 

2,000 of the Geiuiine Smyrna Fig, imported from the Mediterranean, and proven in Cali- 
fornia this season. Sixty varieties of Grapes, rooted and cuttings, including all the best Wine 
and Raisin varieties. Catalogue free. 

Fresno, California. 

P. O. BOX 175. 



Kieffer's Hybrid, Le Conte and P. Barry Pears, at Reasonable Prices. 



All Kinds of Field and Garden Seeds, at Reduced Prices, in Large Quantities. 

Alfalfa, Red and White Clover; Italian and English Rye Grass; Blue Grass, Lawn, Orchard; 
Mesquite, Red Top and Timothy Seed; California Forest and Evergreen Tree Seeds. 
Also, Fruit and Ornamental Trees, at Lowest Prices. 

A Large Quantity of Evergreen Millet Seed on Hand. Also about 20,000 lbs. Australian 

Rye Grass, to be Sold Low. 


Nos. 409 and 411 Davis St., - - - San Francisco, Cal. 

H. H. BERGER & CO., 

Importers of and Dealers in 


Bulbs, and 



Camphor Trees, Persimmons, 
Camellias, Bamboos, 

Ornamental Trees and 
Shrubs, etc., etc. 

Ol' KICE : 

317 Washington St., S. F. 

p. O. BOX, 1501. 



Mann, Haas, Wealthy, Lord Nelson, and Hyde's King 

Souvenir du Congres and Keiffer Pears. 
Hynes Surprise, Lady I'almerston, Jones' Seedling, 
Poole's Large Yellow and Wager Peaches. 
.Silva's Koning Claudie, Walling and .lapin Plums. 
Early Lamaurie, Golden Bigarreau and Schmidt's Big- 
garreau Cherries. 
St. Ambroise, Eureka and Black Apricots. 
Victoria and Rivers' Orange Nectarines. 
Large stock of American Sweet and .lapanese Mammoth 
Chestnuts. Hanscll Rasiiberry, earliest and best Fay's 
Prolific Currant, large and productive. jrg-Clioico Stock 
and Low Prices. Address 


Newcastle, Cal. 


offers this season for sale an unexcelled stock of well-grown, healthy and inscct-frcc FRUIT TREE.S, su' h as 
Pears, Apples, Peaches, .\pricots, t,>uinces. Cherries, etc.; also the AVIiite A<Iriati<% the only genuine Fig of 
commerce; the FapersheU Foineg:raiiate, etc. A full assortment of Ornamental Trees and Shrubbery. Tlte 
Al>yssinian ISaiiana, the largest and handsomest of all Ornamental Plants. Kooted Grapevines for 
Claret and Sherry; imported kind.'^, such as Palomino, Doradilla, Cabernet Sauvignon, Mataro, Pedro .\ii\ienes; 
also Sabal Kanski, the Inijierial Table Grape of Russia, etc. 

Kosegrowing a .Specialty, our stock consisting of only the very choicest and most select variet'es, true 
to label and <lescription. Send for Catalogue and bcientiucallv arranged "Guide to Ko.seculture." 

Mr. W. C. WEST, formerly of West's Stockton Nursery, is in charge of tlic propagating department, and will b 
glad to secure the patronage of his former friends and customers. 

GUSTAV EISEN, Fresno City, Cal 


I offer the trade this season a large and general assort- 
ment of Fruit and Ornamental Trees, and Small Fruits. 
My Trees are healthy, stalky and well grown. Address, 
S. NE'WHALL, San Jose Cal. 

SEED Warranted to C 

r order reQIIed jci-atis. I liavr sold vo'.;cr:Uiic mm nnwi-r 
;ed ti) (i\er a million tarmer.s and fjardcners in ilic 

"liitcil States, perhaps sonic arc v ■ iiri^.: h l.m ., if s,, 

them whether they are ii-lialile. .■\lr. 'I'linin.i- llriiv|,;,il or 
trny, Kansas. writes me : '" l-'or 26 years I li.r, <■ dra 1 1 u it ii 
you. 1 have lived in Iowa. Missouri,, and Kan- 
sas, and no matter what the snil or ciiniate. the result 
was always the same, to wit: — religiously honest 
and good." This is the kind of seed I raise ami sell. Tie' 
Hubbard aial Maiblehcad .Sinijisb, Marbleliead 
orn, Marbleliead ( abba^es, Oliio Potato, Kclipse 

Beet, are son r the veseta hies ot uhieh I « :is the ori;;iiial in- 

r. \ Fair with *.'»Oit in priiiiinnis. See niy to all. 

A.TIKS.T. H. CiKEGOKY, (Seed Grower). Marblehead. Mass 

cs-it SE33X>. FRUIT TREES for SALE. 


I bax e for sale r(ted of Vith CalifurnU-d , proof agains, 
phyllo.xera, which I will send at per pound for .5 
pounds or more, or $1.50 per pound for less than 5 pounds. 

Vilis Californica Cuttings, $8 per 1,000. 

Freight to be paid liy purchasers. 

p. o. Cox 8. Middletown, Lake Co., Cal. 


Oregon Champion Gooseberries. 

Most proline known; finest flavor; best for canning. 
Full assortment of FRUIT TREFS at Loivest Bates. 


San Leandro, Alameda Co., Cal. 


Successor to W. li. WEST, of .Sto<-kton Niir.sei-y 



I have a choice lot of Bartlett Pears, Petite Pnmes^ Cher- 
ries, Apples, Apricots, Plums, Nectarines, Grapevines, 
etc., all grown without irrigation, free from scale and 
other injurious insects. Guaranteed varieties, and bed- 
rock prices. Catalogues mailed on application. Address 

Clements, San Joaquin Co., Cal. 


at $1,110 each; also the true Prune d'Agen, im- 
ported direct, at M cents each. Special prices given to 
parties desiring large orders. 

A full line of nursery stock is still kept, and is entirely 
tree from insect pest. 


Raised at the Layhodie Nurseries, in the foothills, 
without irrigation. Sound and thrifty, and free from 
pests. French Prune, Oregon Silver Prune, German 
PruTic, Moorpark Apricot, Bartlett and Winter Nellis 
Pears. In lots to suit. Liberal discount to the trade. 


San Jose, Cal. 


30,000 Choice Bartlett and Winter Nelis Trees: 
15.O0O extra laige Api)ie Tre.^s; also good Peach 
Prune, Plum, Apricot, Nectarine, Fig, English Walnut. 
Cherry, Black Walnut, Chestnut and Orange Trees. A 
good stock of Rooted Sultana (irripevincs and other 
rooted grapev.nes, and a large stock of Small Fruits, 
Plants, Monterey Cypress, Blue Gum Plants and c\'ery 
thing kept in a Nursery, including Plants, Shrubbery 
Flowers, etc. Trees, Plants, etc.. Frkr from Insbcts 
KTC. Send for Price List and Cat.-ilogne. 


P. O. Box 304. Lob Angele.s, Cal. 


O. O. GOODRICH, Proprietor, 

Ofl'crs this season a Large and Fijie Stock of 


At Reduced Rates 

Pe.ach Trees of all leading varieties a sjiecialty. Parties 
wishing to purchase will find it to their ii,tcrest to coni- 
inufiicate with me. iC^Pricc List and Catalogue sent on 
aijplieation. O. O. GOODRICH, Sacramento, Cal, 


A.NIe . . 


lAti^cst Stnfk ill tin- [Itiitt'il Status. Triers on applii a 
tioii. AddrcMsi 


Bloomington, Illinois. 


For Sale 500,000 Grape Cuttings. 
W'arratitcd free from every disease, consistitig of the fol 
lowing line v.arietics: JIatero, Melbeck. ('aragan, Gre 
nache, Zinfaniicl, (.'harbono. Trousseau, Black Prince 
Frankcn, Ucisling, Mcvoise, Hooe Peru, Muscat of Alex 
at.dria, at the Lowest Market Price. Adtlrees 
J. O. MERITHB'W, Viticulturist, 

Copeteno, Santa Clara Co., Cal. 



San Jose, - - - California. 

Fiftj thousand French Prune trees, from ."i to lo ft. high; 
10,000 lirst-class Apricot trees; 7,0110 Kgg Plum trees; 
10,1100 Peach trees, assorted kinds; 5,000 Pear trees, as- 
sorted kinils; 4,<Ji)0 cherry trees; lO.iioo Apple trees, as- 
sorted kinds, and general nursery stock, will i,e sold by 
W. H. OWENS & CO. at prices which defy competition. 
Buyers are invited to examine trees and compare prices 
before purchasing. 

NURSERY DEPOT— 101 and 103 South First street. 

OFFK^E-Room IS, Martin's Block, 



All fresh, healthy, hardy stock; transplanted in boxes 
14x22 inches. Blue Gum Trees, 10 to l.") inches high, at 
■•#12.00 per 1,000. A box of 100 Trees will be sent to any 
address on receipt of •sL.'jO in stamps. Red Gum Trees, 
all straight, 1 to 2 feet, at .¥17.00 per 1,000, or .ii2.00 per 
100. Large, straight sacked Blue Gtuns at low rates. 
Monterey (Cypress, 4 to 6 incites high, at •'JU.nO per 1,000, 
or $1.50 per box; C to 10 inch at .itlS.fO pT 1,000, or $1.75 
per 100; (transplanted in larger space) 10 to 15 inches at 
*3 00 per 100; 15 to 20 inches at >H oo per loO; 20 to 24 
inches at .S5 00 per 100; 2 to 3 feet at .*7.00 |)er 100. Seed- 
lings, 'A to 6 inches, at .$5.00 per 100. Italian Cypress, 10 
to 15 inches, of 70 trees per box, at 82.00 per box. Mon- 
terey Pines. 6 to 10 inches, of 70 trees per box, at .'S2.t0 
per box. This year's crop of Blue, Red, or (iray Gum, or 
Monterey or Italian Cypress seeds at low rates, ."end P. 
O. money orders or notes to GEO. R. B.ilLEY, Park 
Nurseries, Berkeley, Cal. 




Will be mailed p'Opp,„^2i' 
to all applicants ■ It iL E'^IP® 

and to cu.stomcrs of year without 
orderingit. It coiiliiins illustrations, prices, 
descriptions and tliroctions for planting all 
Vegetable and Flower SEEDS, BIH.US, etc. 



Established in 185S. 

1 offer for sale, at reasonable rates, a general assort- 
ment of Fruit Trees, non-irrigated, vigorous, clean and 
healthy. Prices furnished on apjilication. Address, 


Petaluma, Cal. 


The largest and finest Trees in the State of their "age 
by 20%. Warranted free of all insects, and true to name. 
Nectarines, Peaches and Apricots a specialty. Myers' 
Early Apricot, the earliest in the State. Dodd's Necta- 
rine, the latest in the State. Prices reasonable. Send 
for Catalogue and Price List. 


Visalia, California. 


(Cerakvs Uiclfolia) 
SI per pound. About 300 plants from one pound of seed, 
riiy ll<>x«?ra-i)ro«f Cuttiiigx, from S!4 per 1,000. 
Seeillings, $10 per 1,000; Rooted Cuttings, $25 per 1,000; 
Seed, from .$1.50 per lb. COATES St TOOL. 

Napa, Cal. 

100,000 Rooted Vines & Cuttings 

At very Low Prices at the OAK SIIAIJE FRUIT COM- 
PANY, Davisville, Cal., of the following varieties: Zin- 
fanilel. Muscatel, Sultana, Emperor, Tokay, and Cornc- 
chon. WEBSTER TREAT, Manager, 

Davisville, Cal. 



[Janoary 10, 1885 


625 to 631 I 



149 to 169 













Jackson's Improved " ACME " Hay and Grain Stacker and Loader, and Improved Bake and Buck Combined. 









Tlie ab.ivc tut repro^cnt^ the mai'hinc I uii ofli i iris; fur tliu coniiii'/ sKisiin, sliowiii^ tiie latest iiiipro\ uir.ciitB, c 
every one fully tested, for which I solicit your orders, on the hroadest guaran'ee fver made by a manufacturer to a 
farmer. I know from persunal experience just what the Improved "Acme" Stacker anO Kakes will do. Tliey will 
work on every kind of soil, in c\ ery kind of hay, saving money, time and lahnr. I rei|Ue3t hay growers and farmers 
to send me their addresses, that 1 may mail them ciruulara. fnlly expl liiiiii/ this prcat in\enti<m, whicii is indispens- 
able to every one putting up 100 tons of hay per year, ami to farmers h h ■ siu.-L iln ii -rain cr straw. 


MiLi'iiAS, Cai.., Iieuenihur 'M, lse4. 
Byron Jackson, .S'rt.i Franchco. 1)kaK Sin: ^ «jur "Acme" .staiker and Hakes cannot be too highly recoin 
mended. We ha\e stacked, on an average, since l-s^V, about SttO tons of hay; have tried fiex eral different tools, but 
not to our satisfaction, imtil we tried the **Aon^e." W e stacked this year about T.'tO tons of hay at onc-thir^l the 
usual cost per ton ^'urther, we lost scarcely any hay by the unusual heaxy rain in .lune, the stacks being high and 
compact. I think as the mower is to the scythe, the reajier to the sickle, so is the "Acme" Stacker to anything 1 
ever saw for putting up hay. c. C. \*.\Iil''\'. 

PfLXCz: XjXjst r-oix loes. 

1 Jarksoii luipriivofl "Acme** Stacker, to atack 'Jfi tu 3U feet hi,;!), on uheMis, with tn-><ji:e anH 

whitlletrees ciinipletu i^l'iH 00 

1 Javksnii IinproTed "Acme" Stacker, to stack 18 to 2o feet ■•igli, on i uIiik. s 90 00 

Jai'kHnn's Net Altai'linient, with sample net . 40 00 

This atrachment can be used with any .lackson Imi>ro^ed Stacker, and is used to •*ta<;k grain fmm 
header wagons. 

Nets for same, each 6 00 

ffarksoii's Irofiroved "Acme" Rakes, with whiffie-trees complete, each 45 00 


I warrant that the said implements arc well made of gooii materials, simple in construction, and easilv operated, 
and, it pro| erly handled, will, with one rake, three men (or one man and twu boyt>) and three horses, raku and pitch 
on st4ick or wagons, ten to fifteen acres or t'.>ns of hav per d,iy; with h\'e men (or two men and three boys) and live 
horses and two rakes, twenty to thirty tons or acres per day, in a good and workuianlike manner. Address 

Main Works 


Branch Works : WALLA WALLA. W. T. 

Save Time, Labor, and Expense 

Our Warranty with- 
out Reservation : 

The Lightest Draft. 
The Easiest Managed, 
The StroDjett, 
The Most Durable, 


The Greatest Capacity 
Plow Invented. 


That the " FARMKRS' FRIEND" Cang Plows arc completely revolutionizing California plowing, where intro- 
duced, is b«jond a doubt. The testimony from ever,\' purcha4*er fonns proof of this assertion. Its main advantages 
are: 1. Its greatly increased capacity of work, without a correspondiiig ini-rease of hoisetlesh. 2. Its effective 
and superior work. :i. Its streiigthand durability. 4. Its ease of man.igcm' nt. 

We will ship the " FARMKRS' FRIEND" to any responsible farmer in the State, and if upon tiial its work is 
not satisfactory, it may be returned at our expense. 

^i^Prices and our Catalogue of Agricultural Implements upon application. 

GEO. BULL & CO.. Sole Agents, 21 and 23 MAIN ST.. SAN FRANCISCO. 



35J]nNGDuTCHMM Sulky Plow, 

Orchard and Field Cultivator! 


r"o-u.i*-I»c»ixxtocaL Slxovols. 

McLEAN, - - . Patentee and Manufacturer, 

WatsonvlUe, Santa Cruz County, Oal. 
Send for Circulak and Tbstimomaus. Send for Cikci lar and THiTiMOXiAi.8. 


TiiR (( Dl AkICT ID i! HOLLOW steel standard 
Niiw rLAntl Jn " -HORSE hoe, 

As liilcly i-,l, l,us no. .iumMu tlo- 1 1 - . ^. . . .. iii 

workinthe tiel<l ll;,^s iliManccl thiil of all c,,nii.cnl..i>, 1. i-. 
Ill .some se-'tions, doing in one passage, lite work ol Juui or 
live old-si \ Ic iniiiU-ioi.nis,uncl HI oUii'issuperi'ediiig Uiecuni- 
bersoioe aoil e.vijcrisive IWo lioise lo..js. The " PLANET 
JR;' hand seed-drills and WHEElTMOEi 
are llie liewcsl ami best, ll;;lili si ami sUuiiKesl Know n. There 
nil. 7 (lislHicI lo.ils.iaih nilhsiieclal nicrils. no twoiilikeor 
the same pilc'e: all |. radical au'l labor-saviiiK. Let no 
1-arnier or <iardener tail lo stu.iv up diiriii'; the winler 
eveninv^s onr 1N^.> <'.4T.\ l,0«;r K. which givi s reduced 
prices, raretul Hnd e.vuet en^iavilms of Ihese difTerelil 
lliacllUieH, lllid sneh de-crlplioiis as will i iialile llie reader lo 
judge correctly of rhi ir meiiis. Tlonv iia:;e~ and I'orlv 
eiii-iavillgs. Free to all. <:orri s|,oial. i.c'.. s,.li,.iied 

SI Al I PN £ rn MANUrACTURERS. 127 anil 119 



AXI> . 

.\t :o fuul work ill the field pra\es to do the liest work 
especially on rough, une\ en ground. It is the Ll|;litpst 
I>raft and KaiifHt Handled Plow in use. Two 
Horses do the work ol Three, Steel Plow, Steel Frame, 
Steel Axles, Steel .luintcr, and either Steel or Woolen 



To any responsible person, and if not 8atislacMr.\ , it can be returned. <;AL.I;: .'SPKIN<;-TOOTH SKF.DER.S 
rroin SH" 13 ttiet In wlilfli. Strengthened and Improved for the Trade of IKK4-85. 

Send for Circulars, Terms, and Price List. Address 

BATCHELOR & WYLIE. 37 Market St., San Francisco. 


Ml Sales and Siiiall MargiDS, 

Studebaker Wagons, Carriages, 

and Buggies of all kinds, anri 

Lower than e\er. 
.KilIN t'AINK, cor. El Dorado and Market 
Stf., .StO< kTO.V. P. CI. Box O... 

Globe Foundry & Machine Works 

Stkamiioat, Mill, and 
Agricultural Machinery, Horne 
Powers anil I'uniiM, Iron and Driu» 
Cantingb of every kind. 
JOHN CAINE, cor. Main and roiiimerco Sts. 
Stockton, C'al. P. O. Box 95. 

Booth's Sure Death Squirrel Poison 

For Squirrels, Gophers, Birds, Mice, Etc. 

it^Endorsed by the (Irange and Farincra wliere\cr uncd.t^t 
The Cheapest and KeHt. 
Put up in l-pouiid, 5-iK>iiiid, and .'egallon tins. 
Every Can Warranted. 
This PoiHOn ha8 Ik en on the market led^ than two >cars, }et 
in tliia short time it baa gained a reputation uf "Sure UMkth," 
etjualed by none. By ltd merits alune, with very little advertising, 
it is now used cxteniiively all over the I'acillc Coast, as w ell as in 
.\iistralia and New Zealand. 


MAXt;i'.^C'-rt RI'.l> BY 

Patented Jau. 23d, 1883. 

1 or Sale by all Wholesale and Kctail Dealers. 

A. R. BOOTH, San Louis Obispo, Cal. 

Upveial Tern>8 on Qiiantitieit in Bulk, 



[January IT, 1885 


Growth and Propagation of Carp. 

KoiToKS I'UKSS: 1 noticed :i sliort article on 
page 134 of your Nov, 'JQd issue, headed "Kx- 
poriineots with Carp," and signed by Isaau 
I'akin, which I cannot pass over without a 
shi)i-t item: I liavo ha<l 30 years' experience in 
making and maintaining pond and iish manipula- 
tions in one or another phase, and have some 
knowledge of the carp, which I esteem as the 
great fish for the millions, and the only fish 
that can be cultivated with profit as an article 
for food, to say nothing of the amusement it 
affords the grower. My experience, and the 
experiences of others sent nie, has convinced 
me that the true, origiual "Fish Story""--that 
synonym of falsehood — has been a true story, 
and that tile ( ierman carp was the fish spoken 
of (. • , the hero of that stoiy. 

When gentlemen from Tennessee —juilging 
from their letters at least— assure nie that they 
raise carp of ten pounds weight when only two 
years old, I can feel as if it was a hard tax on 
my credulitj', anil 1 .set it down as a kind of 
modern miracle. 

But I must confine myself to the article re- 
ferred to. The carp referred to by Mr. Dakio, 
may have l)een two years old when only six 
inches long, but if they were, then they 
were kept in water too cold for them, 
and they were dwarfs. Carp can be dwarfed 
as I have done it myself, by keeping them in 
water of too low a tempi rature and in the shade. 

I have grown the carp from the spawn, be- 
tween spring and fall, as large as nine inches, 
but this is my maximum, whilst my medium is 
about G or (i!. to 7 inches. Carp are creatures 
of circumstance i. < . food and temperature. It 
is a warm water lish, just as the trout is a cold 
water lish: they are the very antipodes of the 
trout in all things pertaining to their wants 
and habits. 

The tiinling of no young carp iu Mr. D's 
pond proves nothing as to their sex or the age at 
which they spawn; the trouble was simply one 
of temperature, the water was too cool. Now, 
liad he run just enough water into his pond 
to have kept it full, I have no doubt that lie 
would liave had a crop of young carp. Jlis 
springs were either too large or his pond was too 
small, and this tiieory is further strengthened 
from tlie fact that the I •_' fish were not of 
much larger growth than \2 inches. I have 
had about a similar experience. 

Carp will, under ordinarily favorable circum- 
stances, spawn the same year of their birth, 
and why not? \'or instance, here is a hen's egg, 
laid in the spring and hatched out, and by the 
next fall it is a matured hen, and by the follow- 
ing tall may have laiil eggs and reared a brootl 
of chickens. If so with warm blooded land 
auimuls, why not with lishv I have fre((Uently 
examined <i and li', inch carp in the fall of the 
year (carp spawned and hatched the previous 
sunimcri and find the layers of rowe or eggs 
well-formed and the individual eggs well defined. 
Now, is it reasonable to .suppose that these eggs 
would be carried over another summer, which 
is still several months oil ? In short, I do not 
tluiik Mr. l>'s pond otters the best cimditions 
for carp culture, in and from the standpoint of 
temperature. It, in all proljability, has not 
enough of shallow water, in which grow grasses 
or vegetable cover for his spawners, and upon 
which the spawn can aclhere and absorb the 
sun's warmth during the short period of the 
eggs' incub.ition. 

I find shallow ponds having a sheltered ex- 
posure from tlic norther. 1 blast the best for pro- 
ducing the young fry, and do not forget that a 
ileep part of the pond is also indispensable for 
their winter abode, in which they spend the 
cold months of the year in a kind of lethargy. 

I also recommend that in this deep water 
there should be some kind of cover, into which 
the carp can push themselves, thereby being 
assisted in keeping in their natural position 
without ellbrt. Litter of almost any kind, 
brush with the leaves on, weighted pine boughs 
in the shape of brush heaps is good and used 
by myself for this purpose. l!ut my commu- 
nication is too long ami 1 must close. 

Eo^iEii'l, Piii4,ii,;jli, I'a. (Jko, I'iM.Kv. 

Mr. Plnley'3 Record. 
AVe find in an article in the Pill.-<:.arij Stud: 
mail the following record of our correspondent's 
work as a carp grower: 

Mr. F. is no novice in the line of fish culture, 
and claims that he speaks from experience when 
he asserts that an l,S-iuch fish can be produced 
in KS months. Me says of the first carp he got 
that he had no faith in them, but he got them 
for the taking, and having plenty water ranee 

]I?OUbTF^Y ^M^. 

Poultry Houses. 

long ill I.S months? In the summer of 1S8'2 he 
put 1 1 large fish in a certain pond, rented for 
the purpose of raising carp fry. The parent i 
fish were put in in the spring, and the young , 
fry as well as the parents, were removed in the 
f.ill, and there was no mistaking the parents j 
from the fry or young lish, the former being IN- ; 
inch fish when put iu in the spring, and much Kuitoks 1'ress:— I have recently been ex 
larger when taken out in the fall. The young periinenting as to the most sucoesiiful and 
fry ruu iu size from 3 to 8 inches, « hen only economical way of keeping the greatest number 
one snmnier old, or about six months. Now , , , . ,• , \ 
these .s.inch fish would and do stop both eating [ -iuarters. 
and growing as soon as the water falls to a cer- 1 l>ave always found lumber to be (juite an 
tain temperature, and remain in xlntii i/no until item in sheltering jioultry, until recently I saw 
spring, when, like turtles and frogs they shake j article in the J'rks.s written by Professor 
oil their lethargy and go in iiuest of food, being , . . . , . , , ... 

governed entirely by temperature. By this ^^P»> "> said he kept .lO 

time, 1. I,, the next spring, the !• inch carp is j fowls in a house 4x8. I thought I had surely 
about one year old, but now commences his struck a bonanza, so having some houses of that 
growing season, and if a jb^^inch fish can be ^j^^ a hen and young chicks, I rushed 

and n produced from a 5.'. inch nsh in one sum- , . , , , , , . , 

mer, what will a !l inch 'fish be at the same I ^'"^ chicken yard 

rate ? Now that he has systematically and ex- and began driving in fowls for a starter. But 
actly done what he claimed he could do, who j lo I and behold, there was only 1!J in when they 
can, in the face of facts like the foregoing, commenced flouncing and panting for breath, so 
doubt that he would win the wager were it I naturally concluded the professor hail either 
made? | made miscount of his fowls, or mistake as to size 

The fish in the above referred to experiment : of house, till a new idea came into my cranium 
he assures us were not, to his knowledge, fed, ' I made up my mind the professor had built his 
but subsisted entirely upon such food as they } houses five stories high to accommodate that 
could find in the pond or on the bottom; that ; number of fowls, for he certainly would be 
the pond was not visited but once during the compelled to do so to house that number of 
summer, as it was some distance from his resi- fowls in that sized room 

dence, and that the parent fish were secretly There is another verv sensible suggestion the 
put therein in order to avoid poaching, as would professor gives to the poultry fraternity which 
liave been the case had their presence been might mislead an amateur, lie says in the 
known. Mr. F. assures us that this apparent same article he keeps his poultry houses closed 
transmutation of something unknown into 350 all the time except on, , a nionlh he opens 
pounds of food fish is as wonderful to him as them to remove the droppings. So now you 
anyone. He says he gives results and leaves { will please inform all your readers, the old 
the rest as unsolved. i veterans included, that airing and cleaning 

- houses for fowls daily ia all bosh. The pro- 
fessor says so. 

In another article the professor tells 
through the I'kkss that his fowls all have the 
roup, caused by the iwrl/i ii-iinl, and were this 
from the pen of any one but the professor, I 
should say that his fowls tojk the roup from 
these close, tilthy, unaired houses. 

If not taking up too much of your valuable 
paper I will inform the readers of the I'kkss 
how I make my poultry houses. They are 8x12 
The bottom sills 

IUhe jgCpi;9rRY. 

Starting in the Bee Business— No. 2. 

Kijirnrts I'kkss : -To begin with the start, 
then, it will depend altogether on the extent 
to which you intend to go. If you want only 

one or a few colonies for honey to be used at and 4 feet high on the sides. 

home, for study or as an ornament to your j '^xb scantliug sharpened at one end like 
, ., ^ , , , , ,^ a sled runner. It takes two rows of shakes for 
place, any of the standard works on bee culture ; g^^,, j^e roof. I usually make a hole in 

will give yon sufficient theoretical knowledge to [ the center of the top, large enough to fit in a 
begin with. In connection with this, you \ lime barrel, which allows all offensive odors to 
should, if possible, visit some practical bee- »=«cape. The houses are made perfectly tight 

keeper, watch him through the various manipu- 
lations in theapiary, and ask the "why and wliere- 
fore" of anything you do not understand. The 
same course iiny liepiirsued if you intend eventu- 
ally go into bee keij.i.ig on a larger scale, hav- 
ing at present some other business on which you 
depend, or to which you are confined, but 
which you hope some time to leave for the more 
congenial culture of bees. You should also 
subscribe for one or more of the principal bee 
papers. There has, within the decade, 
been such a radical change in the management 
of bees that no sensible man would uow think 
of keeping them as his grandfather did. But 
there is at the same time such a constant pro- 
gress in details and improvements that only by 
studying the bee papers can you keep up with 
the times. Though new books are occasionally 
published, they soon, for this reason, become 
obsolete in some respect, and it has been neces- 
sary to revise and add something to each new 

The Tyro, 

all around by battening all the cracks u[i as far 
as where the ends commence to slope. From 
these up I use 1x3 and leave cracks so the air 
can pass over the fowls. Be sure not to have 
the roost more than two feet off of the ground; 
for Asiatics they should not be higher than 12 
inches. The doors of my houses arc thrown 
open every morning and ai'ed all day. ilouses 
built in this manner need never be cleaned, as 
they can be moved anywhere with one good 
horse. I move mine all over the farm. Houses 
of this size will comfortably hold 2.'> grown 

I trust the professor will take no offense at 
any of my remarks, as it is all written in a 
friendly spirit. 

Xti/n, Jmi. Ill, ISS'i. H. IIk.Mi. 

■Yellow Eggs.' 

for them he took them home, and threw them 
into a small pond, on the -J'.tth day of October. 
I he largest fish was inches in length, and 
many of them were not over one-half tiiat 
8iz.e. These fi.sli were forgotten, or at most lit- 
tle thought of, until the pond was drawn for 
■ lUite another purpose than that of captiiiing 
the carp, which was not even thought oft 
on the 4th day of the following October', 
or just eleven months afterward, the fish 
were found, and to the astonishment of all, 
fish just Ki.l inches long and weighing 3.'. pounds 
were found among them. Now somebody will 
be ready to exclaim: How does this prove the 
position /. f.., that you can raise carp 18 inches 

Kditoks 1' - It will be well for the read- 
ers of your very good journal to know that color 
Who intends to enter into bee culture on a scale in the shell of the eggs duly effects the color of 
sutficieutly large to enable him to make a living their money. All the large cities I know of 

thereby from the beginning, should serve an an- I c lu n n -n c 

.•• c t -lu 4.- I pay more tor the yelltw egt! than they will for 

prenticcship of a year or two with a practical, ^ j. i^.. 

extensive bee keeper, where he may thoroughly 'he white-shell eggs. Yellow eggs are a favorite 

learn all the various details of the business, among the wealthy classes, and as they are 

rhcre is no hartl or violent work to contend i ^^iUing to pay a premium for quality and color, 

with in the business it elf, but the bee-keeping ' .. . ,, . ^ i. c ^ ^ c , . 

of to day is made up of an indefinite number of '* ""^"^ ^^^^ ^"^"'^ purchasing 

little matters, which can only be learned by fowls for general purposes. The Ouocco Farm 

White Belgian Carrots. 

Ki>iTi>Ks— I am glad W. W. Hliss has 
proved the value of carrots and I can hearlily 
endorse all he says as to their good qualities for 
all kinds of stock, but I am fully persuaded 
that I have a better kind than the Danvers and 
hope to persuade him also, for if he would but 
try the White Belgian I feel sure he would de- 
clare in their favor also. I have raised them 
to weigh as high as sixteen pounds without 

1 plant them in drills not over two feet apart, 
then by narrowing the cultivator or takiug out 
the two back teeth they can be cultivated with 
one horse so as to keep the ground loose and 
free from weeds. At first when they are small 
I use the hoe. The first year 1 raised them I 
cultivated them only once with a hand cultiva- 
tor and they yielded at the rate of 19 tons per 
acre; since that having more experience and 
giving somewhat better cultivation they have 
yielded more than that per acre. 

They are a much surer crop then potatoes, as 
the frost does not affect them and they will 
give you more tons than you could get from the 
same ground in potatoes, and the crop can be 
gathered with greater ease and in much leas 

In a climate like .Santa Cruz I do not think 
they need to be planted so early as perhaps 
they would in other places, as in case of early 
planting here one has so many more weeds to 
contend with. I now plant about the last of 
March and the carrots grow all summer, and 
after the fall rains grow still faster up to .lan- 
uary, though I begin to pull them, a« I want 
them for cows, horses, chickens, etc., early in 
the fall. I do not see but I hey make just as 
yellow butter as the Uanvers, for I have raised 
the Danvers till 1 found these would yield so 
much better. In fact, I don't see why they 
should not yield 2.') or even ."10 tons per acre 
with irrigation, when they give such a wonder- 
ful crop without. For greater convenience in 
planting 1 mix the seed with moist sand. After 
mixing with saud you cin, if you like, let them 
set in a warm place till they show just the least 
signs of si)rjuting. I raise my own seed and 
know it to be fresh and good. 

For table use we consider the Belgian far 
superior to the Danvers, and I have heard per- 
sons say they never liked carrots till they ate 
this kind. A\'c like them simply boiled, the 
skin removed, sliced rather thin or chopped not 
too fine, thfn add sweet cream, a little salt, 
ust let it come to a boil and serve. Milk and 
a little butter can be used instead of cream, or 
they can be sliced and browned in butter. 
Soqnd, Cat. la.Khv Uakis. 

constant study, close application and daily prac 
tice. It is a mistaken idea, that bee-keeping is 
easy work. There is, perhaps, no other occu- 
pation, where the hand and the brain have to 
work as faithfully together to insure success 
and prevent failures and disappointment, as in 
the bee business. Like any other occupation, 
it has its bright and its dark side, its ups and 
downs, good seasons, followed by bad seasons, 
frequently low prices, losses through hard win- 
ters, unfavorable summers or by disease, and 
only he, who has a genuine love for his voca 

is devoted exclusively to raising poultry for 
market. Mr. Rudd, the proprietor, says he 
can obtain easily ."{O cents per dozen as a yearly 
average for all the yellow eggs he can produce. 

A large Boston consumer of yellow eggs is now 
ready to contract with a party or parties for a 
large amount of the "yellow eggs" at 40 cents per 
dozen. When eggs are slow of sale in large cit- 
ies and towns, yellow eggs most always have a 
ready sale, and at .all times demand a much 
higher price than the white shell eggs. Farm- 

.. , , . , - . ,1- ers would be gainers if they assorted their 

tion, coupled with perseverance, intelligence ^ggs into white and yellow-shell lots. It is poor 
and economy, will be likely to stick ti it till | ^^^ioy to make a desirable article sell tha^ of 
tneena. inferior quality. As custom and the a-sthetic 

tastes of the highest-class consumers demand 
the egg should be //' Unn' and fresh, certainly 

Selecting a Locitlon. 

Look in the I'rst place to the pasture. A lo- 
cation, be it ever so desirable in evi-i y othi^r re- 
spect, will be useless, unless there is an abun- 
dance of honey-producing plants. After the 

the poultry keeper is slow in studying his own 
advantage by producing an article that docs not 
sell for as much as another article of different 

season opens with the flowering of the willows, color, size and quality, that can be obtained at 

there should, if possible, be a continuous bloom no greater outlay than the inferior one. Asiatic 

until the fall. Fruit trees, small fruits, locust blood infused in common hens will to a great 

and other shade trees, wild or yellow alfalfa, extent jiroduce the yellow egg, and if there is a 

the sages. Sumac, the cultivated alfalfa, buck prejudice against the Chinese fowl, we have at 

wheat brush and many others yield nectar in least two American varieties sutliciently tainted 

large quantities, when the atmospheric condi- 
tions are favorable. .Some plant certain honey- 
yielding crops to fill up a gap iu the honey 
flow, such as rape and buckwheat. The latter 
is, however, not always to be depended on for 
honey. Wm. MrTii-IlAs.MrssKN. 

Ind' i>end<:nce, Cil. 

with China blood to produce the "yellow egg." 
And again, we might add, for .30 years the 
"yellow egg" has been gaining popularity, for 
now it is quite noticeable that a large share of 
the "commercial eggs" waiting shipment at our 
country stores have the "yellow" tint. 

Saul, I n,irb,ir". A. L. C.\NKIELi>. 

Stock Feeding, 

KdituKs l'j; : I have been much inter- 
ested iu the articles in regard to stock feeding 
in No. - of .Ian. ."{d. That we can all 
learn and improve in our management in regard 
to feeding and care of stock at all times of the 
year, I believe, and I, for one, value highly the 
articles iu the Ui km. on such subjects. I 
have always used mangolds as food for stock at 
certain seasons of the year, but have always 
ilculated to have them all fed while they could 
be used fresh from the ground. I know of one 
JSC where a large number of hogs died, and it 
was supposed the loss was caused by feeding 
mangolds that had been dug up and piled away 
for food. I have also known of loss of horses, 
supposed to have been caused by feeding carrots 
that had been dug and kept in sacks late in the 
season . 

From what I know of the matter of feeding 
roots, I should be afraid to keep them long 
after they were dug for food for stock of any 
kind. I'erhaps if they can be kupt and fed 
with safety, some of your correspondents will 
tell us more particularly how they can be cared 
for, particularly the mangold. Are not sugar 
beets a better root to store for winter use than 
either the mangold or carrots ? 

J. A. Bkkwkk. 
Centerflllr, Alain, dn Co., Cat. 

I Mr. Brewer is no doubt right. Hoots fresh 
from the ground are better, and fortunately the 
climate in most parts of this .State is such that 
root pits or root cellars are not necessary, and 
roots can be pulled fresh all winter. Mr. Ash 
burner has his mangolds pulled fresh every 
morning, or at least each day for the next day's 
feeding, never feeding them after more than 24 
hours from the soil. Mouldy carrots are gen- 
erally known to be dangerous horse feed. Kut. 
['ress. ] 

A F.\.Mi(lts Hon.— The well known Herkshire 
hog. Lord Liverpool 221 , died at 8udilia, Mo., 
on the 26th ult. He was 1 1 years and 3 month:) 
old, and was the sire of 173 animals from 83 dif 
ferent litters recorded in the American Berk- 
shire Record. He was bred in Knghand, iui 
ported in August, 1874, by .Tohn Snell's Sons, 
of Canada, and sold in November, 187.">, to N. 
H. tieutry, of Sedulia, .Mo., for $700. 

JANUARY I T, 18 85.] 

fACIFie f^URAlo f RESS. 

Lessons of the Fat Stock Show. 

The seventh annual fat stock show, held at 
( !hicago in November last, seems to have been 
a great success, judging from the favorable re- 
ports given in both the Stork Journal and the 
lincihTs' ddu llc, from which we give notes on 
some of the leading classes and premiun'' ani- 
mals. The first lesson is one of 

And here it is from the Gaz<Mc : 

The judging ooiniiienced on Wednesday afternoon 
with Shorthorns, nine animals appearing in the 
i:ng for three and under four years. The two 
whites, Clarence Kirklevington and Snowflake, at 
once attracted the attention of the judges, and it 
was evident to outsiders that in the walk-around the 
wonderful style and gait of the former, exhibited by 
the Canada West Farm Stock Association, could 
not be got o\ er. Clarence Kirklevington was the 
.Shorthorn sweepstakes winner here last year, but 
has improved much since then. He has a beautiful 
head, marvelous top of great length, well-filled 
bosom, grand shoidder, and is covered with a thick 
coaling of the finest meat. His fault is lightness in 
flank and second thighs being the more apparent on 
account of his grand top. As indicated before he 
was "the gentleman" of the ring, ;'.nd scaled 2,400 
pounds, showing a daily gain of 1.74. 

Clarence Kirklevington, we believe, has been 
the most successful animal ever exhibited at 
Chicago, and the first purebred animal 
of any breed that has taken the grand sweep- 
stakes premium, which is a very strong 
and practical argument against the wide spread 
prejudice against any color but red, and more 
especially against vhite in Shorthorns. 

Those breeders who confine themselves to 
the use of red bulls just because they are red, 
must have their range for selection greatly cur- 
tailed, and may before long find themselves in 
a similar position to that of some of the "line 
breeders" who have all along bred for a pedi- 
gree to read so-and-so — on paper — almost re- 
gardless of tlie individual merits of the animals 
bred from. Those breeders who now see the 
mistake made are sorely puzzled to get suitable 
bulls to cross on their cows, with the view of 
raising the standard of individual merit in 
their herds, and some have gone to the extreme 
of using Booth bulls on (so-called) "pure" Bates 
cows. No doubt the day will come before long 
when some of the color breeders will be glad to 
go to the same extreme in color, from red to 
white, or any other bull of a good color with 
good pedigree, in order to improve their herds 
and mike good cattle, rather than cattle all of 
one color. 

Mr. Hope has done agood deal for the Short- 
horn interest in feeding Clarence Kirklevington 
to the ripeness of perfection to which he must 
have been fed in order to win every premium 
he was ever exhibited for. But first-class steers 
made from pure bred cattle of any breed will of 
necessity be scarce, and we must look chiefly to 
grades and cross breeds for filling the stalls at 
our fat s'ock shows. 

The Different Breeds. 

Each breed named below appears to have 
been represented by the following numbers, in 
all the classes, viz.. Shorthorns, '28; Here- 
fords, 14; Aberdeen-Angus, 5; Holsteins, 2. 
Total of pure-red cattle, 40 head. Grades or 
crosses, three-year-olds, 40 head; two-year-olds, 
."{9 head; yearlings, 23 head; under one year old, 
eight head; car lots, or pens of cattle, 100 head. 
Total of grade cattle, 192 head. 

It will be seen that the number of grades is 
more than four to one of all the breeds of pure 
bred cattle combined. While few of the latter 
will represent the best specimens of their re- 
spective breeds, we cannot doubt but that the 
grades are represented by the choicest of the 

The classes of graded cattle will attract the 
attention of all breeders, for the very reason 
that they indirectly represent all the beef breeds 
of cattle. They afford an excellent opportunity 
of comparing the merits of the diti'erent crosses, 
and show the improvement that can be made on 
common cattle, by the use of pure bred bulls, 
and that is one point on which a great many 
farmers seem to need some enlightenment, if one 
may judge by the general run — we can't call 
them by the breed they are — of cattle kept 
throughout the country. 

To show the comparative weights, ages, etc., 
of some of the different classes of grades and 
thoroughbreds for the seven yeavs that the 
show has been held, we take the following 
tables from the (lazd.l.i', which also gives the 
number of each kind of grades, and to which 
kind the premiums were awarded in each year. 

Shorthorns, three years old and under four. — 
The animals shown since 1878 have averaged as 

Nuniher of Animals. 

iss:i Three. . 
ISh'i Five . . 
1881 Three. , 
1880 Four .. 
1879 Two... 
1878 Two.., 









= 5' 



'■ 5' 





























18S3 Twenty. 

( > 








. a 

n pe 

• 3' 






















The entries in the above rings were composed 
of the following: In 1884, 18 grade Shorthorns 
and 4 grade Herefords; in 188.3, 17 grade Short- 
horns and 3 grade Herefords; in 1882, 17 grade 
Shorthorns and 7 grade Herefords; in 1881, 29 
grade Shorthorns and 5 grade Herefords; in 
1880, IG grade Shorthorns and 2 grade Here- 
fords; in 1379, 20 grade Shorthorns, 7 grade 
Herefords and 2 griide Devons; in 1878, 9 grade 
Shorthorns and 1 grade Hereford. 

The first-premium animals, aged 3 years and 
under 4 in this ring, were grade Herefords in 
1883 and 1881, and grade Shorthorns in 1884, 
1882, 1880, 1879 and 1878. 


Nuniliur of Animals. 

Av. age in 

Av. gain per 
liay in lbs. 
since birth 





















Number of .\nimaU. 

iii p 


a' P' ' 
S _.£. 

. » 

; 5" 















Thirty three 



1 .711 
















The entries in the rings for the years named 
above were composed as follows: In 1884,20 
grade Shorthorns, 18 grade Herefords, one 
grade Holstcin, one grade Abardeen-Angus, 
and six-cross bred Angus-Shorthorns. In 1883, 
20 grade Shorthorns aud nine grade Herefords; 
in 1882, 12 grade Shorthorns and six grade 
Herefords; in 1881, 28 grade Shorthorns, four 
grade Herefords, and one Hereford-Shorthorn; 
in 1880, IG grade Shorthorns and four grade 
Herefords; iu 1879, 31 grade Shorthorns; in 
1878, 1 1 grade Shorthorns and two grade Here- 

The first- premium animals in the ring for 
grades and crosses have been awarded, steers 
two years old and under three as follows: In 
1883, to grade Herefords; and in 1884, 1882, 
1881, 1880, 1879, and 1878, to grade Short- 

The above tables show that the grades made 
about as great a daily average gain since date 
of birth as did the thoroughbreds. 

We have taken the Shorthorns as forming a 
better basis for comparison, both on account of 
the larger number of entries and the greater 
average daily gain in weight, th?-n that given 
for any of the other breeds of thoroughbred 
cattle. However, we will add the tables for 
three-year-old and two-year-old Herefords, so 
that the gain in weight per day in bj h the 
principle breeds may be seen. 


The averages of the three-year-olds in this 
class have been as follows: 

Number of Animals 

1882 One 
























The averages of the two-year-olds for the 
past seven years are, as contained in the an- 
nexed table: 






Number of Animals. 





















No entries 














Of the 


breed there was but one three year-old shown, 
Netherwood Jock, belonging to Mr. Cochraine, 
of Canada, his age was 1,404 days, his weight, 

1,890 lbs., average gain per day since birth, 
1,35 lbs. 


There were four yearlings of this breed, the 
average age of the four was Wlh days, and the 
aggregate weight, 4991 pounds, which is an 
average gain per day of 2.4G pounds. The nine 
Shorthorn yearlings show an average gain of 
2. 15 lbs. for 592 days, and the four yearling Here- 
fords, an average gain of 1.87 lbs. for G82 days. 

Two years ago, three yearling Shorthorns 
showed an average gain from date of birth of 
2.72 lbs. 

The best showing made by yearling Herefords 
was in 1879, when three head showed a daily 
average gain of 2. 15 lbs. 

The Holsteins evidently do not make as good a 
showing as beef cattle, for there were only two 
head exhibited, viz. : One three-year-old, of 
which the judges decided that she lacked suf- 
ficient merit to entitle her to a higher place, 
and gave her the third premium. 

The next, a two-year-old, and tlie only one in 
the class, for the same reason was awarded a 
second premium. 

Feed and Breed. 

Our main object in bringing this subject for- 
ward is to show the weights made by well bred 
and well-fed cattle. It has been said that "the 
feed makes the breed," which simply means that 
good feeding makes good cattle. There cer- 
tainly can be no good cattle with bid feeding, 
whatever use is intended to be made of them, 
whether for beef or milk. 

The following table, taken from the Sh'<-lc 
JdiitikiI, shows the weights, ages, breed, etc., 
of the cattle slaughtered for premiums for the 
best dressed carcasses: 

have assumed a decidedly red tinge, the tree is 
said to be foxy, and scarcely fit for any purpose, 
as the decay will pervade a great portion of it. 

A more advanced stage is that which may bo 
described as a drying up or wasting away of 
the wood surrounding the pith. It forms a 
hollow, first at the butt, and then spreads up- 
ward, gradually increasing in size' as the trees 
get older, while the defect may eventually 
reach even into the branches. Trees arc most 
valuable as yielding the largest amount of good 
timber just prior to their reaching maturity, 
which is indicated by the topmost branches 
and branchlets becoming stunted. If, tlicre- 
fore, we wish to select a healthy tree for fell- 
ing, we must seek one with an abundance of 
youug shoots, and the topmost branches of 
which look strong, pointed and vigorous, this 
being the most certain evidence that it ha.s not 
passed maturity. When there is evidence of 
permanent decay in a tree, the best thing to do 
is to cut it down and convert such parts of it 
as will answer tho purpose into lumber, and 
the balance ii to firewood. — iS'. /<'. Arrldti cl. 

WiiEKE Our Fokksts are Goinu.— To make 
shoe pegs enough for American uso rc()uires 
100,000 cords of timber, and to make our luci- 
fei matches 300,000 cubic feet of the best pine 
are required every year. Lasts and boot trees 
take 500,000 cords of birch, beech and maple, 
and the handles of tools 500,000 more. The 
baking of our bricks consumes 2,000,000 cords 
of wood, or what would cover with forest 
about 50,000 acres of land. Telegraph poles 
already up represent 800,000 trees, and their 
annual repair consumes aliout 300,000 more. 
The ties of our railroads consume annually 30 
years' growth of 75,000 acres, and to fence all 


i p 

2 < 

Netherwood .lock 

rliarle\ Uoss 


Jim Lec 


Wbitc Stoekiuij 



V'lf Mary of Turlington 
Clarence Kirkl"\ ington , 

Prince , 

Maine Bo> 





Ohio Belle 






Deacon, No. 2 

Ued Bud Nero 




fobn yeomans 


Black Prince. 

Aberdeen An;^us. . . 

Grade ^ihorthoni. . . 


Ura'e Hereford 

CJrade .shorthorn. . . 

tirade Shorthorn. . . 


Grade Hereford 




He ford 

<Jra le Aiitrus 

Ci .dc Shorthorn.. . 


Oiade Hereford 

Grade Slmrtborn. . . 


Grade Sliorthorn. . . 


Grade Shorthorn. . . 

(«rade An<;us 

Grade Shorthorn , .. 

Grade Shorthorn. .. 


. Grade Hereford 

. Grade Shorthorn. . . 

JJrade Hereford 


. ' Aberdeen Ans,'us. . . 

. 1404 1 
. 1250 1 
. 1195 I 
. 1267 1 
. 1306 1 
. 1246 1 
. 1389 1 
. 113071 
.11380 1 
.jl372 1 
.; 9061 
.' 951 1 
. 8.321 
. 917 1 
. 1077 1 
. 876 2 
. 1075 1 
. 1 10.50 I 
.: 939 1 
. 957 1 
. 813 2 
. 621 I 
. ' 061 1 
. 597 2 
.i 10.531 
., .530 2 
., 325 2 
. 973 1 
.'1744 1 

,:j5 1S90 
.81 2205 
.70 2105 
,50 1005 
, 77 2260 
,:f5 1085 
,49 2075 
,04 21.50 

34 18.50 
,86 1860 
,73 1.555, 
,98 1052 
,07 1530: 
,65 1785 
,00 1760 
,.54 1652 

.33 1405 
,64 1535 
.78 1705 
,6S 17(i8 
.08 1278 
.79 1111 
.59 1055 
.50 1405 
.05 1090: 
.97 965 
.49 14.55 
.43 2488 


























1712 ; 

1457 79 

1000 76 

1611 78 

1441 ' 77 

18.34 81 

12081 75 

1032' 80 

10701 78 i 

140.5} 77 

19001 80 

1472' 80 

1210 78 ■ 

1220.1; 76 

1158 70 

1345 I 77 

l:i69 79 

12.-.3.1 77 

lOOoj 77 

lU9i 75 

13111 70 

136 85 

84' 106 

115 9S 

107 lOD 

125 103 

71 93 

100 108 

131 100 

1161 70 



77 . 
74 ' 
76 I 
73 i 

70 98 
78 96 
75 86 
72 84 

71 93 
98 98 





62; 87 
64' 69 


S3( 126 

There is no need of comment on the results 
shown in the above table. As usual the oldest 
animals show the least and the youngest ani- 
mals the greatest average daily gain in weight. 

The Jonrwil says : " By some oversight the 
steer Clarence Kirklevington was not entered 
in tiie class for best dressed carcasses three and 
under four years old. This premium was won 
by the Shorthorn steer Chicago (see table). As 
a final and last triumph, however, the white 
steer was awarded the premium of .*100 in the 
grand sweepstakes class for best dressed car- 
ca.s'-es of any animal slaughtered, regardless of 
TOO or breed." 


The Strongest Part of a Tree. 

It might be supposed, says a contemporary, 
that as every layer from the pith to the bark is 
in a different stage of perfection, the innermost 
or earlier being the most matured, would be 
the strongest, but experience teaches us that 
this is only true up to a certain period of 
growth; the greatest strength and toughness 
lies nearer the more recently formed heart- 
wood, or part nearest the sap-wood, h'or this 
reason it becomes a matter of groat importance 
in selecting timber for special purposes, reqair- 
ing great strcngtli or toughness, to have as 
little sap-wood as possible and as little pitch. 
That is to say, cut as near to the sap wood [as 
the timber will allow, for it should be oltservcd 
that a tree does not cease growing when it 
comes to maturity. As long as it is alive it 
continues to increase in bulk by the addition of 
the annual layer, but when maturity is once 
passed, each succeeding year produces a certain 
degree of deterioration. This decay appears in 
various stages, and generally exhibits in the 
first instance, either a white or yellowish color 
at the butt or root end of the stem. If white, 
the decay is very slight and does not appear 
more than a few feet up, but if a yellowish red 
in color, it is not unfre(|uently of a most 
serious character; again, if the affected piirts 

our railroads would cost .'i<45,000,000, with a 
yearly expenditure of .'Jil 5,000,000 for repairs. 
These are some of the ways in which .American 
forests are going. There are others; our pack- 
ing boxes, for instance, cost in 1874, .'i<12,000,- 
000, while the timber used each year in making 
wagons and agricultural implements is valued 
at more than 100,000,000. -Ex. 

Cllt KCII IJfll.T l-'ROM A .SlNi:l,K TliKK. — A 

redwood tree, cut in this county, furnished all 
the timber for the Baptist ('hurch in Santa 
Rosa, one of the largest church edifices in the 
country. Tho interior of the building is fin- 
ished in wood, there being no plastered walls. 
Sixty thousand shingles were made from the 
tree after enough was taken for the church. 
Another redwood tree, cut near .Murphy's mill, 
iu this county, about ten years ago, furuished 
shingles that required the constant labor of 
two industrious men for two years before the 
tree was ii.sed up. The above statements arc 
vouched for as true by Supervisor J. T. Proc- 
tor. -Saiilit Itosa Rt iiuhUcan. 

A.MMl)M.\ I'Oll Plants .\ni> 
Stuawukkrv Plants. — A writer in London 
Oar(l( iiiW Chronklc says: Last year I was in- 
duced to try an experiment in ehrysanthemtim 
growing, and for this purpose purchased one 
pound of Sulphate of ammonia, which 1 bottled 
and corked, as the ammonia evaporates very 
rapidly. 1 thou selected four plants from my 
collection, putting them by themselves, gave 
them a teaspoonful of anmionia in a gallon of 
water twice a week. In a fortnight's time the 
result was most striking, for though I watered 
the others with liquid cow manure, they looked 
lean when compared with the ammonia-watered 
plants, whose leaves turned to a very dark 
green, which they carried to the edge of the 
pots until the (lowers were cut. As a matter 
of course, the liowers were splendid. Tiie am- 
monia used is rather expensive, as I bought it 
from a chemist's shop. This year I intend 
getting agricultural ammonia, which is much 
cheaper. 1 have also tried it on strawberries, 
with the same satisfactory result, the crop 
being nearly double that of the others. It is 
very powerful, and must be used with caution. 


pACIFie f^URAb f RESS. 

[.I ANGARY 17, ISSo 


Correspondence on Granuc principles and work and re- 
(lorts of transactions of suhoniinate Granges are respect- 
fully solicited for this department. 

The Reagan Railroad Regulator. 

A incasure of groat importance to the pro 
(luciiig interests is that known as the "Iteagan 
hill," w hich passed tlie ITouse of Jiepresentativcs 
on Thursday of last week, and the full text o' 
which is presented below. It is iuteuded to 
meet many grievous matters of discrimination 
and favoritism which now work such injury to 
proiluccrs in general and to dillerent sections of 
the country. 1 1 also remedies other important 
evils, as may he seen by careful perusal. II. st 
of all, perhaps, it gives in the form a statute 
which has long been declared by the courts, 
that these corporations are ■^iiliji rt. lo ronirol hi/ 
the i'< opli , and that is the first lessons which the 
haughty and greedy magnates have to learn. 
The following is the bill as passed by the 
House : 

Skithix 1. /)' '■' 'iiw:/'il, That it shall 
be unlawful for any person or persons engaged 
alone, or associated with others, in the trans- 
portation of property by railroad, or by pipe 
line, or lines from one State or Territory to or 
through one or more States or Territories of 
tlie United States, or to or from any foreign 
country, directly or indirectly, to charge to or 
receive from any person or persons any greater 
or less rate or amount of freight, compen-sations 
or reward than is by hini or them charged to or 
received from any other person or persons for 
like and contemporaneous service in carrying, 
receiving, delivering, stowing or handling the 
same. AH charges for such services shall be 
reasonrble, and any person or persona having 
purchased a ticket for passage from one .State 
to another, or paid the reijuired fare, shall re- 
ceive the same treatment and be afforded ecjual 
facilities and accomodations as are furnished all 
other persons holding tickets of the same class, 
without discrimiuaMon; but nothing in this .Vet 
shall be construed to deny to railroads the right 
to provide sep.ira'e accommodations for passen- 
gera as they may deem best for public comfort 
and safety, or to relate to transpo, t it on relat 
ing to points wholly within the limits of one 
State; jirorlil< il, that no discrimination is madv 
on account of race or color, and that furnishing 
separate accommodations, with eijual facilities 
and equal comforts at the same charge, shall not 
be considered a discrimination; nor shall any rail- 
road company or its officers charge to or receive 
from any person w ho is to be conveyed from 
one State or Territory into another, any sum 
exceeding three cents per mile for the distance 
to be traveled by such person, and all persons 
engaged as the foresaid shall furnish without dis- 
crimination the same facilities for the carriage, 
receiving, delivery, storage and handling uf all 
property of like character carried by him or 
them, and shall perform with equal expedition 
the same kind of services connected w ith the 
contemporaneous transportation thereof as 
aforesaid. No break, stoppage, or interruption 
nor any contract, agreement or nnderstamling, 
shall be made to prevent the carriage of any 
property from being treated as one continuous 
carriage in the meaning of this Act from the 
place of shipment to place of destination, unless 
such stoppige, interruption, contract, arrange 
meut or understanding was made in good faith 
for some practical and necessary purpose with- 
out any intent to avoid or inteirnjit such con- 
tinuous carriage, or to evade any provisions 
of this Act. 

Sk<'. 2. That it shall be unlawful for any 
person or persons engaged in the transportation 
of property as aforesaid, directly or indirectly, 
to allow any rebate, drawback or other advan 
tagc in any form upon shipments made or ser- 
vices rendered as aforesai(l by him or them. 

Skc. That it shall be unlawful for any 
perpon or persons engaged in the carriage, re- 
ceiving, storage or handling of property, as 
mentioned in the tirst section of tliis Act, to 
enter into any combination, contract or agree- 
ment by changes of schedule for carriage in 
ditlerent cars or by any other means with intent 
to prevent the carriage of such property from 
being continuous from the place of shipment to 
the place of destination, whether carried on one 
or several railroads; and it shall be unlawful 
for any person or persons carrying property as 
aforesaid to enter into any contract, agitement 
or combination for pooling freights, or to pool 
freights with different and competing railroads, 
or to divide between them the aggregate or net 
proceeds or earnings of such railroads, or any 
portion of them. 

Ski-, i. That it shall be unlawful for any per- 
son or persons cngage<l in the transportation of 
property, as provided in the lirst section of this 
Act, to charge or receive any greater compensa- 
tion for a similiar amount and kind of property 
for carrying, receiving, storing, forwarding or 
handling the same tor a shorter than for a 
longer distance, which included the shorter, on 
any railroad or pipe line, and the road of the 
corporation shall include all roads or pipe lines 
in use by such corporation, whether owned or 
operated by it under contract, agreement, or 
lease by such corporation. 

Sec. .'i. That all persona engaged in carrying 
pioperty, provide^ in the first section of this 

Act, shall adopt and keep posted up schedule; 
which shall plainly state, first, the different 
kinds and classes of property to be carried 
second, the different places between which snch 
property shall be carried : third, the rates of 
freight and prices of carriage between such 
places and for all services connected with the 
receiving, delivery, loading, unloading, stowing 
or handling of the same, whether such property 
be carried wholly on one railroad or partly on 
several railroads, or wholly by one pipe line or 
partly by several pipe lines, and whether such 
services are performed, or compensation paid or 
received by or to one person alone, or in con- 
nection with another or other persons, railroad 
or pipe line; and the road of the corporation 
shall include all the roads or pipe lines in use by 
such corporation, whether owned or operated 
by it urder contrac', agreement or lease by 
snch CDi poration. 

Skc H. That each and all provisions of this 
Act shall apply to all property and the receiv- 
ing, delivery, loading, unloading, handling, 
storing and carriage of the same on one actu- 
ally or substantially continuous carriage, or as 
part of such continuous carriage, as provided 
tor in the first section of this Act, and the com- 
pensation therefor, « hether .such property be 
carried wholly on one railroad or partly on sev- 
eral railroads, or wholly on one pipe 'ine or 
partly on several pipe lines, and whether such 
services are performed and compensation paid 
01 received by or to one person alone or in con- 
nection with another or other persons. 

Ski . 7. That each and every act, matter or 
thing in this Act declared to be unlawful is 
hereby prohibited, and in case any person or 
persons, as iletined in this Act, engaged as 
aforesaid, shall do, suffer or permit to be done 
any act matter or thing in this Ac5 prohibited 
or forbidden, or shall omit to do any act, mat- 
ter or thing in this Act required to be done, or 
shall be guilty of any violation of the provisions 
of tliis Act, such per-son or persons shall for- 
feit and pay to the person or persons who may 
suffer damage thereby, a sum equal to three 
times the amount of damages so sustained, to 
be recovered by the person or persons so dam- 
aged, by suit in any State or I'nited States 
court of competent jurisdiction where the per- 
son or persons causing such damage can be 
found or may have an agent, office or place of 
business, and if t^e court before which any 
such action is tried shall be of the opinion that 
the violation of the law was willful, it shall 
make an allowance by way of additional costs 
to the party injured sutticient to cover all his 
counsel and attorney fees. 

Si ( . 8. That any Director or officer, or any 
corporation or covjipany, acting or engaged as 
aforesaid, or any receiver or trustee, lessee or 
person acting or engaged as aforesaid, or any 
agent of any Mi_-h corporation or company, re- 
ceiver, trustee or p^rsou aforesaid, or of one of 
them, alone or with any other corporation, com- 
pany, person or party, who shall willfully do, 
or cause, or willfully sull'er or permit to be 
done, any act, matter or thing in this Act pro- 
hibited or forbidden, or who shall aid or abet 
therein, or shall willfully omit or fail to do any 
act, matter or thing in this Act rc<iuired to be 
done, or cause or willfully suffer or permit any 
act, matter or thing so directed or reijuired by 
this Act to be done not to be done, or shall aid 
or abet any such omission or failure, or shall be 
guilty of any infraction of this Act, or aid or 
abet therein, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, 
and upon conviction thereof shall be fined not 
more than S'20,00. 

Skii. 9. That nothing in this Act shall apply 
to the carriage, receiving, storage, handling or 
forwarding of property wholly within one State- 
and not shipped from or destined to some for- 
eign country or other State or Territory: nor 
shall it apidy to property carried for the United 
States at lower rate of freights and charges 
than to the general public, or to the transfiorta- 
tion of articles at reduced rates of freight for 
charitable purposes, or to or from public fairs 
and expositions for exhibition. 

Sk<.. 10. That the words "a person or per- 
son?," as used in this Act. except where other- 
wise provided, shall be construed and held to 
mean the person or persons, otlicer or otficers 
of a corporation or copora'ions, company or 
companies, receiver or receivers, trustee or 
trustees, lessee or lessees, agent or agents, or 
other person or persons acting or engaged in 
any matters and things mentioned in this Act. 

Grange Installations. 

< )u .Jan. I 7th, San .lose ( irange will give a pub- 
lic installation of Officers with harvest feast. 

Kden and Temescal (^ranges hold joint in- 
stallation meeting, with harvest ftast also, 
in Odd Kellows' Hall.Oakl ind. at 10 .\ M.,.Jan. 
17th. All patrons are invited. 

San .lose (irange will meet for installa- 
tion, harvest feast, and literary ixercises on 
Jan. 17. 

St. Helena (irange will also install on Jan. 
17. A cordial invitation is extended to all 

Ceres (irange will have installation and 
harvest feast, on .Ian. '24th. 

Resolutions of Respect. 

At a regular meeting of Ceres (irange on De- 
cember 1884, resolutions of respect to the 
memory of Sister .Mary Ireland were adopted. 
Mrs, A. Chapiu, Mrs. A. M. Hanscom, apd 
Mrs. 1'. W. Cook, Committee. 

Grange Elections. 

Wkst San .Jdai^i in (iKANC.K, Sail .loaquin 
county. — A, 1'. .Stocking, M.: .T. N. Kerliuger, 
O.: Wni. (i. McKean, L.; C. D. Needham, S.: 
K. Saduleniire, A. S.; Sister .1. M. Kerlinger, 
Chap.; J. C. Allen, Treas.; H. H. Needham, 
Sec'y; W. Uaynes, (i. K. ; .Mrs. K. Saddlemire, 
Ceres; .Mrs. .1. (i. Dean, I'omoiia; Mrs. A. 1'. 
Stocking, Flora; Mre. .1. L. Williams, L. A. S. 

Kr.LioTT ( iRAXiiK, San .Toaquin county. .T. N. 
Hoyt, M.; K. Hart, <).; V. Kitter, S.; Robert 
Adams, A. S.; Sister lialphs, Chap.; Sister C. 
K. Misener, Treas.; H. H. West, Sec; .1. 
Wiltse, (i. K,: Sister Pinkertou, Pomona; 
Sister Kowley, Flora; Sister Daniels, Ceres; 
.Sister M. A. West, L. A. S.: .Sister McLean, 

Ki,K (iKo\ I. (ii;ANiiE, Sacramento county. 
Thomas McConnell, M.: (Jeorge T. Carr, O.; 
O. S. Freeman, L. ; Anthony Oplev, S. ; .fohu 
D. Hill, A. S.; K. W. Stickney, C.'; Fred Stel- 
ter, T.: Helos Cage, Sec'v. ; Thomas Chalmers, 
(i. K.; Mrs. L. ( '. McConnell, Ceres; Mrs. M. 
K. .Stickney, Pomona; Miss Maggie Byron, 
Flora; Mrs. Mary Kerr, I,. A. S. 

\V(>(iiir.uiiii;K (Ikaxijk. San .loaquin county, 
-.lohn Thompson, M.; (i. H. Ashley, ().; K/.ru 
Fisk, L. ; H. .J. Parsons, S. ; .\aron White, A. 
S.; K. .1. .Mcintosh, C; J. L. Hutson, T.: Mrs. 
K. .1. Mcintosh, Sec; Samuel Woodruff', (j. K.; 
Mrs. .lohu Thompson, Ceres; Mrs. Samuel 
Woodrutr, Pomona: Mrs. K. (i. W'illianis, 
Flora; Mrs. Aaron White, L. X. S. 

St. (iK.v.NcK, Napacounty. -William 
Peterson, M.; .lohn (I. Norton, O. ; .Sister Fdlen 
l>. Storey, L.; Willis Pinkham. S.; Wm. H. 
Storey, A. S.; Sister Kosa M. Hewn, C; H. 1. 
Lewelling, T. : Henry M. .Meacham, S.: Wil- 
liam Peterson, .Ir., (i. K.; .Sister Sarah Kly, 
Pomona; Sister Minnie Logan, Flora: .Sister C. 
Castner, Ceres; Sister F.dna .Norton, L. A. .S. 

WasIII m:1 li.N (iRAM:-';, San .IdM.M in CoINTV. 

K. .lohn Northup, M.: .lefferson (iiles, ().: Mrs. 
F. A. Blyther, L.; Samuel (.'. \\ a'rrs. (' ; Ch.os. 
Child, S.; .lo.',. Dill, .\. S.: .1. C. Klyther, T.; 
('has. Bamert, Sec; .Mrs. K. Whipple, (i. K.: 
Mrs. X. Dill, Ceres; Mrs. C. Bamer.t. Pomona; 
Miss Silva Northup, Flora; A. A. S an .Sandt, 
Trustee; .losie Stamper, Organist. 

CAIil'KNTKkIA (ilvANCK. — H. I». Woods, M. : 

p. C. Hii;.;ins, O.: .1. A. Ulood, L. ; O. N. 
Cad well, S.; Mrs. C. L. Blood, A S.; Mrs. L 
1.,. Wood, C; Mr. C. Kystroni, Treas. ; Miss .1. 
M. Higgins. Sec. : 1.. Le F'leurre, (! . K.; Mrs. 
Ashley, Pomona: Mrs. A. Rystrom, Flora: Mrs. 
Ina ('. Lyman, ( 'eres: Mrs. (,". K. Pinney, Lady 
Ass't Steward; L. B. Cad well, Cor. Sec. 

TvMi UiicK (luANiiE, Sonoma county. .S. 
.M. .Marten, M.; S. Q. liarlow, ().; Walter 
('hnrch, L.;T. Keegan, S.; C. Nissoo, A. S.; 
Mrs. M. L. Hinshaw, C; C. Iliushaw, T.: 
.1. C. Piirvine, Sec; S. H. Church, (I. K.; Mrs. 
L Barlow, Pomona; Mrs. M. ('hnrch, Floia: 
Mrs. Amy Martin, Ceres; Mrs. .1. C. Purvine, 
L. A. .S. : H. .Andrews, Fin. Sec. 

Wai.nit Ckkek (iKANcK, Contra Costa 
county. — N. Jones, M.; T. Z. Wittiu, O. : T. 
W. Sturgis, L.; .1. W. Jones, S : J, Baker, A. 
S.; Mrs. Larkey, C. ; J. Larkey, T,; Miss .M. 
Baker, Sec. ;('. S. W hitcomb, ( i . K.: Miss A. 
Loucks, Ceres: Miss K. Wittin, Pomona: Miss 
B. Loucks, Flora; Mrs. Sturgis, ly. A. .S. 

(iK.vNii Isi.ANii (iKANiiK, Coliis;' county. — I. 
U. Totman, .M.: A. I». Strothers. O. : A. P. 
Kirp, L. : P. limwning, S.; L. F. Moulton, A. 
S; Sister H.Uavis, C: H. Davis, T.: K.C.I 
Morton, Sec; J. Becker, (i. K.: Sister A. 
Karp, Pomona; Sister, .1. K. 'I'otman, F'loia: 
Sister K. K. (iraham, Ceres: .Sister H. D. 
Strothers, L. A. S. 

Secretaries <ir ntlier olliier« are inv itctl tn Nenii nv 

li-ts 'if oltii eis eleetcil, ilites of installations ami all otlier 
iiiti resting' matters fur iinljliiatimi. 

An Anti-Monopoly Story. 

'I>riven Iriim .S;m lo Sea, m Just .i ( 'aiiiiilng, " is 
Ihe title of a new lio )k, bv C. C. Post; and dodicaleil 
"to the «i>:'keis, llie men iiml women h.i\f 
given to America her ^;r^'alll !^s; who have cleared 
aw;n her fore^ls. bridged her slieanis. built lier 
cities, spanned the oonlini'nt and crossed and le- 
crosscd. and checkered it « ilh highways of iron; « ho 
li:ive planted orchards and viney.irds upon every 
lilllside and in every valley betrtien ilie .-\tlrintic and 
I'acilic ocean.s, .is they have wanilercd from sea to 
fte<a in search of that brtter country a few hundred or 
a thousand milei ahead, with tales of which the cun- 
ning purloiners of their homes h.ive stifled their 
thoughts of vengeance and their longing for jusier 
laws." Price $1.23. .XddressJ. V.. Downey & Co. , 
109 Wabash .\veniu-, Chirago. 

The story portrays a settler's pioneer life in 
the Middle Western States, the journey over 
the plains, and mining and ranching in Cali 
tornia. The book should and will be read with 
emotional earnestness by those to whom it has 
been dedicated. 

The author wields a masterly pen in his de- 
scription of incidents, scenery and the more 
delicate and deeper feelings of the heart. In 
the latter the reader will be almost persuaded 
that the writer must be a woman, so keenly, ac- 
curately and feelinyly does he in portions of the 
work enter into scenes of trial and sorrow. 
Few men have had eyes observing enough and 
fewer still with places in their hearts in which 
to store away snch mementos of detail in great 
suffering. For evidently they are not inven- 
tions; they are too true to life to be less than 
facts, though he may have taken great liberties 
with names of persons and places. 

The book is not without its topographical im- 

perfections, and his description of Californian 
productj has been pushed even beyond the pro 
verbial brag of the Californian, making it some- 
what doubtful whether the author was ever in 
California. But these are minor blemishes 
which 110 doubt a second edition will remedy. 

It is well calculated to rouse its readers from 
the lethargy and indifference with which we 
all have permitted grievous wrongs to be per- 
petrated on the most useful of America's citi- 
zens by the most worthless. Men and women 
too industrious and honest to be able to be on 
their guard against the insinuating craft of idle 
men with scheming brains, Iiave been robl>ed 
by rascals who knew nothing of real work who 
lay in wait to rob unsuspecting innocence of 
homes and happiness, through the machinery 
of law and political trickery. Our laws are to 
the toiling masses on the farm or in the factory 
little better than those hung by a Roman Km- 
peror above the reach of the people who were 
nevertheless punished for transgressing. We 
hope the book will receive the attention it de- 
serves, and that some skillful playwright will 
put its tine dramatic situations on the stage for 
the benefit of the millions for whom the book 
has been written. .f . W^ M. 

The Reciprocity Basiness, 

Kditoiv.s Pkess: — In a recent issue of the 
Ri KAi. you are pleased to make some strictures 
upon the proposed commercial or reciprocity 
treaties now under consideration by our people 
and government. You seem to think the adop- 
tion of the reciprocity t>olicy by our govern- 
ment, while perhaps benefiting the manufac- 
turing interests, will seriously interfere with 
the agricultural interests of the country. 

1 cannot understand how the opening of new 
markets for the products of our manufictories, 
and extending our commerce can possibly injure 
our agricultural interests — how the opening 
of the ports of the I'nited States to the free im- 
portation of the raw products of other nations 
can injure our agriculturists. There is no 
probability of grain, or meat, or butter and 
cheese being imported, for we are large export- 
ers of all these commodities, the growth of our 
own farms, and we will likely continue to be 
large exporters of these commodities for a long 
time to come. (.)ur merchants are not likely to 
import 'or the mere purpose of exporting again. 
It won 1(1 not pay. 

But the people of the United Stites do con- 
sume many articles of foreign growth which 
cannot be economically produced within their 
own border, and, if by commercial treaties the 
importation of such commodities may be per 
mitted in exchange for like exportation of such 
commodities as wo produce and do not want, 
who is hurt'; Certainly not the agriculturist. 
By such treaties a new market, or at least a 
market under much more favorable conditions, 
is opened directly for the products of our soil, 
and the manufacturer, having a new market 
openecl for his goods and wares, is then en 
abled to fui uish more constant and increased 
employment for his operatives: and proi>ortion- 
ately increases the consumption of agricultural 
productions, thereby relieving the agriculturist 
of another portion of his productions. But this 
increase of trade calls for increased means of 
transportiition and the employment of more 
men, and again the agriculturist is called 
upon to furnish supplies for this class, and so 
he will be called upon continually by one class 
and another until his supplies for the year are 
exhausted. So that I cannot perceive how the 
agricultural interests of the country can be 
otherwise than benefited by such treaties. It 
is barely possible that the sugar and tobacco 
interests might for a time be fletrimeiitally 
aflected, but it can only l>e for a time. Soon 
these interests will accommodate themselves to 
the altered ccuulitiou of things. I hold it is not 
in the purview of sound and enlightened states- 
manship to hold in abeyance the prosperity of 
the other gre;it industries of the country, be- 
cause of the possible temporary detriment such 
treaties may work to the sugar and tobacco in 
tereats. W . C. B. 

UayirariU, Die. l.j, IS'g^. , 
( We let our correspondent make his plea. 
We have not space to reply at length. The 
sugar and tobacco interests are strung, they 
will take care of themselves, and they will do 
it by causing these articles to be stricken out of 
the list of commodities to be admitted free. 
There is just where we make a point. When 
an interest which has the strength of combined 
capital declares itself in danger, the legislatoi-s 
listen for some reason or other. The fact is that 
these treaties bid fair to fail entirely, and we 
hope they will, but if they go through, it will 
be some young but promising interest like the 
fruit interest of Florida, Louisiana and the 
fruit and raisin interests of ( '.lUfornia, w hich 
will be sacrificed first. Then will come other 
such treaties like that which France hr.s been 
clamoring for, for years, and that will strike at 
our wine industry. W'e don't like this reci 
procity business. It is, in fact, class legislation 
of the worst kind. Ki>s. | 

SoKiMii M Cank. —This subject is to be dis- 
cussed at the next meeting of Temescal (irange. 
The present condition of the sorghum sugar in- 
terest as described by the two leading experts 
of the country, is given on another page of thin 
week's Ki i;.*L. 

JANUA.V 17. 1885 ] fACIFie I^URAL> PRESS. 

the few nuts. We had about 50 young prunes, 
I'etite d'Agen, iu another orchard, from which 
scions were obtainsd and put away for use iu 
the orthodox fasliion— in sand. When grafting 
them into the almonds, the next March, we ran 
out of scions. 1'hinking it a pity to leave seve- 
ral topped trees unworked, we cut some twigs 
fresh from the other orchard, and put them in 
the same day. Not one of them failed to grow 
and bear fruit. Hut many of the old, prepared 
grafts (lid. fail, because spoiled in trying to pre- 
serve them. This was the beginning of the 
transformation of so many almond orchards 
into French prunes. The experiment was a 
grcnd success. It was widely published and 
acted upon. .Since that time the harum-scarum 
plan has worked so well that I make a point of 
getting fresh scions— apple, pear, plum, grape 
and so on, nf neighbors and nurserymen when- 
ever they happen to have something new, and 
work them as soon as I get home; provided 
always that it is during the spring months. 
This may not be new to profassional horticul 
turists, but it is con\ enient for every farmer's 
boy to know the fact. Whether the favoring 
climatp of California has anything to do with the 
success of grafting we do not know, liut pre- 
sume there is something in it. 


TiKKi) 01- Wheat.— Cor. I'>fc: I have trav- 
eled from Clarksburg, in Volo county, to Ar- 
buckle, in Colusa county, during the past 
three months, and have visited every precinct, 
township and district contained within the 
route limits. J find, from information and ob- 
servation, that farmers generally are not 
anxious to sow grain (wheat) the coming year, 
exclusively. This is owing to the low price of 
wheat before the late raius. Probably the re- 
cent rise in that cereal during the past fort 
night will change the minds of many regarding 
the amount of acreage they will sow, but it is 
safe to say that not more' than two-thirds of 
the usual amount will be put in wheat in this 
vicinity during the ensuing season. Snnall 
farming is followed to a very great extent here- 
abouts, and the recent rise in "garden sass'' 
has given new impetus to that branch of in- 


Alameda Kiiriii"/; Last Thursday (ieorge C. 
Brijggs, who has beenengiged in the business of 
fruit growing in t his State since IS.jl, died at 
his residence in Uavisville. The remains were 
brought to Oakland for interment. He was one 
of the celebrated Briggs Brothers, who have 
done so much to advance the fruit interests on 
this coast. Some 1-2 years ago hepaid hisprinci- 
pal attention to vineyards and raisin-maUing, 
and followed it up until he had a vineyard on 
the Americap river of 400 acres, one at Wood- 
land of 400 acres, one at D.ivisville, where he 
resiiled, of 400 acres, and he purchased, some 
five years ago, a tract of 0,000 acres of land in 
Fresno. This last, containing some of the best 
and most valuable raisin laud in the State, was 
being inproved b> him, and being sold for 
raisin-growing. He established in Fresno the 
town of Malaga, where he built a hotel and 
planted a large vineyard in the neighborhood. 
Several years ago he went to Spain and looked 
into raisin making in Malaga, and on his return 
adopted several valuable improvements in vogue 
there. His aim and object was '-o adva;ice the 
interests of the raisin business of the coast in 
(juantity and (juality. His large place at Uavis- 
ville will ))e remembered by many, as trains of 
the (Jentral i'acitic pass through the center of 
the vineyard and near immsnse dry-houses just 
before reaching Davisville. He was early inter- 
ested in fruit-growing in Sutter county, and 
when the immense orchard which bore his name 
was covered with mining debris, he planted out 
a larger one near Yuba city, which he lately 
sold to the late William Jacobs. The deceased 
was energetic and ambitious, and was ever full 
of business. He probably had a more varied 
experience in fruit and grape culture than any 
orchardist in the State. He was one of five 
brothers, all of whom were interested iu fruit- 
raising. He was about Gl years of age, and 
leaves a wife and two daughters. The Uriggs 
IJrothers were at one time extensive owners of 
Alameda town property, and still hold some in 
Old -Alameda, we believe. 

The Citrus Fairs. 

Hon. Schuyler Colfax. 

Vice-President under ( Irant, dropped dead at 
the Omaha depot in Maukato, Mian., .January 
l.'Uh, to which he had walked quite a distance, 
witli the thermometer 30' below zero. It is 
supposed the extreme cold, aubseipient heat 
and over-exertion caused a stoppage of How of 
blood to the heart. The Odd Fellows took 
charge of the body, and forwarded it to South 
Bend, Ind., deceased's former residence, ac- 
companied by a guard of honor. 

Mr. Colfax was born in New York, 
March '23, 1S-2.S. and was consecjuently 
in his sixty-second year at the time of his death. 
Much of his early life was passed as clerk in 
a country store, in Indiana, to which State his 
mother had moved. He afterwards studied 
law, supporting himself by reporting for an In- 
dianapolis paper. In 184.'), he started a small 
weekly paper at South Bend, and soon made it 
the >Vhig organ for Northern Indiana. He 
was sent, by the Whigii, to the National (!on- 
vention, which noniinatjd Taylor in 1 848. 
Three years later, he was the Whig candidate 
for Congress, in his district, but was de- 
feated. He *i-an again in IS.")4, and was 
succe."sful. Soon after this, the Repub- 
lican party came into prominence and he 
at once affiliated himself with it. He was a 
member of eacli successix-e Congress from 1854 
to 1S(>8, and from December, 18().'!, to March, 
18(iO, was Speakei- of the House of Kepresenta- 
tives. In May, 1808, he was nominated for 
A'ice- President on the ticket with (General 
Crant and elected the following November. 
He was a candidate for re-nomination in 1872, 
but was defeated by Henry Wilson. In 187;i 
charges of oliicial corruption were brought 
against several members of Congress, Mr. Colfax 
among the number, but the House .Tudiciavy 
Committee, which investigated the matter, re- 
ported that there was no ground for his im- 

With the close of his term of office Mr. Col- 
fax retired from political life, and has since de- 
\ oted himself to literature and lecturing, hav- 
ing become quite popular in the latter field. 
It was his intention to lay aside the duties of 
an active business life at the termination of his 
present engagements, and to peacefully enjoy 
his closiug years, but 

■' Thi- Ren])er wilh rii:kle keen " 
has severed the silver cord, and the pitcher lies 
broken at the fountain. 

Annual Meeting of the Grangers' Bank. 

The eleventh annual meeting of the stock- 
holders of the (i rangers' Bank of California was 
held at the banking office, corner of California 
and B;ittery streets, at 1 o'clock i'. m., Tues 
day, Ian. I.'!. The old Board of Directors was 
unanimously re-elected, consisting of A. 1). Lo- 
gan, Criah Wood, .1. H. (Jardiner, T. K. Ty- 
nan, Seneca I'Aver, J. C. .Nferi'yfield, H. jNL l^a 
Hue, Thomas McConnell, H. •). Lswelling, C. 
.1. Cressey and I. C Steele. The new Board 
organized by re-electing the old otlicers, as fol- 
lows: A. 1). Logan, I'resident; I. C. Steele, 
Vice-President; A. Montpellier, Cashier and 
Manager; and Frank McMuUen, Secretary. 
The bank earned aljout O.i per cent net, and de- 
clared a cash dividend to the stockholders of 7 
per cent, passing the balance of earnings for 
the year to the reserve fund. The business for 
the past year has !)een larger than in any previ- 
ous year, and the gross amount of dividends to 
stockholders is .•?4-2,.">00. About $1 2,000 was 
carried to reserve fund. The business of the 
bank \\ as removed last .lune to the corner ot 
California and Battery streets. The property 
farmerly owned and occupied by the bank, on 
Cilifiunia and Havis streets, has just been sold 
to l;. H. KoUis, on the basis of 5ii'l2."),000. The 
bank became a member of the Clearing House 
last August. Ont of 10,000 shares of capital 
stock, which is the whole number, 0,000 shares 
were represented at the annual meeting. The 
record which the bank has made must be very 
satisfactory to the stockholders and creditable 
to Mr. Montpellier, who brings to its manage- 
ment all the devotion and zeal which he has iu 
large supply. 




STiiAwiiKKHiEs IN BARKEi.f*. — The Livermorc 
Ih'rahl describes the manner in which Mrs. S. 
( '. Sanford is engaged in strawberry culture on 
her place, two miles south of that town, but on 
(|uite an extensive scale when the method is 
taken into consideration. She has bored holes 
in the sides of boxes, barrels, casks, hogsheads 
and other available vessels, and filling the same 
with fine rich earth, has set out strawberry 
plants, the leaves and crowns projecting 
through the perfora ions. In the center of each 
barrel or box is a very leaky bucket, which is 
filled with fertiliz r, and into which is poured 
the water for the plants. They are thus 
easily irrigated, and fertilized at the same time. 
She has 1,000 plants thus placed -the largest 
scale upon which wehaveeverknown this plan of 
raising strawberries to be tried. It has proven 
successful with a single barrel, and there is no 
reason why with proper care it sliould not with 
twenty. The plants were put in about six 
weeks ago, and are now growing finely despito 
the recent cold weather. They will doubtless 
produce some return this spring. 


Fl.NK CxhM'.i^.— Expositor: .J. J. Keyburn re- 
ceived by rail last night, two of the finest 
calves— a bull and heifer— ever brought to this 
part of the country. They were selected from 
C6\. Younger's herd, at San .Tose, and are of 
the short-horn Durham breed. The heifer is a 
yearling, but is nearly as large as an ordinary 
full grown animal. She was awarded a prem- 
ium at the State Fair this year. The bull is 
only six months old, and is a remarkably fine 
looking animal. Mr. Keyburn says he does not 
intend to depend entirely on wheat growing in 
the future, but will raise some fine stock as 
well, and he thinks, with good reason, that his 
profits will be enhanced by diversifying ins 

Los Angeles. 


Thncn: According to announcement in these col- 
umns last week, a meeting was held at McComas 
Hall last Wednesday evening to take initiatory 
steps for the organization of a horticultural so- 
ciety. The meeting was well attended and en 
thusiastic, and a temporary organization was 
affected. Chas. Weile was President of the 
meeting and J. L. Rowland Secretary . A coni- 
mittee on permanent organization was ap- 
pointed, consisting of the following gentlemen: 
Chas. Weile, C. K. White, A. 11. Meserve, Rev. 
C. F. Loop, .1. K. McComas, Fred. .1. Smith, H. 
F-no, U: Miriuule. The following committee 
was appointed to ascertain the law on horticul- 
tural matters and to take steps to have the 
Board of Supervi-sors apjjoint a commissioner 
for this place to inspect, disinfect and destroy 
any fruit trees, vines or shrubbery upon which 
inay be found any of the cottony cushion scale, 
should any such be found: C. K. ^Vhitc, H. 
J^. Bissell, and H. T. Bingham. The opinion 
was unanimous that to maintain our present 
complete immunity from these and all other 
pests the utmost vigilance must be exercised. 
A step in the right direction has been taken, 
and the determination is general and universal 
to leave no stone unturned in advancing the 
interests of our leading industry. 

TtiK Anaheim District. Cor. Los Angeles 
Timfs: Of course, wine raising is the principal 
industry of Anaheim. No late statistics are at 
hand of the number of acres set out to -vines and 
trees in this vicinity, nor of the amount of wine 
and brandy made during the season just closed, 
but the figures are large. During the past sea 
.■jon many hundred acres were set out in new 
vineyards and orchards, which will come into 
full bearing in from four to six years. B. Drey- 
fus & Co., one of the leading wine firms of the 
State, have their vineyards at Anaheim and 
Cucamonga, and besides are large purchasers of 
grapes from smaller raisers. They have been 
running three crushers at their Anaheim winery 
during the entire season, and bought grapes 
from vineyards in every locality within a radius 
of 10 miles. Very few raisins are made there, 
the wine grape being raised almost exclusively. 
The dairy industry is another very important 
branch of business, and one in which there is 
much room for improvement. There is an 
abundance of land in the valley admirably 
adapted for the raising of alfalfa, and wliere 
pure artesian water or surface water can be ob- 
tained at a reasonable cost. The prices of these 
lands vary from §25 to .?60 an acre. (The best 
fruit and vineyard land may be had for from 
§.iO to -Si 00 per acre, within easy reach of the 
irrigation ditches.) There are at present three 
or four dairies and cheese factories in this part 
of the country, which turn out a very good 
(juality of cheese, and which cannot manufac 
ture enough to supply the demand. This in- 
dustry presents one of the best openings for the 
profitable investment of capital. The poultry 
industry is another profitable business in which 
to engage. There is an unlimited demand for 
eggs and chickens at all seasons at very good 
prices, and the raising of fancy poultry is only 
just beginning to attract the attention of farin 
ers. One of the great wants of that section is 
the establishment of a large steam fruit drier. 
The great wonder is that capital has not already 
been attracted to it. There are at present hun- 
dreds of acres of bearing fruit trees of all kinds 
iu the valley, and the acreage is being doubled 

every few years. It does not pay to send fruit 
to the Los Angeles canneries or driers, and it 
is impossible for each fruit raiser to put up his 
own fruit at home. This is a question which it 
will pay men of capital to investigate. 

Local Notes. — Editors Pkess: The political 
pot is boiling, and Sacramento is a lively place. 
The Solons are gathered in conclave and will 
during the next two months be busy enacting 
laws for the good or ill of the State and people. 
The choice of United States Senator will be the 
first problem to solve before any other work 
can be accomplished. The new county and 
city oliicers have taken their places. ,S. F. 
Fassett of Florin, the new Supervisor, has 
been chosen Chairman of the Bjard. The city 
is going to be lighted by the gas and two elec- 
tric companies. We are having foggy weather 
and the soil keeps damp. Many are waiting to 
start their plows, as there is but little land yet 
cultivated or seeded. Trimming has commenced 
in orchard and vineyard. — S. T. R., Sac, (^al. 

Santa Barbara. 
Ijii'KfivEMENTS. — Santa Maria Tiini.<: Tlie 
Tepusquet or Santa Maria ranch, consisting of 
3,1 -20 acres, subdivded between different rent 
ers, yielded last year .'52,980 sacks of barley and 
wheat, which is an average of nine sacks to the 
acre. Among the farmers on this ranch I found 
Messrs. Miller, Ooodchilds, Kelly, N'alenzuella, 
Oateveras and Caranges. The Messrs. Hudson 
Bros, are farming on a small scale, raising hogs, 
cattle, etc., and clearing land to be tilled. 
Further up the canyon the \'idals own some 
beautiful laud, which is being uicd for pasture. 
They are mostly stock raising. A nice nook or 
hamlet like, is built about two miles up the 
canyon, where a fine orchard, vineyard, etc , 
are growing on a rocky hillside beside the creek . 
Messrs. Whaley, Oaklej', lirooks and Correa are 
settlers who we did not reach on our visit to 
that section. 


AiivicE to \'ine Planters. — Cloverdale ,S'<'((- 
tiiicl: Sometime ago Mr. J. <«. Heald wrote a 
letter to Prof. K. W. Hilgard, asking his 
advice on what kind of grapes to plant 
in this locali y. The following letter is 
Prof. Hilgard's reply, and we publish it 
as this subject is of great interest to 
many of our readers; De.\j; Siii; - Vour letter 
of the 0th inst. opens up a very wide subject, 
with which I am myself wrestling at this mom- 
ent with respect to my own vineyard. I can 
tell you many grapes you ought not to plant, 
and some that you may plant with perfectconfi 
dence that they will always be valuable. But 
just what will be the best for your locality, I 
cannot undertake to say, knowing nothing 
about its peculiarities save what you tell me in 
respect to i s being ahead of St. Helena, in the 
time of ripening, which is, of course, a very im- 
portant point. 

Now, first of all, I would not advise you to 
plant any more /infandel. So much of that 
grape has baen planted that what we now need 
is to have something to blend with it that will 
subdue its unpleasant peculiarities, which make 
it, alone, unacceptable to those to whom we 
must sell our wines. You can grow grapes for 
that special purpose, or else for making true 
claret yourselves. If for the former, plant a 
good deal of (irosser Blauer, Trousseau, Crabb's 
Black Burgundy; if for clarets direct, you want 
^lalbcck (L5 Francs' or Portals'! and Mondeuse 
will be very important when you can get the 
cuttings, which will not be for some years per 
haps, as there is but little in the country. I 
could mention many others, but would not 
advise you to plant too many varieties. For 
porls don't use any but the true port varieties 
— these you cannot get now, but will in a year 
or two. My advice is to plant resistant stocks 
to graft on when you can get the kinds that 
will be most profitable, and so that you need 
not fear the phylloxera, which will be sure to 
come up your w.ay before very long, and that 
you would have to re-plant just about the time 
vines ought to be in full bearing. As to hill 
and valley -the Malbecks are best in plain, but 
all will do on deep soil on the hills, and of 
course the hills make the best wines, but less 
quantity, usually. Of the varieties mentioned, 
the Malbeck and (Grosser Blauer need long prun- 
ing, the rest will do on short pruning. \o\\ 
should try for some good, white wine grapes, 
and if you are so early you should get the 
sauterne varieties — say Sauviguon Blanc, Semil 
Ion (long pruning) and such like. ISut the sub- 
ject is inexhaustible, and if you will seiul for M r. 
Wetmore's report, lately published, you will 
find a great deal of sound advice just in point. 
Of course, we now have some hiter information, 
but on tiie whole, it confirms the soundness of 
Mr. Wetmore's advice there given. I am work- 
ing hard to get the viticulture work of this vin- 
tage into shape, but it is a very heavy batch "and 
it will be March before it can be in print. -I':. 


Oraktinii. -Every old farmer and fruit- 
grower knows that, since the time when the 
memory of man runneth not back to the con- 
trary, it was always the custom to procure 
scions long in advance of the time for setting 
them. There was much anxiety anl trou))lo 
wafted in their preservation, and considerable 
loss attending their use aftsr grafting. 

The writer thinks there is not the least occa- 
sion for procuring them until it is time to set 
the graft, unless they are a long way ofl'. As 
much as seven years ago it was determined to 
top about forty almond trees iu our orchard. 
They bore little, and the birds got away with 

These splendid horticul ural exhibitions arc 
coming. The approach of the vernal equinox 
brings them. The Riverside Pri ^s of last week 
sounded the note of preparation. San (iabriel 
valley is already at work. The last issue of the 
Pasadena Willcij I'nion siys: The committee 
selected to make arrangements for an e.vhibit of 
the citrus fruits of the Oabriel valley are 
making good progress, and will soon be prepared 
to rcpoit a definite plan. It is proposed to 
have this display early in March, and there 
should be an enthusiastic interest in its success 
by all our fruit growers. Such an exhibit 
should be calculated to advance one of the most 
important fruit growing interests of Southern 
California, and will, we believe, show the com- 
parative excellence of our citrus products. It 
should sottlc for all time, the adaptability of 
this valley to the production of superior oranges 
and lemons. Let there be care in selecting the 
best of our fruit, and after the display here an 
attractively arranged exhibit sliould be for- 
V ardtd to the New Orleans Exposition, where 
the world may see that 'lie Southern (.'alifornia 
I'aradise not only produces fruit fit for the gods, 
but adapted to tlie purposes of commerce, 

Hk.u.o's CoLLKOK CRAnfATES. -The follow- 
ing is a list of graduates of Heald's Business 
College for the term ending December .'{l, 
1884: .lohn H. Feuss, F. E. Browning, A. •). 
Biilly, Fred. K. Kentley, Charles H. Kerr, A. 
<i. (irillin, Miss Mamie Week, Henry l'^. 
Holmes, 1). .1. Paddock, Lambert Kahn, Wil- 
liam Sutton, Thomas F. Murray, D. (iuggen- 
hime, Philip Lux, Augustin Pina, Thomas V. 
Meherin, city; .fohn B". Danis, Norman, Cal.; 
C. F. Dry, Woodland; Robert C. Woodworth, 
i>os -Vngcles; H. H. Smith, Colusa; A. I'l. Dam- 
bacher, Columbia; L. H. Orunig, Knight's 
Landing; A. Martin, Oakland; .Miss liCttie A. 
Howard, Reno: B. M. Wood, X'entura; R. R. 
Somcrville, Napa Junction; Nelson O. I'owers, 
Oakland; F,. 1. Collier, Virginia City, M, 'J'.; 
Mi.MS X. •!. (Jabanii, Los Angeles; Ole Olsen, 
Nap:i;(;eorgc Waldo Jiurgess, K. C. Bruns, 
Honolulu, S. I.; G. K. Schilling, Orand Is- 
land; W. K. Bailey, Anaheim; Michael C. 
Lasky, Lone Pine, Cal.; Iv E. Hall, Maine: 
Burnside McCord, Bakersfield; Louis P. Dalli- 
det, San I/uis Obispo; Albert JL Trathen, 
Dutch Flat; Harmon H. Edmonds, Woodland; 
'W. V. Geary, Oakland; A. H, Long, Cilroy. 

f ACIFie f^URAlo f RESS. 

[January 17, 188-" 

A Wintry Day in the Sierras. 

[Written for Ut hal I'iikss by Gbhikiu Townf.] 

The sun was setting upon a world of sno« : 
I 'rom banks of rain-clouds, heavy-laden, 
He sends a warm and passionate glance. 
Touching as lightly as a whispered beiiison 
With golden beuuiy, kindling into life 
ICach glittering point of icy coldness 
And snow- plumed spra\ of woodland tree. 
Outside the tow n King Winter reigns supreme, 
.\nd sits with freezing dignity 
1 pon a throne, where, in summer's holidai, 
Were blooming Dowers of fairy mold. 
Jlis crown of snow is cold and l)eautiful; 
His scepter, ice, is laid on all 
The castles, forts, and battlements of the woods; 
The .<:now-birds, in their full, warm vests, 
i lop round contented; the squirrel looks. 
With eye both bright and cunning. 
Upon the outside world, then softly settles 
Within his household nest, and cracks and eats 
Choice nuts of autumn's storing. 
The timid deer comes to the mountain stream 
'I'o slake his thirst; then, noiseless as the falling snow- 
Within the woods, he homeward turns his head. 
Abov e, below, on ev ery side is seen 
I Jeep gorgeand undulating field of snow; 
The bending branch throws burden down 
Without a .sound. Even the water of the stream 
Glides silently 'neath its coat of ice, 
I nable now to send the music of its ripples. 
With echo faint, into the (luiet of the forest glade. 
So watch-fire gleams with ruddy light, 
No watch-dog barks, no Indian foot 
Hreaks through the --nowy mountain path 
Nor stirs the laden forest branch. 
Indian and bird, "save hardy snow-bird brown," 
Have sought a bluer sky and kintllier clime. 
A wintrj sun smiles faintly through falling (lakes. 
Lighting the .scene, so grandly beiiutiful. 
And sends caress that freezes, ere it touches, 
A world of snow and ice — 
A dumb and frozen life. 
I rom the house eaves in the town 
The icicles hang suspended, 
Kedecting gleams of sun.set's gold, 
And lints more rare, of crimson be.iuly. 
Rlind with the purple hue of wintry skies, 
The cedars bow their crested heads. 
And the bare-armed locusts grasp 
I'.ach frozen crystal ere i; falls. 
Day's toiling o'er, the workman breaks his way 
'I'hrough banks of snow, and tips his 
To shield his eyes from cutting cold; 
With fingers chilled and breath hard drawn, 
A warmer heart within his breast he carries 
For having earned his bread so hardly, 
rhc merry shout of school -boy cuts the air, 
And Hying snowballs greet the unwary; 
While briglit-hiied scarfs and dresses flaunt 
I -ike gorgeous banners from side-hill sledges. 
.\ deejjer gray settles down over sunset clouds — 
Faint tints die out, and wrapped in robes of dark. 
Night hushes the world to sleep. 
Fond hearts together come, in concourse sweet. 
While the far-streaming rays of light 
I'rom happy homes are the only stars 
Tint shine this wintry night. 

Was He a Hero ? 

[Written forKi itAI, I' l>y I. II. \ 

Many a time Frank Clifton had looked up to 
the beautiful outline of Mt. Diablo, standing 
out against the distant sky, with the natural 
louging to climb its rugged heights and gaze 
upon the wonderful panorama to be seen from 
the summit. His father had promised to take 
the whole family there some day, but "some 
day" is usually long in coming, and so it had 
proved in this instance. ( ireat tlien was Frank's 
delight \v licn he was invited by his teacher, Mr. 
Naylor, to accompany him on an excursion to 
the mountain, along with the other members of 
liis class. They were to be gone two days, and 
camping out would see the sun set and rise, and 
best of all, Mr. Xaylor meant to take his riHe 
and try to get a shot at a deer. Never were si.x 
boys in a wilder state of excitement, though it 
was the private belief of Frank's family, that 
the other live combined could scarcely equal 
tlteirboy in his exuberant delight. 

There was nothing else thouglit of or spoken 
about; it was the mountain, the mountain, from 
morning to night, and every book in the house 
>yas ransacked which could throw a ray of 
light on the history or geography of Contra 
Costa county, tliat the youne mountaineer 
might not be ignorant on any point. It had 
been settled that Mr. Naylor should go first to 
Martinez to make all necessary arrangements, 
the boys were to join him there, where he 
would have a conveyance in readiness on the 
arrival of their train. I'lach member of the 
party was to carry his own blanket, and to con- 
tribute to tlie general stock of provisions. 

Mothers have a fashion of interesting them- 
selves intensely in the pleasures of their chil- 
dren, and .Mrs. Clifton had never taken greater 
pains than in preparing the contents of Frank's 
lunch liasket. 

Frank himself looked on with sparkling eyes. 
"How good you are!" he exclaimed at last, 
giving her a regular bear's hug. "I doa't 

believe there's another fellow in the world has 
got a mother like you." 

"I wonder what you would do if anything 
happened so keep you at home, Frank," said his 
eldest sister, teasiugly. 

"]>ol" exclaimed the boy, "it's the rest of 
you would have something to do: either to 
bury tne or send me to Napa." 

"Frank," said his mother shaking her head, 
"don't be foolish. 1 should be as sorry as you 
if you should have such a disappointment; but 
it would not cost either of us our lite or our 
reason, I hope. ' 

"Well, I don't want to have it tried," said 
Frank, as he turned away. 

The next morning broke bright and beauti- 
ful : there was no sign of cloud or fog on all the 
wide horizon, and Frank was ready to set out 
in good season. Hie own home was about a 
mile distant from the village where the other 
boys lived, and he was to meet them at the sta- 
tion. By taking a short cut through the fields 
and along the railroad, he could shorten the dis 
tance somewhat, and as it was not convenient 
for his futher to drive him over, he went in that 

I'assing the house of their nearest neighbor, a 
lady wlio had lately lost her husband, he saw 
her little daughter standing at the garden gate. 

"Where's 'oo goin'V she asked, for Frank and 
she were grea" friends. 

"Away up there to the top of the mountain," 
said Frank, as he pointed to Mt. Diablo. 

"Oh, let me go wif 'oo, " said little Margie en- 

"Not this time, Margie," said Frank, "Wait 
till you're a great big girl, and then I'll take 

"I wants to go now," said Margie, beginning 
to cry; but Frank, thinking her tears would not 
last long, said, "I'm sorry, Margie, but 1 can't 
take you now. Run in and ask your mother if 
you can go when you are big enough." Then 
he walked on. Why did he not look back? 
Many times afterwards he asked himself that 
rjuestion, but now he "vas only intent on what 
lay before him. He soon reached the railroad; 
it was safe enough walking on the track at that 
hour, for there was no train due before the one 
he was to meet at the station ; there was plenty 
of time, and he did not hurry. Two of the boys 
were before him, and the other three soon joined 
them; but as the last one made his appearance, 
the others raised a shout, "Tom, where's your 

I'oor Tom ! He was one of those boys who 
are always late, always forgetful, and his blank 
look was too much for the rest of the party, 
who burst out laughing. 

"I forgot my watch," he said, "and when I 
went back for it I put my basket down under a 
bush, and now — what am I to do'^" 

You can't go back," said Frank; "the train 
is due in ten minutes. l?ut never mind — you 
can go shares with me. I've got enough for — 
why, Margie ! " 

With one bound Frank sprang off the plat- 
form, and caught up a little figure toiling pain- 
fully along the track. 

"Margie, what are you doing here? ^Yhe^e 
did you come from ? " 

"i'se goin' wif 'oo to the mountain," said 
Margie, nodding her small head. 

"lJut you can't go with me,'' said Frank, in 
despair. "Where is your mother ? " 

"She's home. I runned away. I'se goin' wif 
'oo — " 

"Fellows," exclaimed Frank, "what on 
earth am I to do with her ? She lives close to 
our home, and she's followed me all the way." 

"Send her back the way she came," said one. 
"Leave her here till somebody comes for her," 
said another. "Take her along," suggested a 

He could not send hei back, the poor little 
creature, at the risk of her life, neither could he 
leave her there with no one to take care of 
her. A mist came over his eyes, and his heart 
beat wildly with a feeling of suffocation, as he 
heard in the distance the whistle of the ap- 
proaching train; but his mind was tna<le up. 

"Boj-s," he said, "if anything happened to 
that child her mother would go out of her 
senses. I must take her home." 

' 'And give up the trip? ' There was a general 
howl from alt the party. 

"Yes," said Frank. "Tell Mr. Naylor I 
couldn't help it. Here Tom, take my basket. 
I in glad mother's lunch won't go to waste. 
< loodbye. Have a fine time.'' 

Ke was glad of the hurry and bustle, giving 
him no time to think, but as the train moved 
oil, and the boys shouted and waved their hand- 
kerchiefs out of the windows, do you blame 
him for feeling cruelly disappointed? 

"Now, little Margie," he said to the child 
whose hand he had held all the time, "I must 
take you home." 

Something in the tone of his voice made 
Margie understand that she had been naughty. 

"Fs sorry, Frank," she said with a sob, "but 
I did want to go wif oo." 

"Never mind," said Frank, "we'll go another 
time;" and taking her up he carried her, for she 
was too tired to walk. 

Tne hired girl came rushing to meet him as 
he drew near the house. 

"Oh Mister Frank, where ever did ye find 
the child? It's out of me senses I am with the 

"You'd better look after her another time," 
said Frank. "I found her at the station." 

Nora lifted her hands and eyes in horror. 

"What would the mother say? She's sick ia 
bed, and 1 never told her the child was gone." 

"Don't tell her now," said Frank, "(iood- 

bye, Margie, don't run away again." 

He dreaded the meeting at home, but when 
he went in the back way and opened the 
kitchen door,' his mother was alone. 

"Fiank!" She started with surprise and 

"Don't be afraid, mother, it's not my ghost, 
and in a few words he told her all. 

Those two days were pretty hard to bear; 
indeed, Frank did not know how he could have 
got through them without his mother's help 
but she managed to save him from being pitied, 
while at the same time he felt that every one in 
the house shared his disappointment. And when 
the excursionists returned he was at the station 
to meet them, eager to hear all their news. 

What was it that was taken out of the train 
and laid on the platform? A beautiful deer 
with branching horns! Frank's unselfish de- 
light was as great as that of the boys who had 
been witnesses of Mr. Naylor's exploit. 

"I will bo over this evening, Frank, to tell 
you all our adventures," said the te-acher, 
taking the boy's hand with a kindly pressure. 
And he kept his word. "We all missed you, 
he said privately to Frank in the course of the 
evening, "but the reason for your absence was 
one that made me proud of my scholar." 

A month later there was a surprise party at 

rank's home- -a real surprise party, for no one 
had any hint of it until the door-bell rang, and 
Mr. Naylor and the five boys who had gone up 
the mountain were ushered in. They brought 
with them a mysterious box, which w<\s opened 
and found to contain the antlers of a deer, 
mounted and ready for putting up over the 

"When I shot the deer," said Mr. Naylor, 
"I decided that the antlers should be the prop- 
erty of that member of our party who had 
shown most unselfishness and the greatest dc 
sire to minister to the happiness of others. 
When I asked the other boys to help me to de 
cide who should have this memorial of our ex- 
cursion, they answered with one voice, ' Frank 
Clifton,' and I think there is no doubt they de 
cided right. There is a very pretty little poem 
of Celia Thaxter's, which you may have read, 
whose closing verse you will find engraveil on 
the little silver plate attached to the memento, 
The words are these: 

' That was noble, Roger, that was glorious. 

Thus to help the weak — 
Better than to set your flag victorious 
On earth's highest peak.' " 

Creat applause followed Mr. Naylor's speech, 
and afterwards there was a pleasant evening, 
with songs and games and a famous supper, of 
which Tom's share had not been forgotten. 

"But, mother," said Frank, when the com- 
pany had left, "it seems like making a great 
fuss about nothing, after all, for what else 
could I have done ? " 

And his mother smiled a very happy, satisfied 
smile, as she answered: "Dear, the noblest 
deeds which have won the highest praise have 
been performed by men who were thinking only 
of doing the duty which lay before them, as my 
boy did when he gave up his own pleasure to 
bring little Margie home." 
Wabnit Cnrk. 

Superfluous Girls. 

Notice was given a few weeks ago of "20 
varancies in the London post-otlicc, says the 
Loiutoii Ololif, that were to be filled by women, 
and women desiring the places were summoned 
to undergo a competitive examination in arith 
nietic, hand-writing and dictation. The result 
was that as many as 1,400 women presented 
themselves for the ordeal. A few months 
earlier .WO girls, of ages ranging from 18 to '20, 
underwent a similar examination for a sii 
number of vacancies. 

Here we have a total of 1,000 women on the 
one hand, and not above 40 places on the other 
That is to say, 1 ,860 of these applicants were 
superfluous. The matter becomes more compli 
cated the further it is examined, since the girls 
already employed as clerks necessarily displace 
an almost e([ual number of young men. 

Now, what is to be done about it? It is one 
of the social problems that are destined to 
batlle mankind for all time. Is the superfluous 
girl, like the poor, to be always wi'h us? To 
answer in the atlirniative is to take issue with 
one of the greatest philosophers, for he has 
written that "Nature makes no mistakes." And 
yet everything that is necessarily superfluous 
is a bad mistake. 

But it is by no means certain that each one 
of these 1,860 girls who failed to secure posi- 
tions in the London post-office were so many 
necessary superfluities. They were not needed 
in that particular field of effort. But, were 
they not needed somewhere? 

The chances are that, as the 1,860 disap- 
pointed ones walked out of the post-olKce, 
tearing their hair and gnashing their teeth, 
1,860 citizens of London were engaged in sim- 
ilar painful exercises because of their inability 
to obtain cooks equal to baking bread, or parlor 
maids equal to dusting without breaking the 
china that came over with the conc|ucror, or 
governesses that understand the tine art of 
bending the twig without deforming it. 

To the Young Men. 

Ui" in Ontario a teacher flogged a small boy 
severely because he called her "an old cow." 
It wasn't 80 much that she objected to being 
called a female bovine, it was the ad jective that 
made her mad. 

(Written for Ki ral Phkss by Joii.v Tavlor.) 
"Young Men" is my theme for a few re- 
marks. The question arises, can an old man 
do justice to young men— the youths of the 
present age, with all the possibilities which 
science has developed within the last half cen- 
tury. Surely the world of mind has expanded 
beyond] our wildest dreams of fifty or sixty 
years ago. But experience should add to our 
ability to coin a few thoughts worthy the at- 
tention of the young men who are launching 
out on life's troublesome sea. It is a ticklish 
time when the youth looks out upon a seething 
world, full of shattered hopes and brilliant 
successes. The importance of the first step 
cannot be overlooked, except at risk of 
an early wreck. Many a young man has 
suffered a lifetime's penalty because of a fatal 
first mis-step. The Creator has given to each 
living soul a leading trait, a something to excel 
in. The grand problem to solve ere the shackles 
become too strong for release, is this. "What 
qualification has been given me that will give me 
the most pleasure and profit to pursue? What- 
ever is the bent of the mind, that follow, and suc- 
cess is assured. What wrecks a life more than 
to drudge on day by day at 'a calling distasteful 
and at war with a something we can scarcely 
define? If you (juestion tramps, drunkards, 
and many at menial occupations you will find 
that they did not start right in life's bat- 
tle. AYrong at first is generally wrong 
through life. I speak this from experience--a 
bitter experience for the spirit of man is ever 
at war with an uncongenial occupation. Hence 
arises the great importance of parents and 
guardians studying the young nature (!od has 
given them to direct. It is a sin of the gravest 
import to place young men in positions which 
nature never endowed them for. On the other 
hand, when the young find congenial employ- 
ment their faculties are brought out by a will- 
ing and ambitious mind, and the world is en- 
riched by their natural genius. The mind and 
body work in harmony, and life is endurable 
and made happy. If this were observed the 
ministry would have fewer hypocrites, the bank 
fewer speculators or pilferers, merchants would 
be better known by their honor, mechanics by 
their handiwork and natural genius, and so on 
through all the ramifications of a varied busi- 
ness and mechanical life. 

It is the same with horticulture and farming 
generally. One man will prosper and his neigh- 
bor will go to the dogs. And why ? The latter 
might have been born to fill a high judicial 
place of honor, but the start in life was wrong, 
hence his whole life is a mistake and a failure. 
Suicide is the relief too often resorted to to end 
an existence which was commenced in error. 
A valuable life sacrificed through ignorance, 
and dormant abilities slumber for lack of use 
and proper direction. 

This is a theme which ought by right to be 
directed by those having a legal power to direct 
the youths of this fair laud. Too often occupa- 
tions are forced upon young men because the 
parents or guardians require the small earnings. 
Once in a groove, it is hard for the young to 
rise above their early beginnings. The world 
is full of these wrecks of misplaced judgment. 
Yolumes might be written upon physical and 
mental failures because of a wrong start in life, 
and sometimes by the hasty selection of a wife. 
Many of the misses and mesalliances may be 
traced to ignorance of this one grand injunc- 
tion: "Man, know thyself." If that principle 
were fully acted upon, our young men would 
make fewer mistakes, homes would become 
sacred, the whole world of business and social 
life would move on in harmony, and young men 
would be more careful when choosing an 
occupation. Many an humble laborer would 
have made a snccessful minister, and many of 
those wearing clerical robes would have been 
more successful as mechanics or farmers. Fi- 
nally, young man, choose that which you love 
the best, either in love or worldly elfort, and 
you will be happy and successful. 

One great evil exists amongst the youni» 
men and those of more mature years, who 
should have more sense, aucl that is, the inor- 
dinate use of tobacco. Indulgeiu e in spirituous 
liquors is perhaps the chief of evdi?, but tobacco 
is almost universally used, and is a most de- 
grading evil, disgusting and offensive in all its 
bearings, and Ijecoming a supreme master before 
the victim is aware of its insidious approach. 
Young man, if you are entangled by drink and 
tobacco, when you first step out to push your 
way in the world, your future is already en- 
dangered. Kschew these evils as you would 
the sting of the scorpion. Remember this one 
lesson, pin it in your memory, forget it not in 
hours of temptation. 

The young man has much to delight heart, 
ear and eje. The world wears a robe of sun- 
shine; love arouses the finer instincts of the 
inner temple; fame and fortune are in the l.ap 
of the future; friends smile and oftimes extend 
the helping hand. It is the summer of life, the 
bright spot in a life time. Health and an ex- 
uberance of animal spirit are generally enjoyed 
when nature's laws in their beautiful simplicity 
have been obeyed. It is at this period of life 
that natural characteristics appear. Asso- 
ciates are chosen, either to add to or mar the 
charm of young life. ( )nly once does this period 
arrive in man's short and fitful career, and much 
depends upon how it has been employed when 
we draw near the boarders of Kden's happy land. 
The crown belongs only to the conquerer. 

January 17, 1885.] 



"Sweet Home." 

It is not pleasant to chronicle the wrong- 
doing of many parents, but it is nevertheless 
true that while nearly all of them theoretically 
endorse the doctrine that "there's no place like 
home," too many of them stultify themselves 
by making home anything but the pleasantest 
place on earth, especially for children. The 
responsibility of fathers and mothers in this 
regard is very great, and it should be their en- 
deavor to make homea synonym for "happiness." 

One of the greatest charms that a home can 
extend to children, especially boys, is the 
charm of individual freedom. The coldness and 
rigid inelasticity which characterizes so many 
homes is a prolific and leading cause that sends 
a large number of boys and girls to early ruin 
and destruction. 

Let the place v\ here children mould their na- 
tures and devel 'p their characters be made to 
them "sweet home," the dearest place in the 
world. Let the youngsters romp and play and 
liave a good time in ihe house. If John conies 
rushing in full of joy, to tell you how he won 
the first prize at school, and in his haste has 
forgotten to wipe his muddy feet, don't lift the 
hair oft' his head, as he would e.x press it, by a 
sharp rebuke. If Willie loves to sit by the fire- 
side these long winter evenings, and construct 
crude vehicles with his penknife, let him do it. 
Kven direct his unskillful efl'i.rts, and you will 
not only do good by keeping liim from idleness, 
but you will be more than repaid when you ac- 
cidentally hear him telling a comrade what "a 
bully father and mother he has got," which 
slangy style of boyish expression, will, in later 
years, be exchanged for words of grateful praise, 
uttered in tenderness and love. If Sarah Jane 
will forget and drop the clippings on the Hoor 
from the paper dolls she is making, or tip the 
paste over on the best table cover, kindly help 
clean up, but don't scold. 

Make home "sweet home," the palace of 
freedom for the young people, and they will not 
abuse their privileges. A little more mud in 
the entry or a few chips in the sitting-room is 
better than to have boys learn elsewhere to 
smoke, chew, swear and drink, or girls running 
about in evil company. And as they approach 
manhood and womanhood, give them further 
liberty and confidence. Do not bring vices in 
your house, but give your children innocent 
amusements, books, music, drawing, games. 
The richest legacy you can leave them is the 
dear and ever fragrant recollection of that en- 
chanted spot, which gave them the strength and 
the will to made their own way in the world, 
bletsed with the tenderness of heart and recti- 
tude of conduct which a pleasant home has se- 
cured. Then, when you have crossed the dark 
river, grateful hearts will ever bless your mem- 
ories, and your children will in their turn cher- 
ish and exercise in their own families the in- 
fluences of "sweet home," thattoa great extent 
made them good men and true women. 

The Children of Alcoholic Drinkers. 

Dr. Martin, of the Salpetriere hospital, Paris, 
has made a serie.i of observations, stretching 
over a period of years, on nervous affection 
among tne children of alcoholic drinkers. In 
83 families, where one or more members showed 
nervous excitability, traceable to alcoliolic 
origin, there were 410 children. Of these, 108, 
more than a (juarter, iiad convulsiors; and in 
the year 1874, 169 were dead, -41 were still 
alive, but 84, more than one-third of the sur- 
vivors, were epileptic. 

Again, alcoholism is very apt to develop it- 
self at a very early age, among the children of 
alcoholic drinkers. The existence of this evil 
is not sufficiently recognized by medical men. 
Dr. Thomas More Madden has met with several 
cases of acute and chronic alcoholism in chil- 
dren of less than eight years of age. In most 
cases of juvenile alcoholism, the trouble seems 
to be inherited, mo.e especially when the 
mother is an inebriate. Intemperance in women 
becomes, therefore, a subject of extreme impor- 
tance. Oftentimes, it results from the too gen- 
eral custom of administering stimulants for the 
relief of dysmenorrhu al pain. In such cases 
"this unkind nepenthe" is frequently employed 
in gradually increasing doses, until the victim 
of dysmenorrh(ua becomes an habitual inebriate. 

"Talk about hard times!" he scoffed, as he 
leaned back in his chair at one of the doivn- 
town restaurants. "Why, gentlemen, it's all in 
knowing how to reach the public." "You used 
to speculate in grain, I believe?" observed the 
man at his right. "I did, and I lost money. I 
was in a hole 1 1 months in the year, and hard 
up the remainder. I didn't know how to reach 
the public." "And now?" "Well, I am on the 
road exhibiting a fat woman, who weighs 740 
pounds — admission, 15 cents. I have no mar- 
gin to put up, dividends are declared with the 
most annoying regularity, and if anybody dis- 
putes her weight, she has a lead corset weigh- 
ing '210 pounds to bring her up to the mark." 

A KAiTui'ui, employe had grown old in the 
service of a railroad, and ut last became too 
feeble to work. The President was asked if 
the company would not do something for him, 
as he was very poor. "JIow long has he been 
with us?" the official inquired. "Over 40 years. ' 
"Always did his duty?" "Never missed a day." 
"You say he is very old and feeble?" "\'es; 
and the chances are that he will never leave his 
bed again." "H'm, poor fellow! Of course we 
must do something for him. I'll give him a 
life pass."— y/o^ / Mail. 


The Puzzle Box. 

To Build a Mansion. 

Take five, and add one and fifty to it. Again 
annex fifty, and with the first of April your house is 
complete. K. 

Six Hidden Poets. 

It is autumn. The golden day glides swiftly by. 
Down the burn sere yellow leaves are floating. The 
acorns, polished and dry, dent the soft mold under 
the oaks. The maples put on their crimson hoods. 
By the river a skiff is moored. Thin lines of smoke 
cnrl up from the little wood-cutter's cottage on the 
hill. K. C li. 


1. From lovely take a girl's name and leave skill- 

2. I Voni a portion of time take a preposition and 
leave silent. 

3. From a public servant take a castle and leave 
the interior. 

4. From to prophesy take a color and leave one 
of a tribe of Germans. 

A Charade. 

fn the dark and rocky mountain 

Lies my first ; 
1 hrough the golden of my second, 

Poppies burst. 
While the princess on her brenst 

Wears my all. 
In the peasant maidens' tresses 

Poppies fall. R. 

A Tree Puzzle. 

How can nine trees be planted so they will form 
nine rows with three trees in each row. 

A. I. P.. 

Answers to Last Puzzles. 

The Ship's Ci;e\v.— Letting W represent a white 
man and N a negro, the following shows the arrange- 
ment adopted by the captain: W W W W N N 
N N N W W N W W W N W \ X W W X 
X N W N N W W N. 

Charade. — Night-in-gale. 

Palindrome. — Revere her ever. 

Word Values.— I. Lid. 2. Vim. 3. Livid. 

Decai'ITATIONS.— I. There, here. 2. May, ay. 
3. Flower, lower. 4. Warm, arm. 

The Three Brothers. 

Three little brothers once lived near a wood 
where the trees grew thick and large, 'The 
names of these boys were John, William and 
Reuben. Their parents were poor, anol in the 
winter the boys would go into the wood to 
gather sticks. These sticks they would tie in 
bundles, and sell them in the nearest town. 

One cold day when their father was ill, they 
went alone into the woods, and .John, the eldest : 
boy, said; 

"Now, Willie, you and Reuben go and get 
the biggest sticks you can find and bring them , 
here to me, and I will bind them up into 

So the little boys went to work, though it 
was bitter cold, and .Jack Frost nipped their 
hands and feet till they were numb. They 
worked till it was dark, and then it began to 

Little Reuben was so tired and sleepy that 
he could hardly see. So John took him on his 
back; and the three boys started for home, leav- 
ing their fagots piled up where they could get 
them the next day. 

But the snow fell faster and faster, and soon 
covered up the track which led to tiieir home, 
so that they wandered out of their way. 

The mother sat watching for them, and hop- 
ing every moment to hear their voices at the 
door. The snow drifted up under the window 
of the little cottage, and covered the bridge 
that lay in sight. 

As hour after hour went by, and the boys 
did not come, she became alarmed, and at last 
went to Farnier Dawson, who lived near )iy, 
and told him her fears. 

"There, there, stop crying, my good woman," 
said Farmer Dawson. "If the boys have lost 
their way, the captain and I will find them. 
Never fear. Here, Susan, bring me my great 
coat and my lantern and my staff, and tell 
Jonas and "Tom to come with me." 

The captain was a dog, and, as he was 
called, he came barking out from the woodshed, 
glad to be of some use in the world, .lonas and 
Tom were men who helped the farmer. 

They had not gone half a mile into the woods 
when the captain darted off towards a great 
tree and began to bark. 

"There they are! The captain has found 
them. I knew he would," said Farmer Daw- 

And so it was. The poor boys, tired and 
chilled through, had sat down under a tree, 
and they could hardly speak when the men 
came up. 

Kach man took a boy on his back, and in 
t'nis way they all went home; and there the 
boys were rubbed with snow till they were 
vviirni and well. 

How glad were their mother and father to 
have them safe once more in their arms, by 
the cheerful cottage fire ! They Laughed and 
they cried. 

The captain had a big bowl of milk; that 
night, as a rewaj(t for his ,good conduct. 

(3oOD ]EiE/VLTJH. 

Small Bed-Chambers. 

There is reason to believe that more cases of 
dangerous and fatal diseases are gradually on- 
gendered annually by the habit of sleeping in 
small, unventilated rooms than have occurred 
from a cholera atmosphere during any year 
since it made its appearance in this country. 
Very many persons sleep in eight by ten rooms, 
that is, in rooms the length and breadth of 
which multiplied together, and this multiplied 
again by ten for the height of the chamber, 
would make just 800 cubic feet, while the cubic 
space for each bed, according to the Knglish 
apportionment for hospitals, is 2,100 feet. Jiut 
more, in order "to give the air of a room the 
highest degree of freshness," the French hos- 
pitals contract for a complete renewal of the air 
of a room every hour, while the Knglish assert 
that double the amount or over 4,000 feet an 
hour is required. Four thousand feet of air 
each hour! And yet there are multitudes in 
the city of New York who sleep with closed 
doors pnd windows in rooms which do not con- 
tain a thousand cubic feet of space, and that 
thousand feet is to last all night, at least eight 
hours, except such scanty supplies as may lie 
obtained of any fresh air that may insinuate 
itself through little crevices by door or window, 
not an eighth of an inch in thickness. But 
when it is known that in many cases a man 
and wife and infant sleep habitually in thousand 
feet rooms it is no marvel that multitudes per- 
ish prematurely in cities; no wonder that infant 
children wilt away like flowers witiiout water, 
and that r),000 of them are to die in the city 
of New York alone during the hundred days 
which shall include the l.'ith of July, eighteen 

hundred and ! Another fact is suggestive, 

that among the .50,000 persons who sleep nightly 
in the lodging-houses of London, expressly ar- 
ranged on the improved principles of space and 
ventilation already referred to, it has been 
proved that not one single case of fever has 
been engendered in two years! f^et every intel- 
ligent reader improve the teachings of this arti- 
cle without an hour's delay. — The Builder. 

A WoRii OF Caution aiioi't Ink Pencils. — 
We have to utter a word of caution about the 
ink pencils which have come so much into 
vogue lately, says the New York 'l'iiiir<. A 
most useful implement to the business man, 
this innocent-looking pencil, can be converted 
into a treacherous friend, and on no considera- 
tion should it be used to write the signature of 
any one. The composition of the pencil is a 
peculiar combination, highly poisonous in itself, 
and — herein lies the danger to signature writ 
ers — competent to give off two or more im- 
pressions on damped paper — not tissue paper, 
be it understood, but ordinary writing pa|)cr. 
Our attention was first directed to this pecu- 
Uaiity by an astute official of the Bank of New 
Zealand, and subsequent experiments proved 
the easy practicability of making a clear copy 
of the tilling in of a check with this ink pencil. 
First the writing of the check is transferred — 
upside down, of course — to a slip of damped 
paper, and from that transferred — right side up 
— to another slip of damped paper. We tested 
this recently in the case of a check written 
with the ink pencil and sent in from the 
country, and by simple hand pressure obtained 
a very perfect copy of the transferrable parts 
of the document. 

A Cause ok Blindness. — Inasmuch as blind- 
ness has frequently resulted in babies from in- 
flammation of the eyes following childbirtli, the 
following direc ions are given to prevent that 
disaster: First, immediately after the birth of 
the baby, wipe the eyelids and all parts sur- 
rounding the eyes with a soft, dry linen rag, 
and soon after wash these parts with tepid 
water, before any other part is touched. If any 
discharges appear, separate the eyelids with the 
finger and thumb, and wash out the matter l)y 
allowing a gentle stream of lukewarm water to 
run between them from a piece of rag held one, 
two or three inches above the eye. Repeat this 
cleansing process every half hour, for the saving 
of the sight depends on the greatest care and 
attention to cleanliness. It is the discharge 
which does the mischief. Rags are better than 
sponges, and should be destroyed at once. 

Hives. - This trouble is caused by a perver- 
sion of the digestive functions, accompanied by 
a disturbance of the circulation. It is not at- 
tended with danger, and is of importance only 
from the annoyance which it causes. Relief 
may be obtained in most instances by the use 
of cream tartar daily to such extent as to move 
the bowels slightly. Make a strong solution, 
sweeten it pleasantly, and take a teaspoonful, 
say after each meal, until the effect above men- 
tioned is produced, and continue the treatment 
until the hives cease to be troublesome. 

FoK Acute Rheum vtism.— The ',>"«'''"''.'/ 
T/K'ra/ii'iil.ii'd/ A'( (■!' ?() says that the oil of win- 
tergreen, mixed with an e(|ual tjuantity of olive 
oil or linimentum saponis, applied externally to 
inflamed joints affected by acute rheumatism, 
affords instant relief, and, having a pleasant 
odor, its use is very agreeable. 

Kclkctics. - There arc GOO eclectics practic- 
ing medicine in the dtatc of Kansas. They 
have a prosperous State society, and are about 
to establish a medical college. 

X)ojviESTie Qeoj^ojviY. 

Home-made C'heam Cand^ .— To a cofl'ee cup 
of white sugar add two table-spoonfuls of water 
to dissolve it, and boil, without stirring, in a 
bright tin pan, until it will crisp in water like 
molasses candy. Just before it is done, put in 
a teaspoonful of vanilla or lemon; or peppermint 
essence, and a ipiarter of a teaspoon full of 
cream tartar. When done pour out into a but- 
tered pan, and when cool enougli to handle, 
work it as you would molasses candy, until it 
is perfectly white, then stretch and lay on a 
board, and with a chopping knife cut into 
mouthfuls, or you can cut with the shears and 
lay on buttered paper on a plate, (irease your 
hands with butter before working it, and it 
will not stick to your fingers. Oranulated 
sugar is not as good as other white 

CuANnERKV Sauce.— If cranberries are to be 
served with turkey or game, cook them in this 
way : To one poun<l of cranberries, after they 
have been picked and washed, allow one pound 
of granulated sugar and half a pint of water. 
Put the sugar and water into a porcelain kettle 
au<l let it come to a boil, then put the berries 
in. After they begin to boil allow full ten 
minutes for boiling. Then pour all into a 
mould which you have dipped into cold water: 
this will prevent the jelly from sticking to the 
mould. I>et it stand all night or longer; it will 
then turn out like jelly, and will be found to be 
sweet and yet tart. A larger (juantity may be 
prepared, as it will keep as well as any jelly. 

Dessehi'. — A very pleasing dish for dessert 
is made thus : Peel six or eight pears ; put them 
into a saucepan (after cutting them up and re- 
moving the cores), md cover with cold water; 
when they begin to be tender, add a little lump 
of butter, and sugar enough to sweeten to your 
taste. If you cut the pears in halves or quar- 
ters only, when they are done brush them over 
with the yolk of an egg and sprinkle powdered 
sugar over them, and arrange them in a fruit 
dish. Add half an ounce of gelatine to the 
syrup and let it simmer for about five minutes, 
strain it over the pears, and let the dish stand 
long enough before serving to become perfectly 
cold and jelly-like. 

Chicken Pie. — Take boiled chicken, either 
freshly cooked or cold, and lay it in pieces in a 
deep baking di-sh which has been previously 
lined at the sides with nice pie-cru.'<t. Dredge 
Hour over the meat and add salt and pepper: 
then another layer of chicken, and proceed as 
before till the dish is filled Pour in some of 
the gravy or broth, put bits of butter on top, 
and cover with a rich paste, which may be or- 
namented with fanciful devices in leaves and 
scrolls, according to taste. Be sure that an 
opening is left in the top for the steam to escape 
from while baking. 

To Stu EE PiDEoNS. — For one dozen pigeons, 
take two cups stale bread crumbs, two tea- 
spoonfuls of sweet marjoram, one of pepper, 
two of salt, one of cloves, one onion chopped 
fine, a little salt pork chopped, aud one or two 
eggs. Mix this up well. Stud the bodies and 
sew them up, then boil them slowly till they 
are tender. Brown them in butter in a frying- 
pan; dredge flour over them to make them 
brown well, and add a little of the licjuor they 
were boiled in, after taking the pigeons out. 
This will make a nice gravy. 

Baked Potatoes. - Potatoes that are to be 
baked should be thoroughly washed and dried, 
then placed in a moderately warm oven, either 
in a baking tin or on the grate. If the oven is 
at the right temperature, potatoes will bake in 
from 40 to .'>0 minutes. If they cannot be 
served as soon as done, gently break the skin 
and they can be kept in tolerable condition for 
a short time. 

S Alio CrsTAKD. — Sago custard, which is both 
nourishing and palatable, is made by soaking two 
tablespoonfuls of sago in a half pint of cold 
water for an hour and a half, then boil it in the 
same water until it looks clear, then add a 
tumbler of sweet milk, let this boil for a minute 
or two, add sugar to your taste, and when you 
remove it from the fire, add one well-beaten egg 
and flavor to your taste. 

CrKiiii D Hkek. — Take slices of cold roast 
beef, cut them up into small bits, put a largo 
piece of butter into a saucepan, and put the 
meat into it, with two onions, sliced very thtw, 
a little water, one dessertspoonful of curry pow- 
der, liet this siimncr for 10 or l.'i minutes. 
Line an earthen vegetal)le dish with boiled rice, 
and pour the curried beef into it. Serve hot. 

Buoir.ED Potatoes, — Parboil potatoes, cut in 
slices half an inch thick, place in a wire gridiron 
and broil over a slow fire till well browned on 
both sides, then season with salt and pepper 
ami serve hot, with a little melted butter 
poured over them. Cold boiled potatoes may 
be broiled this way and be ;dmost as good as 
fresh ones. 

(iiiAiiAM BuEAiL -One cup of sour milk, 
three tablespoonfuls of molasses, one teaspoon- 
ful of saleratus. Make the batter a little thicker 
than for griddle-cakes, using one-third Indian 
meal and two thirds graham, P> ike l atlier 
slowly till you can run a straw through without 
any of the bread sticking to it, 


[Jandary 17, 1885 

unsatisfactory than in agriculture. The L^gis- | school-house, hedged with gin niilla, dives, dens, 
lature is doing nothing, owing to the political ] brothels, and the enchanting lusts, ye say there 
deadlock in the Senate, and so far as a common is an illustration of the old fable. The mis- 
observer can see, the public money is being taken citi/.ens, their pailfuls of water, to a tub 

wasted at a frightful rate, by those who seem full of holes. There temptations leak out the son will be surprised to learn how many leading 
to consider political policy as of higher impor- ^ good faster than they can pour it in. It may 1 breeds there really are. No one bat a special- 

display which cannot fail to delight the public 
and reflect credit on the poultry interest. No 
doubt there will be tine specimens of all the 
leading breeds, and the generally informed per 


Published by DEWEY & CO. 

tance than the public business. After the en- j be well for parent.', our legislators, our city 

forced idleness of the Legislature rises the sen- fathers, to ponder over that man's abortive 
atorial problem, in which the interests of a few ; work, 
individuals and of corporative or antimonopoly 

Office, Z52 Marlrl St.,N. E. cor. Front St., S. F. 
/»■ Take the Elevator, So. It Front St. "ea 

ADDRESS A1.I. literary and biisiueas corresponileuce and 
drafts for tbis papcf thu name of the timi. 

Our Subscription Ratea- 

OtTR SuBSCitiPTioN Katks are tiiukf. i>oi,i.Aiw ayear- 
Inadvance. Ifconllmieil siibscriptious are uot jirepaid in 
advauce, for any re:i.sou, fiktv c ents extra will be charged 
for each year or fnictiou of a year, tm No uew names 
placed ou the list without ca-sh in advauce. A^ellt» wanted. 

influence,are still waiting the organization of the ' 
.Senate, for the struggle for victory. The end ; 
of all these uncertainties cannot be foreseen. 

Public Duty Towards Children. 

" 'Tis education forms the common mind," 

Advertising Bates. 

J H'trk. 1 Month. S Months 
Per Line (agate).... « .25 S .80 S 2.20 
Half inch (1 square). 1.50 4 .00 10.00 

One inch 2.00 5.00 1 4.00 

Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special 
iog notices, legal a.lvertisements, notices appearing iu extra 
ordinary type, or in particular parts of the paper, at specia 
rates. Koiu- insertions are rated in a month. 

/ Year. 
« 5.00 

or read 

Late Adverttseme-vts.— Advertisements not received 
ss early as Tuesday will be charged 10 per cent, additional 
for night work or extra cost, unless otherwise contracted. 

Our latest forms go to preits Wedne.iday evening. 

Entered at the S. F . Post Oftice as second class mail matter. 

DEWEY & CO., Patent Solicitors. 



Saturday, January 17, 1885. 


ILIjUSTRATIONS.— Early Arrivals at the Show of 
the California I'.mltrv Association. 45. Perspective 
\ ii'W of the Sorirluini Sus,'ar Kartorv, Kio Urande, N. J.; 
IMir Tens, Kio Oraiide Sorichuni Su)(ar Co., 53. 

BDlTOKXALy.— Tlie Week: Public Duty Towards 
I'hililrcii; I'rnit and rreijiht liates; The I'oultry Show, 
The Wool Crowers and the Legislature, 52. The Sorg- 
hum Su'.;ar Inilustrv, 53. 

PISCICULTURE.— Grow th and I'roiiasfation of Carp, 

THE APIARY.— Startini; in the Bee Business -No. 

POULTRY YARD.— I'oultr.v Houses; Yellow Ktrps. 

THE DAIRY.— WlilteiielaLm Carrots; Stock Feedini;, 

THE STOCK YARD.-LeMsons of the Fat Sto<l< 
Show, 47. 

FORESTRY.— Tlic Stroncost Part of a Tree, 47. 

Counties cif California, 48-9. 

Itiilroad Kc':.'ul:it"r; An Anti. Monopoly Story; Gransie 
F.le. tions; lle^oliitions ot Kespec t; (Jranse Installations: 
Tlie Kei-ipfMfits lliisiness; Soryhutn Cane, 49. 

TUB HOME' CIRCLE. -A Wintry Day in the 
Sierras: Was Ho a Hero: SuperMu»-)U3 Girls: To the 
Youiitr -Men, 50 Sweet Home: The Children of Alco- 
holic l)riiikers, 51. 

YOUNQ POLKS" COLUMN.-Tlie Puzzle Box: 
The Three Itrothers, 51. 

GOOD HEALTH.- Small Bed Cliambers; A Word of 
Caution aluint Ink Pencils; A Cause of Blindness; 
Hives; For Acute Hheumatism: Eclectics, 51. 

D>.>Mi!iSTIC ECONOMY. — Hoineniacle Cream 
Candy; ('ranberry S:iuce; Degscrt; Chicken Pie; To , 
StutT Pi'.^cons; IJakcfi P<itatoes: Sajifo Custai-d: CHirried 
Beef: lioileil !'<it;itoes: Craham Bread, 51. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL.— Kercseiio Emulsions, 54. 

SHEEP AND WOOL.— The Wool Trade of 1SS4: 
The I'rcfiJcnt ot the Wool Growers and the TaritT; 
Xauies of Crades of Wool: Project to Establish a Wool 
Exchahije in St. Li'uis; The Wool Clip of ls».'i; Our 
Woolen Industrie^; (^niility ot Wool Intlueuced by 
Feed; The \\"'» >1 Consumption; Sheep or ('otton, 56. 

MISCELLANEOUS. — Kaisinf Sunflowers; Agri- 
cultural Statistics, 54. The World's Fair; The As- 
sembly Committees; Kecord tor the Mi>ntli <if Decem- 
ber, 1884, 55. The Noru)aii Horse, 58- 

Fruit and Freight Rates. 

We give on another page a memorial to trans- 
portation companies prepared by a joint com- 
mittee, members of which were appointed by 
the .'^tate Horticultural Society, the .'>tate Con- 
vention of Kruit (irowers, and the State Viti- 
cultural (.'onvention. The movement to secure 

said an old poet, but he did not define what he ; f.^j^g^ ^^^^g „f transportation from the railway 
meant by education, for poets never define any- j companies originated with the .State Horticul- 
thing. Ask the first teacher you meet, what is ^^^^j Society and a committee consisting of 
education, and he would most likely say it is to ;^iegsr3. A. T. Hatch, I. A. W ilcox and W. V. 
make a man educated, to give him some useful | ]{iackwood, were appointed to confer with the 
knowledge of the world he lives in, its Ian- j jaji^-ay managers in this city, urge the neces- _ 
guages, histories, races, modern astronomy, i „f cheaper rates for fast freightage of fruit ' '''^^ regular premiums are, it is true, but cer- 
grammar, geology, physiology, mathematics j,^^ y,-.^^^^ ^^^^ reiiort the results to the Soci- j t'ti'-at^s '>f honor, but honor is in fact the most 
and mechanics. And no doubt this is all very Manager Towne was absent at the Kast v'*'""^'''-' <=on3id :ration in this connection. The 

well as far as it goes, but the great truth is to j ^g^^ji^j^.^ ^^^^ obliged to await his ! 8P«c\''^ premium! indul ,- oSj^cts also worth 

ist can keep pace with the progress in the 
poultry world. Tlie birds shown at these fairs 
can be studied to great advantage. The coops 
are large enough and well-arranged to give un- 
restricted views. There is a chance for satis- 
factory comparative study which can be secured 
nowhere except at an exhibition of this kind. 
Aside from the regular lines of popular and 
useful birds, there is always much to entertain 
in the way of fancy stock, singing and talking 
birds. Whether one goes as an industrialist 
or a naturalist or as an idler there are few 
places where so many charming sights can be 
seen as at a well ordered and well filled poultry 

Sf> far as we can judge, the preparations for 
this year's fair foreshadow a notably good show. 

be found in the broader idea that comprehends 
the child's environments, its home, play, com- 
panionship and social influences, for by these 

return before discharging their mission. .Mean- 
time, the Fruit growers' Convention assembled, 
and to secure a wider representation from the 
agencies more than any other the tender twig j^^^j^ j^tgrest, the same proposition was pre- 
is bent or taught to grow erect. Burke said ^^^^^^ ^^ j,,^^ ,,Q^,y appointed a corn- 

that "education is the chief defense of na- ^ittee consisting of Messrs. L. W. Huck,.T. M. 
tions," but did he mean the common school ! ^^-^^^^^ ^^^^ ,, ^j^^^ .^^j ^j^,, 
equipment, or even that higher sort that could | ^^^^^^ committee. Soon after the (; rape Crow- 
be found at Katon or Rugby? Will bending Convention assembled, and when their 
the mind-plant towards reading and writing, co-operation was requested they appointed 
grammar and arithmetic, geography and all the 
rest of the curriculum, be any assurance of 
a good future for the country V 

ring and the star route fellows who have been I ^^^^^g^.^^ j^t^.r^sted in fruit culture ami ! last September, adjourned to meet on the sec 
swindling the Covernment of late years can all | j^^. ^j^^ ^^^^^^ known as large prod uc- ' ond Tuesday in .Tanuary at the State capital 

read and write; some of them are very tine j ^^^^^^ ^-p^^ ^j^^ return of .Mr. Towne | It was the idea that the presence of the mem- 

scholars, have diplomas from colleges, but they j ^.^^ committee met him by appointment and bers of the As:sociation during the session of the 
^' a very small i j^^j ^ j^^j, conference with him. A sketch LegisLiture would be salutary and useful, be- 

Messrs. W. B. West, W. Mcl'hersoii Hill and 
H. 1'. Livermore to act as their representatives. 
The whisky rpj^^^ .^^j^j. committee consisted of nine 

striving for. The catalogue to serve as a guide 
to the visitor will be a handsome publication, 
well embellished wi h engravings. If f.iir 
weather prevails we expsct the exhibition will 
draw visitors from all parts of the State, and 
will prove a notable event in the agricultural 
history of the year. 

The Wool Growers and the Legislature. 

It will be remembered by those in the wool 
interest that the California Wool Growers' 
Association, at their meeting in .Sacramento 

are a sorry lot of citizens. 

part of education that is to be had in the , ^^.^ meeting was given to the Ki K.u. 
school-house. The highest education is the I ^.^.^^^ ^ ^.^^^^ f^,,^^ ^^^^g. 

formation of moral character, .and a mere j ^^^.^ ^^^^^j^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^5,^.^^ authorities 
glance at history will show that mankind is ^ ^^.^^^^ memorial setting forth the views of 

the fruit growers and giving data by wl)ich the 
present condition and the prospect of the in- 
more real blessings have come from noble hearts ^ measured. This was under- ! this disorganization prevails, and while atten 
than noble intellects. Now it may be that in j committee, and diligent effort was | tion is centered upon the election of a L,'. S. 
our easy going habits we allow ourselves to fall , j^^.^^ ^^^e of the members to secure the 1 Senator, it is plainly needless for the wool 

more indebted to men of great honor and in- 
tegrity than to great scholars, and that 

cause certain needful laws for the welfare of 
the Wool intervst could be brought to the atten- 
tion of the law-makers. The scheme would 
have worked well, no doubt, had not the Sen- 
ate fallen into the unfortunate j mgle which 
has so far prevented its organization. \Vlii]c 

into the dangerous error tliat all these ruddy 
boys and blithe, bright eyed girls we see every 
morning on their way to school are receiving 
their education there, and think we have done 
all our duty in voting a school ta.x and build- 
ing such nice and ample school-houses. We are 

reijuisite data. When this w'as in hand, another 
meeting was held and a memorial in due form 
prepared. Such in brief is the history of the 
origin of the important document which we 
present in full on page .54 of this week's Ri kal. 
The memorial is addreseed to railways in 

Business Announcements. 

Agricultural Implements— Baker & Hamilton, S. F. 
Big Hedjje Potdtry Yards — San Mater<, Cal. 
Spr.iyin't Pumps ' II. P. Gregory Co., S. F. 
Seeds -K. J. Bowen, S F. 
.Nursery — l.ewellini; Smith, Pleasanton, Cal. 
Kxtcrminator -Chas, P. Harris, Hill's Ferry, Cal. 
Uoscs— D. It. Wood - & Co., New Brighton,' Pa. 
Incubators -(Jlias. B. Jaques .v Co., Metiiclien. X .1. 
Wire Fence Sed^'wiek Bros., Kichmond, Ind. 
Seeds — J. C. Kveritt, Lima, Ind. 
Spencerian Business Colleije -Oakland, Cal. 
Plows— C. B. Stcanc, Plcasanton, (;al. 
Plows — J. A. Bilz, Pieasanton. Cal. 
Small Fruits - .1. T. Lovctt, LHtle Silver. .\ J. 
Short Horn Cattle— W. H. Howard, S. F. 
Hcald's Business Collej^e—S. F. 
<;rapevines— W. Bihler, Lakev ille, Cal. 
I'oiUtry— A. P. Khiit, Oakland, Cal. 
Nurseries ,1. Hutchison, Oakland, Cal. 
Incubators -California Incubator Co.. Oaklaml. 

or See Advertising Columns. 

The Week. 

The Week has not been one of much accom- 
plishment. The weather has continued half 
wet, half dry, keeping the soil, as a rule, too 
moist to suit the plowman. The interior valleys 
have hud another heavy drenching, and the 
roadways are streams of mud, and the tiehls lie 
unturned, and a rich growth of weeds and for- 
age plants is covering the landscape. Appre- 
hension among those who have land to tit for 
planting or for sowing, naturally is increasing, 
and the V)oard of idle men and teams is not a 
pleasant thing to contemplate. 

In public affairs the situation is even more 

liable to forget there are other educational 1 general, for the carriage of fruit hence to the 
forces at work, some that are very bad, silent ^^^joug markets in the Kastern SUtes is some- 
and insidious, that keep free schools day and ^j^j^^ j„ ^,,,[^1^ poads participate, and 

night, and a numerous set of wary teachers. 1 ^^^jj. harmonious action .seems requisite to pro 

growers to appear with their claims, and there- 
fore the Kxecutive Committee of the Associa- 
tion have postponed the meeting which was 
.tnnounced for the second Tuesday in .lanuary. 
The meeting will be held, and all wool growers 
invited to assemble at the capital, at some date 
ii! the future to be fixed by the Kxecutive Com 
mittee, and of which due notice will be given 
in the papers. 

We are informed by .Mr. Kirkpatrick, a lead- 

It may be more than likely that some of "»rl ^^^^j^j^ ^-^^^^ ^^d rapid movement of our [ ing promoter of the Association, that the com 
children are receiving the most permanent | ^^^^ ^^.^^^^ ggems to be one of the " 

shape of their future character on the .street , ^^^^ f^,j^,^e prospect of our horticultural 

between home and the school house. I j^^iugtry. The matter presented in the state- 

Now the point we desire to make and insist j ^^^^^^^ j^j^^ committee will be found of 

upon, is that the State, in providing liberally | ^^^^^ interes' and importance to all who are in 
for the education of the children, is neglecting ^_^y connected with our fruit industry or to 

the best part of their education. It is not 
enough to furnish large, commodious, well ap- 

mittee appointed to prepare a anti scab law 
and other legal relief for the industry, is at 
work, and that a proposition to reach the evil 
will ere long be presented to the public and to 
the Legislature. In this connection we call 
attention to the deolaration of the president of 
the National Wool <i rowers' Association con- 
cerning the tariff law, which we print in an- 

anyone generally interested in the industrial 
welfare of the State. We bespeak for the „ 

pointed buildings and a plethoric school fund, j ^^^^^^.^^1. careful consideration of all. No other column. It will be seen that no immedi- 

and then allow an enemy to come along and ij^^i^j ^j^^ i^j^^te^ will naturally arise for dis- ate relief is expected, but that growers are 

sow tares and wee-Is in the promising fields, i cuggion at the nexc meeting of the Horticultural urged to maintain their organization and efforts, 

The law should follow these children on their [ y^ciety, which will be held .lanuary .'iOth, and 'i confidence that the desired eud will be ulti- 

way to school and clean all the brambles out of publication of the report thus early will en 

their path, and chase away all the wild beasts n,embors and others to prepare for its dis- 

that would devour them. What is needed is I j^^^j^jj jj^^^ ,„ceting. 

not merely learning, but moral worth and char- 

acter, and therefore they should be guarded tpjjg Poultry ShoW. 

from every shape of ill, all foul contacts, all 1 

evil associations and temptations, | As approi)riate to the great poultry event of 

matcly reached, if pressure commensurate with 
the importance of the interest be continued. 

As for the work of the committee with refer- 
ence to the enactment of an anti-scab law, and 
provision for the extermination of wild ani- 
mals, we expect to present to our readers the 
result of their deliberations as soon as it can be 
put in shape. It is important that the matter 
should lie placed fully before the public for 

What sort of wisdom ia it that spreads out j the year, the annual fair of the California Poul 
hooks before the children at school and allows try .\s80ciation, we embellish our first page 

vice in all its alluring forms to spread out with a group of some of the famous denizens of consideration, in order that the wool growers 
snares and traps in their pathway home? That ^ the yard. We select for this occasion some 
opens the gates of knowledge, and hardly al- varieties which are perhaps not so widely dis- 
lows to stand open the flower- wreathed gates 1 tributed nor so much heard of as some other j 

of the social hells': Would not that bo Hushing kinds, that the engraving may be the more at- : Sknatoh has reported favorably from 

the sewers, and washing the city clean, and j tractive to the general reader. At another time ! the lY'fic I-ands (;ominittee the bill to 

• \- x-i . T ,.1. 1 1 -f -11 ...^ ...ill r,r^r.^r<> n nlatonf ,,■> riptiPB ' •^"^ '"r the Sale of timber lands In f/alifomia, 

then importmg the pestilence? In the old ; if possible, we will P^-eP^re a plate of x arieties ^ ^^^^^^^^^.^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^ 

mythological fancy, a man who had spent his which are now most fashionable. 1 .. . . 

life on earth in speaking empty words and ' The I'oultry Show will be held in the Wig- 
making vain promises, was doomed in Hades to wam, corner of deary and Stockton streets in 
fill a tub with water, the bottom of which was , this city beginning on Monday, 19th, and 
bored full of holes. When we see the schools 1 extending through the week. From what we 
of our city crowded with eager, e;:pectant chil- can learn of the preparations and the in- 

may instruct their representatives at H.acra- 
mento of their wishes. 

striking out the words "unfit for cultivation," 
and "not fit for agriculture." 

JriJCK Dessv, late Consul-t reneral to Shang- 
hai, is introducing game birds from China into 
Oregon, and recently received a lot of !tO pheas- 

ants, comprising the golden, silver, copper, 
dren, and the streets all along the' way to the I terest taken by exhibitors, there will be a green, trograpan and ringneck varieties. 

JANUARY 17, 1885.] 

f ACIFie R.URALj p>ress. 


The Sorghum Sugar Industry -No. 1. 

Last week we gave some notes from an ad- 
dress of Prof. H. W. Wiley, sugar expert of the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, with refer- 
ence to the production of beet sugar in Cali- 
fornia. We promised also to present certain 
facts and opinions, relative to the sorghum 
sugar industry, which has been zealously pro- 
moted both by scientific experts, and by those 
who have invested 
money and time in 
the various enterprises 
which have been un- 
dertaken at various 
points at the East. 
This matter we now 
take up, and illustrate 
the subject with en- 
gravings from a special 
report of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture 
on "Northern Sugar," 
which has just been 
published. The factory 
shown is that at Rio 
Grande, New Jersey, 
which has turned out 
the largest product of 
any establishment of 
its kind. 

First, we shall pre- 
sent a summary of the 
views of Prof. Wiley 
on the uprising and 
general condition at 
present of the sorghum 
interest. In I)is address 
before the Louisiana 
Sugar Planters' Asso- 
ciation last month, he 
spoke as follows: 

Ever since the in- 
troduction of sorghum 
30 years ago, crystal- 
lized sugar has been 
made from its juices. 
But these generally 
contain large quanti 
ties of invert or re- 
ducing sugars, and 
these,as is well known, 

greatly hinders the process of crystallization. 

Until within a few years, little but empiricism 
was found in the production of sorghum sugar. 
Then came there searches of Collier, Weber, 
Scoville, Henry, Swanson, Hughes and others, 
which began to throw some true scientific light 
on the dark problem. 
With this came the 
establishment of the 
large sorghum sugar 
factory at Rio Graude, 
N. J., which has madi' 
large quantities (if 
sugar for four years in 
succession. Then came 
the factory at Cham- 
paign, 111., which has 
made three campaigns. 
Later two factorits in 
Kansas, which have 
made two campaigns, 
and two or three 
others, which have 
made one only. 

Five years of this 
practical experience 
has shown that the 
problem of sugar mak- 
ing is far more difli- 
cult in a practical way 
than it was as an ex- 
perimental attempt. 
Unfortunately this is 
often the case, and foi 
this reason science has 
in some quarters the 
reputation of being im- 
practicable. It should 
never be forgotten that 
often what succeeds as 
an experiment may 
utterly fail in practice. 
The small patches of 
sorghum, carefully cul- 
tivated and liberally 
fertilized, have proved 

to be richer in sugar 
than the same crop 

grown in large fields, and with such attention 
as crops in Massachusetts usually receive. Dur- 
ing the past season the Bureau of Chemistry 
grew Northern sugar cane whose juice con- 
tained 18 per cent oif sucrose, but from the large 
fields it has not proved to be so rich, and the 
disappointed manufacturer has had to be con- 
tented for the past five years with juices which 
probably have not had an average contend of 
10 per cent of crystallizable sugar. When, in 
addition to this, it is remembered that the same 
juices have contained nearly 3 per cent of invert 
and reducing sugars, and nearly 2 per cent of 
solids not sugar, it is not surprising that the 
yield of sugar has been uniformly light. The 
quality of sugar per ton has not averaged above 
60 pounds, and in many cases has fallen far be- 
low this. 

Product of Sorghum Sugar. 

The amount of sorghum sugar manufactured 
in the United States during the season of 1883 
is as follows: 


Rio Grande, N. .J 282,(XX) 

Champaign, III .180,000 

Sterling, Kansas 136,000 

Hutchinson, Kansas 131,000 

Ottawa, Kansas 7,000 

Dept. of Ag:riculture, Washington, D. C 10,000 

Total 726,000 

At present, therefore, the production of 
sugar from sorghum is not an encouraging one, 
and the sorghum men are no less anxious than 
you for the future. But sorghum is also val- 
uable as a cereal. Its seed may be said to average 
twenty bushels per acre and its nutritive value 
is as great as corn. It is excellent for poultry, 

are likely to lose, it is also true, that had the 
price of sugar and sirup been maintained at 
what they were four years ago, fair dividends 
might have been found now, where ghostly 
assessments stalk in the midnight of disaster. 
So I believe there is still hope for that much 
wronged first cousin of yours, the patient sorg- 
hum, and I hope to be able to do something to 
help it along. 

A More Hopeful View. 

In contrast with the above we give below 




and when boiled, for hogs and cattle. In New 
.Jersey may be found a large number of swine 
whose only food has been boiled sorghum seed. 
These animals are remarkably healthy and 
sleek, and in nearly five years not one of them 
has died of any of the epidemic diseases which 

extracts from a private letter written by Dr. 
Peter Collier to .1. J. Grossman Esq., of this 
city. Dr. Collier is mentioned by Prof. Wiley 
at the head of recent investigators of the sor- 
ghum problem, and will be remembered by 
many of our readers as the Government chem- 


are so fatal. While, therefore, at the present 
time the amount of sorghum sugar made, not 
more than a million pounds per annum, is insig- 
nificant as an economic factor, yet it must not 
be forgotten that as a sirup producer and as a 
forage plant, it has claim upon our attention 
which it would be very unwise to neglect. 

Sorghum sugar has also, I believe, a future, 
unless it be that our political economists and 
politicians are resolved on economic suicide, by 
securing the destruction of every sugar indus- 
try in the land. In Kansas, especially, there 
seems to be a soil and climate peculiarly suited 
to sugar production. Years of trial and intelli- 
gent study, will finally work out the boundaries 
of the sugar production from sorghum, and I 
hope to see its successful establishment. 

Because a few thousands of dollars are lost in 
attempts at developing an industry is no reason 
why final success may not be secured. Such is 
the history of every industry. And even in 
the oldest and most firmly established indus- 
tries, failures aje often seen. Thus, while it is 
true that those bold and enterprising men who 
h3,ye pat theit: money in sorghum sugar factories 

ist under Commissioner Le Due. Since his 
retirement from the Government service Dr. 
Collier has continued his sorghum work and 
has hitcly published an exhaustive treatise on 
the subject. Dr. Collier's letter to Mr. Cross- 
man was not written for publication, but we 
fear we shall have to treat it to the same fate 
which befals most private correspondence when 
an editor gets wind of its existence. Dr. Collier 
writes as follows: 

It is a long time since I have written or heard 
from you, and I now write simply to remind 
you that if anything could strengthen my faith 
in sorghum as the future source of our sugar 
supply, it would be the recent remarkable re- 
sults reported from Italy, where they found in 
the juice of sorghum, cut fully IT) days after the 
seed was ripe, an average of IT.'iC per cent of 
cane sugar and only 1.03 per cent of glucose. 
And at the Agricultural Station, at Vancluse, 
near Avignon, Fran''.,, they found 16.3 per 
cent of cane sugar, and 1.7 of glucose, and the 
director concludes in these words, which I 
think a sufficient answer to some parties who 
have all along sought to cast discredit upon 

my results by saying that "nobody ever got 
such results as Dr. Collier," the inference being 
that nobody ever would, since they were erro- 
neous, although they hardly dared to say this 
last since the National Academy of Sciences 
had unanimously endorsed the methods by 
which I obtained my results as being "among 
the best known to science." But to return to 
the report of the director at Vancluse. He 
concludes as follows; "The results above re- 
corded fully agree with those obtained by Dr. 
Peter Collier, at Washington, in the United 
States, both as to the 
amount of juice in 
the sorghum and in its 
content of sugar." I 
have just sent off to 
the printer the manu- 
script of my address 
given before the So- 
ciety for the Promo- 
tion of Agricultural 
Science,at their recent 
meeting at Philadel- 
phia, and I shall send 
you an early copy. In 
it I have, I think, 
proved beyond all 
doubt that sugar may 
be produced from sor- 
ghum at an expense 
not exceeding one cent 
per pound. Now, you 
may think me a little 
wild, but as I say 
above, I feel confident 
that I cannot bs 
tripped in my data or 

There is certainly 
some little variance of 
views between the two 
leading sugar experts 
whose words we have 
quoted. Having no 
special knowledge of 
our own which would 
aid in affirming either 
view, we present them 
side by side for the 
consideration of our 

The engravings with 
which we accompany 
this article are of the Rio Grande factory and 
its adjunct, the pork making establishment. 
The Government Report on Northern Sugar 
speaks as follows on the branch of the sorghum 

A point of interest in the Rio Grande factory 
is the pig pens. The 
seed of sorghum has 
generally been neglect- 
ed, and therefore the 
successful attempt of 
the Rio (irande Com- 
pany to utilize it at 
home demands most 
serious attention. 
There is no partof this 
company's possessions 
which excited in me 
more lively interest 
than this plan of util- 
izing the seed and 
bagasse and thus re- 
turning in a great 
measure to the land 
the substances ab- 
stracted by the crop. 

I found in these 
pens in October three 
hundred hogs of difl'e- 
rent ages, some full 
grown and fat for the 
market, others newly 

These swine had 
never had any other 
food than the product 
of the cane, and no 
other bedding besides 
the bagasse. They 
were fat and healthy, 
and the swineherd as- 
sured me that he had 
never lostanimals fiom 
any of the contagious 
diseases so fatal to 

From the experience 
w h ich th e com pany has 
already had they think that each acre of cane 
will furnish enough seed to fit one hog for 

The bagasse from the mill, which is brought 
out by the cars, which would otherwise return 
emp'y is thrown into the pens. By spring it 
is converted into an excellent manure which 
will almost be enough for one acre of ground 
for each animal. 

In order to place sorghum culture on a truly 
economic basis every by-product must be care- 
fully utilized, and among these the seed is the 
most valuable. 

Before the seed is fed it is boiled until the 
starch granules split open and thus complete 
digestion is secured. It would be extremely 
wasteful to feed the raw seed. 

There is reason to doubt that boiled sorghum 
seed would prove as palatable and beneficial to 
other animals as to swine. 

The Deprkssiov of the cotton interest in 
Lowell and Fall River is attributed, at those 
localities, to the rapid growth of that interest 
at the South. 


f ACiFie f^uraid press. 

[January 17, 1885 


Kerosene Emulsions. 

We are indebted to Prof. C. V. Riley, U. S. 
Entomologist, for advance shee's of his annual 
report, from which we quote the following : 

It is doubtful if, in the history of economic 
entomology in this country, so great an impetus 
has been given to the destruction of insects in- 
jurious to vegetation as by the discovery of the 
simple methods of emulsifying kerosene, which 
we first made public in 1880, and which has 
been fully set forth in the reports and bulletins 
from this liureau since. It is useful against 
many plant-feeding insects which are not 
affected by other insecticides, and since we an- 
nounced its value against underground insects, 
a year ago, its use has liecome still more gen- 
eral. It is, however, against the scale insects 
injurious to the orange that it has so far proved 
most satisfactory. We are therefore pleased to 
state that Mr. Hubbard, special agent of the Bu- 
reau in Florida, reports that success has every- 
where followed its judicious use in all parts of the 
State, and that the experience of another year 
warrants what he has heretofore said in its be- 
half, and that it is destined to supersede all 
other insecticides for use in orange groves and 

Nevertheless, former warnings against the 
use of mere mixtures or imperfect emulsions of 
coal-oil and milk or soap solutions need reiter- 
ation. It cannot be too strongly impressed 
upon all who use kerosene as an insecticide, that 
it can be considered a safe remedy only when 
properly emulsified. The formula for the kero- 
sene and soap emulsion, as found most satis- 
factory by Mr. Hubbard, is as follows : 

Kerosene iKallons^e? 

Common soap or n-halc-oil soap i pound ) 

Water 1 (fallen i 

Heat the solution of soap and add it boiling hot to the 
kerosene. Churn the mixture by means of a force pump 
and spray nozzle for five or ten minutes. The emul- 
sion, if perfect, forms a cream, which thickens on cool- 
ing, and should adhere without oiliness to the surface 
of glass. Dilute, before using, one part of the emulsion 
with nine parts of cold water. The above formula gives 
three gallons of emulsion, and makes, when diluted, .Sn 
gallons of wash. 

The kerosene and soap mixture, especially 
when the latter is warmed, forms upon very 
moderate agitation, an apparent union ; but 
the mi.xture is not stable, and separates on 
standing oi when cooled or diluted by the addi- 
tion of water. .\ proper emulsion of the kero- 
sene is obtained only upon violent agitation. It 
is formed, not gradually, but suddenly ; in 
short, to use a familiar phrase, "it comes," like 
butter. The time required in churning depends 
somewhat upon the violence of the agitation, 
but still more upon the temperature, which, 
however, need not be much above blood heat. 

When obtained, an emulsion of kerosene and 
soap is known by the perfect union of the in- 
gredients, and the absence of oiliness, so that 
the li(iuid clings to the surface of glass or metal. 
It resembles a rich cream, more or less thickened 
according to the proportion of soap used in the 

These details have been fully set forth in pre- 
vious reports, but it seems necessary to again 
refer to ihem, because, while the value of the 
kerosene emulsions as insecticides has been 
widely acknowledged, the important point of 
thorough emulsificatiou hr.s not been sufficiently 
recognized, and the agricultural press of the 
country in the discusison of this new applica 
tion of an old remedy have very generally 
omitted to mention the n.e hods by which a 
perfect emulsion may be secured. 

Thus in a horticultural journal of wide dis- 
tribution we find the following: "Mr. K. L. 
Sturtevant, director of the experimental farm 
at Geneva, N. Y., says that emulsion, composed 
of one ounce of common soap, one pint of kero- 
sene oil, and one and one-half gallons of water, 
kept continually stirred while using to prevent 
the oil floating on the surface, and used through 
the rose of a water-pot, will destroy all worms 
(on cabbage) that get thoroughly wet with the 
mixture." kc. 

An officer of another State institution, hav- 
ing become a discoverer of the means of dilut- 
ing kerosene by ennilsification with milk, 
shortly after our publication of this method, 
repeatedly recommended a mixture of kerosene 
made by stirring simply, admitting, however, 
that "if to be used very extensively, the per- 
manent emulsion might be more convenient." 

In Florida, where the original directions for 
making a good emulsion have been widely dis- 
tributed, and where the remedy itself is rapidly 
coming into universal use among truck far- 
mers, as well as orange and fruit growers, 
there is still need of greater care l han is gen- 
erally given to the preparation of the wash. 

Failure in forming a stable en'ulsion is due 
in most cases to insufficient agitation of the 
mixture. The emulsion can be very quickly 
and easily made by using a good force 
pump, so constructed that it can be 
inserted directly into the liquid, which must be 
kept in constant and violent agitation by forc- 
ing it through some form of spray-nozzle back 
into the same receptacle. A pump otherwise 
gootl is less adapted to forming an emulsion if, 
instead of being inserted directly into the pail, 
it has a large and long supply tube, in passing 
through which the li(|uids are comparatively 
quiescent, and consequently have a teiidency to 

Another fre(iuent cause of failure is the at- 

tempt to form an emulsion by churning together 
a small quantity of kerosene and a large quan- 
tity of diluent. Only a very unstable union can 
be effected by this means. The very essence of 
the process rnquires that the oil shall be broken 
down by driving into union with it a smaller, or 
at most an equal, quantity of the emulsifying 
solution, after which, if a genuine emulsion is 
formed, it may be diluted {id libUnvi with 

During the past year a few cases of injury to 
orange trees from kerosene are reported by Mr. 
Hubbard, in each instance arising from the use 
of unemulsified oil in the wash. A single case 
which came under his observation will serve as 
an example and give emphasis to what we have 
said in regard to the proper method of mixing 
the insecticide. He reports as follows: 

"A grove of about 1,000 trees, of all ages, 
had been twice sprayed with the standard mix- 
ture, an emulsion containing C7 per cent of oil, 
diluted 10 times, with beneficial results as re- 
gards infesting insects, and without injury to 
any of the trees. A month or two later the in 
side branches of about 200 of the largest trees 
of bearing age were given a ihird application, 
and their main trunks thoroughly drenched with 
the liquid. A few weeks after the first applica- 
tion four of the trees appeared to have been in- 
jured, and upon examination more or less of 
the bark was found to have been destroyed at 
the collar of the tree. The dead bark still re 
tained a strong odor of kerosene. Two of these 
trees died, and two are now in process of re- 

"An investigation revealed the fact that at 
the last spraying the mixing of the wash had 
been left to negro field hands, who had dis 
pensed with the preliminary process of emulsi- 
fying the oil, and merely mixed the ingredients 
for each 30 gallons of wash, churning the whole 
together at one operation. The apparatus used 
was a large force pump affixed to a barrel and 
mounted on a cart. As the motion of the cart 
was not sufficient to keep the kerosene in sus 
pension, it separated and floated on top of the 
liquid in the barrel. Thus the last trees 
sprayed before mixing each fresh barrel of 
wash received nearly pure oil, and were se- 
verely injured. 

"It should be remarked that the trunks of 
the trees were densely shaded by low and 
spreading branches, which obstructed a free 
circulation of air and probably greatly increased 
the severity of the treatment by retarding the 
evaporation of the oil from the saturated sand 
and thickened bark at the base of the trees. " 

In California the atte-npt to use kerosene oil 
without emulsificatiou has been attended with 
disastrous results to northern fruit trees, espe- 
cially when crude or unrefined petroleum was 
used.t This probably accounts for the preju- 
dice which has existed against the use of coal 
oil in any form, and which has led the author- 
ities iu that State to recommend in preference 
the most heroic remedies. 

The official remedy, promulgated by the 
.State inspector of fruit pests, consists of an 
application of caustic soda lye, one pound to 
one gallon of w'ater, or concentrated lye and 
water in equal parts. This, according to the 
official report, "temporarily burns the foliage 
and new wood, but the trees afterward made 
new growth." It is recommended for applica- 
tion only in winter, when deciduous fruit trees 
are dormant. For summer use, a mild applica- 
tion of whale-oil soap and sulphur, with 
tobacco decoction, is recommended. This "so 
checks the ravages of the scale as to prevent its 
spread to other trees during the season, and in 
some cases proves an entire success in the 
destruc ion of the pest." This treatment must 
be followed up in winter with the scorching 
application of lye before mentioned. 

However, a reconsideration of the respective 
merits of lye and kerosene washes may soon be 
expected on the part of Californian fruit grow- 
ers. Dr. S. F. Chapin, the chief horticultural 
officer, seems to have greatly modified his 
views, formerly hostile to the use of kerosene. 
In a recent report, although still advocating 
lye washes, we find him accrediting with the 
best effects a high grade of kerosene, applied 
with a spray atomi/.er. Again, he condemns as 
injurious a wash containing kerosene and whale 
oil; but finally declares: "On the whole, crude 
petroleum cannot be recommended; kerosene 
has never hurt the trees, but has destroyed the 

Meanwhile the lye washes appear to have had 
thorough trial, and with not altogether sa isfac 
tory results, as witness the following communi- 
cation, found in several agricultural papers of 

"We hear of much ill-success with the com- 
mon remedies for the extermination of the scale 
on fruit trees. While, as a rule, scales are yet 
scarce in our county, still, wherever it has 
made its appearance, the horticulturists have 
failed to rid themselves of the pest by the ap- 
plication of the official remedies, lye and whale- 
oil soap. * * ♦ 

' 'Many of the trees sprayed with strong caus- 
tics had died at the same time as the scale, and 
the real gain has only been in preventing the 
scale from further spreading." 

The following, from the P.\<'iFif Ki k.u. I'kess, 
of April 19, 1884, is a good example of recent 
experiments, with insecticides in California: 

"I first used ciude petroleum, and killed 
about 30 peach, cherry, plum and almond trees, 

From the .\niiual Ueport of the U. S. Entomologist. 
tNo injury to orange trees from the application of re- 
fined kerosene in any form has been reported, as far as 
wc are aware. 

or about one-half of the trees treated. Two 
hundred and fifty apple and pear trees were in- 
jured, but none died, and no scale appeared 
upon them that year. The next year I used 
American lye, one pound to two gallons of 
water. I killed the scale, but it came back in 
the fall. Last year I experimented with lye at 
9 , 12', 15 , because our chief horticultural 
ofiicer recommended one pound of lye to one 
gallon of water. The lye buri)ed up the buds 
of the Newtown pippin apple, Uartlett and 
Easter Beurre pears, and I had little fruit. It 
burned the bark also. 

"The 12 lye did some damage to the buds; 
9* killed the bugs, bud did not injure the buds. 
I treated my trees in December. The bugs ap- 
peared again the next fall. 

"This year I have been using what I call im- 
proved kerosene butter, and I think it will 
prove a specific for the scale bug." The writer 
adds a formula for a mixture of kerosene, 
sweet milk, water and whale oil. 

Another correspondent of the same paper 
(Pacihc KrRAL Pkkss, .lanuary 12, 1884), 
writes that he tried strong lye and strong soap, 
one pound to one gallon, adding sulphur, but 
has "more scales than ever." He wrote to par- 
ties whom he heard were successful, and learned 
that "no one had mot with aiiy better success." 
One man used two pounds American concen- 
trated lye to one gallon. The application 
"killed some of the small limbs, aud cracked 
the bark on the trunks of the largest trees, and 
on some of those trees where he used the strong 
solution he finds plenty of scale bugs yet." He 
had expended last year S>900. 

No one can doubt that such powerfully caus- 
tic applications as the above will kill scale in 
sects if properly applied. The fact that any 
insect escaped an application of two pounds 
concentrated lye to one gallon of water shows 
that the aid of a good spray-nozzle is quite as 
important as the use of a good insecticide. In 
the experiments recorded above had use been 
made of the "cyclone" or "eddy jet" nozzle, 
described in the two last annual reports from 
this Bureau, while the injury to the plant 
might not have been less, the insects at least 
would have been exterminated. 

Our California correspondence shows also, as 
we foretold would be the case, that the kero- 
sene emulsion is making headway in spite of 
previous prejudice. 

Raising Sunflowers. 

Er>rr()Ks Prkss: — In the last Pkess is an in- 
quiry about raising sunflowers. As I have had 
considerable experience in raising them, I give 
it for the information of "Keader" and others. 
Sunflowers may be raised almost anywhere and 
on all kinds of soil; but good corn land will 
produce the best crop. I have raised 40 
bushels of seed from an acre. The seed should 
be planted early in the spring in well-prepared 
soil, in rows four feet apart each way aud two 
seeds to the hill, allowing, however, but one 
plant to finally stand in the hill. The after 
culture should be the same as for corn. When 
the seeds are ripe the heads should be cut from 
the .stalks and laid on the ground to dry. The 
seeds may be thrashed or pounded out in the 
same way beans usually are, and cleaned in 
the same way. The whole plant is valuable, 
and the seeds especially so. A few sunflowers 
growing near any sink hole where stagnant 
water exists, will prevent the spread of any 
noxious gases. Large quantities of sunflowers 
are annually planted in and about the city of 
New Orleans for sanitr,.ry purposes. The leaves 
and heads, after they have been deprived 
of their seed, make excellent forage for cattle. 

But the chief value of the si.nflower is in its 
seed, which is good for both man and beast. A 
tea made of the seed is a most excellent remedy 
for coughs and colds, and will usually cure the 
most inveterate ones. A pint of the seed given 
three times a day to a horse troubled with a 
cough, or incipient heaves, will usually give 
immediate and permanent relief. The seed 
may be ground like corn, aud a small quantity 
given to calves, colts and other stock in poor 
condition, will make them thrive wonderfully. 
If stock of any kind is iufected with lice or 
other vermin, a few rations of sunflower meal 
will soon rid them of these pests. Care must be 
taken not to feed too lavishly, as the meal is 
much richer than oil-cake. Sunflower seed is 
also a good feed for poultry, stimulating their 
egg-producing (|ualities. On the whole, I know 
of no plant that can be so easily raised and 
that has so many valuable properties to recom- 
mend it. J. 8. TiBBlT.'*. 

WeI(;ht .\nij Hkjht or M.*K. — It is well that 
all persons should know what the normal weight 
of man really is: The following shows the rela- 
tive hight and weight of individuals measuring 
5 feet and upward: feet and 1 inch should be 
120 pounds; ."> feet 2 inches should be 121) 
pounds; ij feet 3 inches should be 133 pounds; 
.'i feet 4 inches should be 13U pounds; 
o feet 5 inches should be 142 pounds; i) feet li 
inches should be 145 pounds; 5 feet 7 inches 
should be 148 pounds; 5 feet 8 inches should be 
155 pounds; 5feet9 inches should be 162 pounds; 
5 feet 10 inches should be 169 pounds; 5 feet 
1 1 inches should be 174 pounds; 6 feet should be 
178 pounds. 

Agricultural Statistics. 

Our readers will remember that the effort to 
secure full and acurate agricultural statistics by 
State agencies, has been approved by several 
agricultural associations. Mr. W. H. Aiken 
was appointed by the State Horticultural 
Society aud the Fruit Growers' Convention, to 
present the matter to the Legislature. Mr. 
Aiken has prepared the following bill, and has 
transmitted it to .Sacramento: 

.\n Act to provide for ihe publication of monthly 
crop and slock reports by the Slate Hoard of .Agri- 

The people of the .State of California repres- 
ented in Senate and Assembly, do enact as fol- 

Sec. 1. The State Board of Agriculture 
shall each year obtain monthly statements as to 
the condition and prospects of growing crops, 
condition of live stock, tho demand and price 
of labor, the temperature and rainfall. .And as 
soon after harvest as possible, the said Board 
shall obtain statements a^ to the yield of wheat 
and other farm, orchard and vineyard products, 
the quantity of such products marketed and the 
quantity remaining in the producers' hands. 

Sec. 2. The said Board shall prepare a 
monthly abtsract of the information thus ob- 
tained, and shall publish monthly at least five 
thousand cojiies for general distribution, and 
shall furnish one copy to each newspaper and 
p03t-offi.e in the State for public information 
and inspection. 

Sec. 3. That it shall be the duty of the said 
Board to select not less than one person in each 
township of the State, who shall be authorized 
and appointed to act as correspondents and fur- 
nish the information re<iuired by this Act, and 
such other information as may be considered use- 
ful, and the said Boaril shall furnish Slid corre- 
spondents with instructions and instruments to 
be used in ascertaining and reporting the tem- 
perature and rainfall, the same to be accounted 
for as State property, and the said correspon- 
dents shall receive no compensation for their 

Sec. 4. The said Board shall appoint, fix the 
compensation, and prescribe the duties of an 
assistant secretary, to hold office at the discre- 
tion of the Board. 

Sec. 5. Tliere is hereby appropriate<l to the 
•State Board of Agriculture, for the purpose of 
carrying out the provisions of this Act, out of 
any money in the .State Treasury not other- 
wise approfiriated, the sum of five thousaud 
dollars for the year commencing March Ist, one 
thousand eight hundred and eighty-five, and 
five thousand dollars for the year commencing 
March Ist, one thousand eight hundred and 
eighty-six, and the State Controller will draw 
his warrants upon the State Treasurer in favor 
of the Treasurer of said Board for the said sums 
or any part thereof, when they become availa- 
ble, upon proper demand being made for the 
sum by the said Board. 

Sec. 6. This Act shall take effect and be in 
force from aud after its passage. 

Sec. 8. That any Director or oflicer, or any 
corporation or co'iipany, acting or engaged as 
aforesaid, or any receiver or trustee, lessee or 
person acting or engaged as aforesaid, or any 
agent of any such corporation or company, re- 
ceiver, trustee or person aforesaid, or of one of 
them, alone or with any other corporation, com- 
pany, person or party, who shall willfully do, 
or cause, or willfully sufter or permit to be 
done, any act, matter or thing in this Act pro- 
hibited or forbidden, or who shall aid or abet 
therein, or shall willfully omit or fail to do any 
act, matter or thing in this Act required to be 
done, or cause or willfully suffer or permit any 
act, matter or thing so directed or reijuired by 
this .Act to be done not to be done, or shall aid 
or abet any such omission or failure, or shall be 
guilty of any infraction of this Act, or aid or 
abet therein, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, 
and upon conviction thereof shall be fined not 
more than .«20,00. 

Skc. 9. 'That nothing in this Act shall apply 
to the carriage, receiving, storage, handling or 
forwarding of property wholly within one State- 
and not shipped from or destined to some for- 
eign country or other State or Territory; nor 
shall it apply to property carried for the United 
States at lower rate of freights and charges 
than to the general public, or to the transporta- 
tion of articles at reduced rates of freight for 
charitable purposes, or to or from public fairs 
and expositions for exhibition. 

Sec. 10. That the words "a person or per- 
son*," as used in this Act, except where other- 
wise provided, shall be construed and held to 
mean the person or persons, oflicer or officers 
of a corporation or copora'ions, company or 
companies, receiver or receivers, trustee or 
trustees, lessee or lessees, agent or agents, or 
other person or persons acting or engaged in 
any matters and things mentioned in this .Act. 


Turpentine in small quantities may be used in 
boiling white goods, to great advantage, as it 
improves the color, and the boiling drives off 
all odor. Resin in soap is quite another 
thing; it injures and discolores some gootls, and 
shrinks woolens. Soap men aruue that on 
account of the turpentine in the resin, it assists 
in the washing. It is used as a filler, and to 
make the soap hard and cheap. It is a fraud 
on the consumer. 

Januasy 17, 1885.] 

The World's Fair. 

Editoks Prkss:— The j;reat exposition is 
assuming a finishee' appearance daily, but in 
many details will long continue a busy work- 
shop. Bad weather has delayed trains, both of 
dressed lumber and of goods for exhibition. 

I believe the California materials are all here, 
('ertainly there is enough crowded on our sec- 
tion to equip several States finely. Comparison 
lielps us greatly to appreciate our productions. 
Some of the nearest Southern States hare 
brought carloads of tree sections — great, stumpy 
things, that tell no more of a tree than would a 
wedge-shaped section from bark to heart, which, 
being planed on one side, would require but lit- 
tle space. 

But some of the rustic cottages, pagados, pyr- 
amids, columns and spires are very beautiful, 
and designed to display the products of the re- 
gion and the artistic skill of the designer. The 
friendly rivalry between the States is pleasant 
to witness, and it is hoped much good will re- 

Tennessee, North Carolina and several other 
States display herbarium plants, but none we 
have seen are put up with more care than ours 
or are more readily examined. Any one of our 
cards, wi h its cover of a pane of glass, can be 
lifted from the frame and examined at pleasure. 
Our tables are much visited by teachers and 
others, all of whom seem to be delighted, but 
there is much work of mounting, arranging, 
etc., yet necessary before our desired display is 

Mrs. Lemmon is very busy, both in mounting 
flowers, paintings, etc., and in pushing forward 
work in the Pacific Slope Department of 
Women's Work. J. G. Lemmon. 

4Si::t}2 Si. Charles Avenue, Neiv Oiieaiia, La. 

The California Exhibit. 
The correspondent of the Call gives the fol- 
lowing particulars: 

California is assigned a parallelogram of 14,- 
000 S(|uare feet nearly in the northwest end of 
the building, the extreme northwestern corner 
being occupied by Arizona. As the States and 
Territories are not arranged in accordance with 
their geographical position, her other closest 
neighbors are Colorado and Illinois. Unfortun- 
ately for California, the amount of money placed 
at the command of her Commissioner was too 
small to permit of any lavish display such as has 
been made by many other States in the way of 
architectural adornments of her headquarters, 
nor to employ a sufficient force of assistants to 
arrange the multifarious articles composing her 
exhibit as rapidly as the Commissioners of some 
other States have done. Consequently she is 
still in disorder, having yet four carloads of 
goods waiting to be unloaded, while Maryland 
and Arkansas are in perfect order. C. B. Tur- 
rell, of iheSoutheiU Pacific Railroad, who is 
acting Commissioner in the absence of Commis 
sioner Andrews, with his assistants is busily at 
work every day, Sunday and Christmas day 
included, in getting matters straightened out. 
Without any accessories, without a central 
building of wheat, or corn, or ornamental woods 
or precious ores, the variiid and welluigh endless 
collection of California products will prove, in 
all probability, the most attractive of all the 
displays made by the different States. 

A Center of Attraction. 
Imperfect as the display is, thousands visit it 
daily to gaze in wonder at the varied character 
of her exhibit, and ask endless questions about 
the State that produces the golden ores, mam- 
moth trees, the giant vegetables and luscious 
fruits, the laud of oil and wine. Chief among 
the exhibits now in position is the botanical 
display which is under the management of Pro- 
fessor J. (i. Lemmon, of Oakland, the well- 
kftown botania', who, with his amiable wife's 
assistance, has succeeded in gathering together 
such a collection of Pacific Coast plants as has 
never before been seen on this side of the con- 
tinent. This collection embraces 900 species of 
new and rare ferns, Howering plants, forage, 
grasses and sedges, Indian food and textile 
plants, and tliose of medicinal or other economic 
properties; also poisonous and troublesome 
plants, and other interesting herbs, including 
fac siii.ile drawings of the native tubers and 
seed bolls of the region . 

As a supplement to the entire herbarian ex- 
hibit, is a selection of 70 water-color sketches, 
executed in the field, by Mrs. Lemmon, illus- 
trating the most interesting plants as they 
appear in their natural habitat among the moun- 
tains, plains or deserts of the Pacific Coast. 
This collection is not confined to the native 
growths of California alone, but includes those 
of all the States and Territories lying west of 
the Rocky mountains. These plants and 
ske ches are displayed under glass upon inclined 
frames resting upon long tables, and the entire 
display occupies over 1,000 feet of space. The 
display of cereals now in place includes remark- 
ably fine specimens of wheat, oats, rye, barley 
and corn, raised with and without irrigation. 
There is also a fine display of beet sugar, silk, 
fruits, fresh and dried, nuts, honey, pampas 
plumes, wines, brandies, olive oil, preserved 
and canned goods, bottled beer, etc., but the 
work is as yet too incomplete to be minutely 
described. The products of the California for- 
ests attract great attention, particularly the 
section of the Calaveras big tree. This section 
is only 27 feet in diameter and was cut off about 
75 feet from the stump, yet it is an object of 
wonder to the visitors from othe.- parts of the 

world. Very little of the mineral display is yet 
in place, but when it is it will prove very inter- 
esting. In the horticultural building a very fine 
collection of California fruits is being set out 
on long tables, and in a day or two will be ready 
for the inspection of the judges. Owing to the 
backwardness of the work on this building, 
some of the fruit that was first put out was 
injured by the hot rays of the sun striking it 
through the glass roof, but this has now been 
remedied by whitening the glass. The work in 
this building will be pushed as rapidly as pos- 
sible. Taken all in all, it may safely be asserted 
that when California's display of her natural 
products and manufactured goods is complete, 
there will be no State in the Union that will 
take the palm from her. 

Walrath, Johnson, Long, Hussey and Davis. 

Water Rights and Drainage — Ba^-nes, Kal- 
ben, Allen, Colby, Davis, Franklin, Ashe, 
Beard and Clark. 

Apportionment — Woodward, Whitcomb, Sul- 
livan, Roseberry, Patterson, Loud, Henry, Mc- 
Donald and Black. 

Record for the Month of December, 1884. 

station, San Francisco, Cal. 

The Assembly Committees, 

The State's money and time is being wasted by 
quarrels in the Senate, which prevent its organ- 
ization and preparation for business. The 
Assembly has been ready for work for more 
than a week, but cm do nothing by itself ex- 
cept perfect its own organization. The follow- 
ing is the list of Assembly committees, which 
should be preserved by all interested in public 
affairs, that efforts for the promotion or re- 
pression of any measure may be directed to 
those legislators who have the special subjects 
in charge: 

Agriculture — G. W. T. Carter, Woodward, 
Beard, Allen, Porter, Clark, Hollister. 

Agriculture, Mining and Mechanic Arts Col- 
lege — Van Voorhies, Chas. H. Ward, Mofiitt, 
Gregory, Roseberry, Cook and Loud. 

Attachees and Employees — Hussey, Rose- 
berry, Mears, Ashe and Dooling. 

Chinese Immigration Sullivan, Heywood, 
Douglas, Ellison, Swayne, Leary, Henry, De 
Witt and Porter. 

Claims- Swayne, Davis, Woods, Whitcomb, 
Watson, Johnson and G. W. T. Carter. 

Constitutional Amendments — Heath, Ellison, 
Pyle, Britt and Morris. 

Commerce and Navigation Lowell, Hunt, 
French, Douglas and Franklin. 

Corporations Jones, Russ, Colby, Deveney, 
Ashe, Edwards, Black, Diley and Whitcomb. 

Counties and County Boundaries — Ward of 
Butte, Heath, Colby, Long, Goucher, Van V' oor- 
hies, Clark, (!orcoran and Douglas. 

County and Township (governments — Ed- 
wards, Walrath, Van ^'oorhies, McLean, 
(Jregory, Henley, Liughlin, McJunkin and 

Crimes and Penalties — French, Pellet, Mor- 
ris, Culver and McDonald. 

Culture and Improvement of the Graps — Pel- 
let, Barbary, Patterson, Black, Woodward, 
Swayne and Munday. 

E'lucation — Jordan, Heath, Long, Lovell, 
Hunt, May and Moflnt. 

Engrossment- Deveney, Clark, Cook, Frank- 
lin and Dooling. 

l^aroUment — Daley, Pellet, Torrey, Leary and 

Fish and Games — Coleman, Hazard, Mc- 
Glashan, Munday, Henley, R. C. Carter and 

Federal Relations — Russ, Hazard, Sullivan, 
Walrath, .lohnson, Patterson and Jones. 

Yosemite and Big 'Trees — Long, Reeves, 
(ioucher, Morris and Barnes. 

Homestead and Land Monopoly — Hart, Mc- 
Murray, G. W. T. Carter, Laffetty, Laughlin, 
De Witt and Dooling. 

Indian Affairs — Cook, .Jones, Henley, Hussey 
and Loud. 

Internal Improvements — Mears, Almy, Bar- 
nett, Allen and Beard. 

Irrigation — Walrath, Edwards, Patterson, 
Barne.t, Beard, Reeves, Woodward, Ashe and 

Labor and Capital — Allen, Hayward, Hollis- 
ter, Firebaugh, Henley, Leary, Torry, Sullivan 
and Russ. 

Military Affairs — Banbury, Douglas, Heath, 
Woods and Coleman. 

Mines and Mining — Yule, Torry, Colby, 
McGlashan, Walrath, Johnson and (iregory. 

Municipal Corporations — Loud, McLean, 
Franklin, McDonald, McJunkin, Goucher, 
Hayward, Weaver and Morris. 

Public Buildings and(!round3 — Davis, Ward, 
Watson, Kalben, May, Leary and Van \'oor- 

Public Expenditures and Accounts -Patter- 
son, Yule, VVatson, Torry and Culver. 

Public Lands — Ward of San Francisco, Hol- 
lister, Watson, Long, Lovell, Leary, Motfitt, 
Corcoran and Henry. 

Public Morals — Carter of Solano, Heath, 
Pellett, Cook and Barnett. 

Public Printing — Pyle, Daley, Weaver, 
Woods, Lsary, Porter and Britt. 

Retrenchment — Kalben, ^'ule, vSwayne, Leary 
and McDonald. 

Roads and Highways — Laughlin, Torry, 
Almy, Barnett, and Munday. 

State Hospitals — Whitcomb, Dewitt, Dev- 
eney, May, Hazard, Pellet and Woodward. 

State Library — Reeves, Roseberry and Cole- 

State Prisons Almy, Hollister, McGlashan, 
Firebaugh, Daley, Black, French, Watson and 

Swamp and Overfiowed Lands — Culver, Hol- 
lister, R. C. Carter, Edwards, G. W. T. Car 
ter, Pyle, Barnett, Mofiitt and Corcoran. 
Ways and Means — May, Jordan, Black, Russ, 



Daily Ba- 

j Daily Meau Tem-j 

p p 


3 e 
■ B 

• (t 
i ^ 

• S 

1 Daily Minimum 
Temperatme.... J 

1 Daily Raiiifa.!; 































































45 8 





























































22 _ 















67 5 


































42 2 













"MissiLg the Paper." 




52 9 
52 1 



52 5 


1871, iuches 14.36 

1872, inche.i 5 95 

1373, inches 9.72 

1874, inches 0.33 

1875, inclies 4.15 

1876, inches 0.00 

1377, inclies 2,66 

1878, inches 0.58 

1879, inches 4.46 

1880, inches 12.33 

1881, inches 3 85 

1882, inches 2,01 

1883, inclies 0.92 

1884, iuches 7.68 

Monthly Meteorological Summary, San 
Francisco, December 1884. 

Highest barometer ,30.295 Dec. 31 

Lowest barometer 29,508 Dec. 25 

Monthly range 787 

Higtiest temperature 63, '*5 Dec. 2 

Lowest temperature 40, "0 Dec, 30 

Monthly range of temperature 23. "5 

tir^iatcst daily range of temp 14, "2 Dec, 4 

Least daily range of temp 3,"0 Dec, 22 

Mean daily range of temp 7.°9 

Meau daily dew-point 43. °5 

Meau daily relative humidity 7J.°7 

Prevailing direction of wind SE 

Total movement of wind 7,266 miles 

Highest velocity of wiud and direction, 45, N Dec, 7 

Nuniber of foggy day.s 

Number of clear days 10 

Number of fair days 8 

Number of cloudy days 13 

Nunilter of dayson which rain or snowfell 1-4 

lejith of unmeltedsnow on ground at end of month None 

Dates of auroras Nt ne 

Dates of solar halos Dec. 14th and 15th 

D.^tes of lunar halos Dec. 25th and 29tli 

Dati s of fro.9ts 2, 9, 10. 12, 13, 27 and 29 

Fence Posts in Sanu. — A gentleman, says 
the Conncrdcut Farmer, recently said that he 
had a tall gate post which had stood him for 
over twenty years. Chestnut or oak, if we 
mistake not. When setting the post he filled 
the hole with sand brought from the beach, in- 
stead of the loam dug from the hole. This post 
sustains a heavy yard-gate made of tight 
boards, and the fact of its stability seems worthy 
of notice. "Do you think a post set in sand 
will not rot?" "Well, it may not rotas soon 
as if set in common earth, but I do not think 
that is the reason exactly why the post stands 
so well. When the outer shell of a post decays 
the hole becomes too large for the post, 
although the post may stand for years longer 
before it breaks off. As soon as the looseness 
occurs, the fence is at the mercy of every wind, 
and is racked and twisted; nails are broken and 
boards drop off, while gate pos s drop their 
burden on the ground. i5ut this sand, I think, 
as the post decays, settles into the vacancy, all 
the while holding the post firmly." "It acts as 
a sort of automatic filling, then?" "Yes, I 
think so." 

Watekmei.on Oil. — Experiments have been 
'made by M. Lidoff with a view to defining the 
(['lality of oil contained in the seeds of a pecu- 
liar variety of the watermelon plant extensively 
grown in the south of Russia. According to a 
(le-scription of the process in the Cor pa Oras 
Iii.diiHlrieU, the seeds are dried at a temperature 
of '266° Fahrenlieit, after which the oil is ex- 
tracted in a Tharn apparatus. By this method 
there was obtained a quantity ranging from 24 
to 25 per cent of a lubricating oil, with a 
density of 04' Fahrenheit of 02f)S, It absorbs 
atmospheric oxygen very rapidly, an augmenta- 
tion of .ibout one (juarter per cent taking place 
within three days. M. f.,idoft' thinks water 
melon oil suitable for culinary purposes, but 
fears that its extraction would be too costly to 
allow of its coming into general use. — Ex. 

Every Farmer should Take It. — H. S. 
(4ravcs, of Sutter county, in renewing his sub- 
scription to the Rural, says: "Every farmer 
should take it. I cannot get along without it. ' 
We are glad of it. 

Subscribers vs Publishers. 

Naturally, every subscriber wishes and expects to 
receive the paper he subscribes for regularly and 
promptly. A failure to get a copy of any one issue 
is certainly aggravating to one interested in the con- 
tents of his favorite publication. However trifling the 
loss may appear, it is a matter of considerable import- 
ance to him. As a general rule, no blame attaches to 
the mail service. Its arrangements for transmissions 
and delivery are excellent and deserving the highest 
encomium. To those few subscribers from whom we 
receive complaints, we say the reason must usually be 
found somewhere else. It may be taken for granted 
that all papers, which should be mailed, are for- 
warded from the office promptly at the proper time. 
To err is human, and mistakes will occur, but it 
would be unreasonable to suppose that they will oc- 
cur repeatedly to the same subscriber. Years of 
experience has enabled us to adopt a system in the 
mailing of our publications almost perfect in its 
every detail, and our readers must certainly recognize 
the fact that it is to our own interest to see that they 
get their papers promptly and regularly. There are 
causes, though, which are beyond our control. One 
cause is the illegible manner in which some send in 
their address; sometimes agents or others write the 
names wrong. Although many of the postoffice 
employees rival G'.dipus of old in the solving of rid- 
dles, there are many instances where even their keen- 
ness fails to grasp the incomplete directions fur- 
nished by subscribers, and, of course, copied by the 
publishers. Write plainly your full name, street and 
number, town and county, and in most cases we will 
guarantee you will experience no disappointment. 

Then instances are known in the cities where par- 
ties, leaving early in the morning before the delivery 
of the mail, have locked th^ir rooms and remained 
away all day. That losses may occur in such cases 
is certainly not surprising, for the postman has per- 
formed his duty when he leaves it at your door, 

I' or instance there are often two John Smiths or 
Thomas Browns in the same town, the same ward, 
or on the same street. If the paper is labeled J. 
Smith, and it sometimes goes to John Smith, and at 
other times to James or Joseph Smith, John will de- 
clare his name is all right on the list, and the pub- 
lisher only sends it half the time. 

Before denouncing the publisher (who, on suc- 
ceeding in gelling his papers to 999 subscribers out 
of 1,000 promptly, is more anxious to get it to you 
regularly than you are to receive it), inquire pleas- 
antly, but persistently, at the P. O., and of different 
persons, at different times, if more than one is in 
the habit of handing out the mail. Make sure that 
the delivery clerk understands the correct pronunci- 
ation of your name and its proper spelling. Some- 
times the mail for Knight's Ferry goes to Knight's 
Landing, and in two or three days finally gets to 
the right place. 

Generally, when a subscriber will write directly to 
the office his full address, and state plain facts about 
missing nimibers of his papers, the difficulty will at 
once be remedied, missing numbers remailed, and 
the papers received regularly thereafter. 

But it is not always a case for us simply to print the 
name and address correct on everv issue of the 
paper, and put it carefully in the P. O., and pay the 

If we cannot get the paper through O. K. after 
a first notification, do not make the atmosphere 
blue in the neighborhood by denouncing the faithful 
publishers — a thousand safe miles away from you, 
perhaps! — but use the better and less exhausting 
method of writing a second lettei' or postal card. 
This will make us feel worse, because it brings the 
matter so much nearer home. A council will be 
called, including the manager, chief subscription 
and mailing clerks. If the subscriber has a foreign 
name, sounding peculiarly different from what it 
looks in English print, we have hopes that the P. M., 
in a little time, will get the name, the man, and the 
paper associated together in such a way that he will 
receive his copies as regularly as they are issued. 

If the initial is C, in an odd name pronounced, as 
if beginning with K or .S (as Croft vs. Krauf, or 
Center vs. Senter), we m.ay conficfently hope that the 
P. M. will finally learn to look in the C tioxand de- 
liver the paper, instead of saying "it hasn't come." 

There are so many Eurekas in California and Ne- 
vada that we have had to print extra explanatory 
words on some labels. One time "our council" 
made the discovery that there is a "Columbia 
avenue" and two "Columbia streets" in .S. F., and 
one o;- more J. B'sandJ. S's live on every one of 
them. So when we, for instance, make the address, 
"John Jackson Brown, Tailor, No. 24 Columbia 

street, off of -street, between and 

streets, San Francisco, " J. Brown gets his paper 
every time, and all are mutually happy after that. 
They giving the full name and occupation often 
makes the delivery O. K. 

With papers directed to the halls, when societies 
meet in the evening only, we have had a great deal of 
trouble; and some janitors, threatened with losing 
their situations, have begged and promised to be 
more careful hereafter about leaving the papers 
about the hallways, etc. ; but we know that will not 
cure the evil. Have the paper directed to some 
officer or person who is in his jjlace during the entire 
day, and the troulile will be cured. 

A little less difficulty arises when the paper is sent 
to an ofiice where there .are several desks, and the 
bub.scriber occupies his only an hour or so a day; or 
when the paper is sent to a shop or store where 
there arc several partners ; or a boarding house 
where several persons of similar names reside. 

Green hands in ilie postal service may, for a time, 
stand in the way of correct transmission. We can- 
not name all the diificulties, but believe the above- 
mentioned are the most frequent. 

It is a singular fact that more complaints arise 
from .subscribers who take monthly publications than 
semi-monthlies, and semi-monthlies than weeklies. 
This may arise from the fact that weekly subscribers 
call more frequently, and always at about the right 
time for their papers. 

We sincerely regret that a single patron should 
have occasion to complain, but before censuring us 
we urge them to weigh well all the possible causes, 
and see first if the fault is not their own. We will 
always endeavor to make good all missing numbers, 
and cheerfully rectify all errors that may have oc- 
curred at this ofiice. In other words, subscribers not 
receiving their paner regularly are requested to re- 
port at once at this office, mention the numbers 
missed, when their cases will receive prompt attention. 



[January 17, 1885 

The Wool Trade of 1884. 

The following is the wool report of George 
Abbot, of the S. F. Wool Exchange, for the 
year 1884: 

The course of this market during 1884 has 
been very even, both in demand and prices. 
At no time has the market been excited; prices 
on inferior wools have declined somewhat, but 
onchoice fluctuations have been smaller; demand 
although sluggish at times, has been sufficient 
to prevent any large accumulation of wool; 
receipts shows a still farther decline from 18S3, 
but it now seems probable that the wool pro- 
duction of the State has reached i s minimum, 
as there is a large amount of land which is only 
suitable for sheep; decreased purchases by 
Eaxtern manufacturers have been offset by in- 
creased takings by local shippers. 

Spring Clip — The condition was rather lighter 
thau in the previous years, but staple was 
hardly so long. Bur and seed continue to be 
more prevalent. (,)uotation8: Choice Northern 
(Humboldt and Mendocino), 20 to 21; Good 
Northern (Red BluflF, Colusa, etc.), IS to 20; 
Defective Northern, 1(3 to IS: Choice San Joa 
quin, 15 to 17; Fair to (!ood San .Joaquin, 13 to 
14; Heavy San Joaquin, 11 to 12; Fair San Joa- 
quin, 12 months growth, 11 to 14; Southern 
Coast, 11 to 13. 

Kali Clip — Has been smaller than usual, ow- 
ing to low prices ruling, and as a whole has 
been poor in condition, short and defective. 
Scourers have taken less than formerly. Quota- 
tions: Choice Northern, 13 to 14; (iood 
Northern, 11 to 12; San Joaquin and Southern, 
(i to S. 

Oregon has furnished poorer wools as regards 
shrinkage, but ((uality is improved. Quotations: 
Choice Valley (Koseburg), 19 to 20; Choice 
\'alley, 17 to IS; Ordinary Valley, Hi to 17; 
Choice Eastern, 17 to 19; Fair to Good-Eastern, 
15 to 16. 

Freights — During the past year on wools cost- 
ing over 18 cts. per lb., 2 cts. per lb.; costing 
between 12 and 18 cts. per lb., 1:1 cts. per lb.; 
under 12 cts., 1/, cts. per lb. By ship 1 ct 
per lb' 

Wool Reciiii's. 
Keceipts at San Francisco: 

.Jainiary. Fall 18SS 757 Bigs 

Feliruarv, " S9* " 

March.; 5S3 " 

April ',392 " 

May 25,014 " 

June 15,482 " 

July 10.1559 " 

August 4,163 " 

September 8,801 " 

October... 14,466 " 

November 7,034 " 

I)ceem))er 4,183 " 

Total 99,628 " 

Of which there was Spring Wool, 63,489 
bags weighing 19,991,590 Lbs. 

Sjiring Wool shipped direct from the Inte- 
rior 2,896,650 " 

Total Spring production 22,688,240 " 

There wa.s Fall Wool received 33,4SS bags 

weighing 11,720,800 " 

Fall Wool shipped direct from the interior 1,576,650 " 

Total Fleece Wool 36,1S5,690 " 

Pulled Wool shipj^ed from San Francisco 
and interior 1,229,640 " 

Total production of California 37,415,330 " 

Fall Wool of 1SS3, 1651 bags .'•)77,850 " 

On hand December 31st, 1S.S3, about 6,500,000 " 

Ucceived from Oregon (22,"!)0 bags) 6,627,000 " 

Foreign Wool received (l.-SDO bales) 677,000 " 

Grand Total 51,797,180 " 


Domestic, Foreign, Pulled and Scoured— 
Per rail, inclusive of shipments from the 

interior 29,816,500 Lbs. 

Per sail 4,772,322 " 

Total shipments 34,588,822 " 

Value of cx|«)rts, S«,000,000. 
On hand December 31st, 1S84, about 6,000,000 " 

Difference between Keceipts and Exports 
arises from consumption of local mills, and 
wool on hand awaiting shipment in the grease 
or scoured. The difference is more marked 
than formerly on account of the increased 
amount of wool scoured. Foreign wool is 
chiefly from Australia in transit to Eastern 
markets. The weights of Receipts and Exports 
are gross. The usual tare on bags received is 
about 3 lbs. each; on pressed bales shipped, 14 
to 16 lbs. each. 

Prodictiox or California Wool for 31 Years. 


1864 175,000 

1855 300,000 

1856 600,000 

1857 1,100,000 

1858 l,423,:!r)l 

IS.W 2,37S,2,iO 

1860 3,055,32^) 

1861 3.731 .'1'^ 

1862 • 

1863 • 


1865 •! .,1 







1876 56,550, 

1^T7 53,110, 

- 40,862, 


. 24,255, 

ference to any other, while throughout our own 
laud it has taken general and undisputable pos- 
session of the field. It has been bred up by the 
most watchful, careful and persistent efforts, 
until it is as satisfactory as any breed of stock. 
So, too, for a mutton sheep, the American 
Southdown is very highly regarded. There are 
rival elements which are the favorites of many, 
but the mass of breeders are satisfied with this 
stock. Its large, healthy frame, delicious meat, 
long, useful wool (free from weak spots), its 
early maturity and universal reputation, give 
the Southdown a high place as a meat pro- 

The President of the Wool Growers and 
the Tariff. 

The following letter has been received by J. 
H. Kirkpatrick, of Knight's Ferry, from the 
Hon. Columbus Delano, President of the 
National Association of Wool Growers, and has 
been furnished us for publication for the in- 
formation of all engaged in sheep husbandry: 

J. H. KiKKr.\TKKK,, Knight's Ferry, 
Cal.:— Since receiving your letter (inquiring 
what course should be pursued by flock masters 
in view of the recent election) I have not been 
able to work, and as a rule have been unable to 
leave the house. 1 have delayed an answer for 
this reason only. 

We must carefully consider the question be- 
fore deciding upon a policy which wool growers 
shall pursue. The Republican platform during 
the late Presidential campaign was unequivo- 
cally for protection. The Democratic platform 
evaded the issue, and during the canvass local 
speakers interpreted the Democratic senti 
ment to be for free trade or protection, accord- 
ing to their es imate of the public feeling which 
surrounded them. This fact is now apparent, 
and it is freely commented on in leading Eng- 
lish journals, causing them to claim that our 
Presidential canvass was without any distinct 

The circumstances now referred to have 
given courage to Democratic protectionists, 
and have weakened the power of free traders. 
This will lead to internal discontent among 
Democrats, the end of which cannot be pre- 
dicted. I thiuk it may lead to the policy of as 
little tariff legislation as may be consistent 
with the impera'ive demands of the free trade, 
Cobden Club, party. 

If I have forecast the future with any accu- 
racy it seems to me that we cannot hope for 
any immediate legislation which will increase 
the duties on anything whatever. The protec- 
tion Democrats will be satisfied if they can 
maintain the present conditions in regard to 
protection, and hence they will be reluctant to 
unite with Republicans for any increase of 
duties on anything manufactured or unmanu- 
factured . 

The wool growers have made their strength 
in politics manifest, and if they preserve their 
organizations and act with unity and harmony, 
they will be an important factor in future elec- 
tions of presidents, senators and members of 

But to do this they must assert themselves, 
and insist with courage and determination upon 
a restoration of that which they lost by fraud, 
falsehood and gross misrepresentation in 18S3. 

If I am right in this analysis of the situation, 
it is clear that the one million of wool growers 
in the United States owe it to themselves to 
maintain their national, State and county or- 
ganizations, and indeed to increase the same in 
members, membership, and in pecuniary means, 
necessary for offensive and defensive move- 

In the meantime they can improve their 
flocks of thoroughbred and graded sheep, and 
reap the fruits of such economy when legisla- 
lative justice shall be awarded them, as it 
surely will be in the near future. They should 
always be ready at each and every election to 
make their strength felt, and cause their rights 
to be respected by voting, without regard to 
present, past or future party affiliations, for 
such men for Presidents and Members of Con- 
gress as will best subserve the interests ol wool 
growers and all other industrial interests that 
deserve legislative protection. In this way we 
can best aid in developing the resources of our 
nation, and assist in increasing more rapidly 
its wealth, while we shall at the same time se- 
cure employment for American labor, and 
thus enable industry at home to provide such 
comforts for the families of those who work as 
are required by the social and religious habits 
of our people. C. Del.\no. 

Wwshington, D. C, Dec. 29, IS84. 

1866 S,M-,lli:;ls.s2 40,52 

1867 l(J,2SS,fi0ll] 40 S48 

1865 14,232.6.57 1884 . '. 37 Hsi 

1860 15,413,97ol 


The Sheepfold.— Says Home, Farm and Fac 
tori/: No advance in American farming has been 
more complete and satisfactory than that in 
wool growing. Of tine-wooled sheep the Amer- 
ican Merino leads the world. From Europe, 
Australia and South America, alike, comes a 
strong and firm demand for this blood, in pre- 

Projeet to Establish a Wool Exchange 
in St. Louis. 

A second meeting to consider the project of 
making St. Louis the central and controlling 
wool market of the West, was held at the Cot- 
ton F^xchange in St. I.ouis December 3d. A 
goodly number of wool and cotton dealers and 
general merchants were present, all of whom 
endorsed the movement and announced their 
readiness to assist iu furthering the scheme. 
After discussing the subject of grading, com- 
pressing, w.trehousing, freights, etc., a commit- 
tee of nine was appointed to arrange details and 
ieport to another meeting. If the project is 
carried out, the wool dealers will become mem- 
bers of the Cotton Exchange, and use the hall 
of that body jointly with the cotton men for 
the transaction of business. The scheme is en- 
dorsed by several extensive Texas wool growers, 
and they will give material assistance in making 
St. Louis a great wool market, where that arti- 
cle can bt bought by grade, and where auction 
and call sales can be made. 

Names of Grades of Wool. — The designa- 
tion "X and above" means wool of full merino 
blood; the designation "X, XX, and XXX" 
indicates the variations in quality, owing to 
superior breedicg, care, or local influences. 

"No. 1" means three-fourths blood merino. 

"No. 2," half-blood merino. 

"No. 2 and coarse," one-fourth to half-blood. 
"Combing and delaine" indicates wool selected 
as fiber suitable for the manufacture of worsted 

By "Territory" is meant the wool of the 
western territories, which has as yet no estab- 
lished character, but is from sheep of all grades, 
from the Mexican or Churro sheep of Spain to 
merino. The wools of Texas and California are 
marketed as shorn, without washing. 

The Wool Clip of 1885. 

It seems to be the general impression that the 
wool clip of 18S5 will fall considerably short of 
that for 1884. All over the country the sheep 
men are curtailing their flocks. Even iu Texas, 
where it is supposed the business would pay if 
anywLere, the discouraging conditions sur 
rounding sheep husbandry for the past few 
years have operated to check the rapid increase 
in the number of sheep. The past week sheep 
in this section have sold as low as 25 cents a 
head, showing to what desperate lengths men 
will go when they become panic stricken. In 
Australia, it is estimated, from 10,000,000 to 
12,000,000 have died from the effects of the 
drought. Taking all things into consideration, 
it is therefore evident that the wool supply of 
another year will be very materially curtailed, 
and consequently prices will have to advance. 
Reasoning from these data, we would not be 
surprised if, about next spring, many of those 
men who have sacrificed their flocks will wish 
they could hear their friendly bleat again. 

The Light-Running and Popular 



Absolutely Free from Annoyances 


Bona Fide Guarantee for 
Five Years. 


In Every County on the Pacific Coast. 

iarFor Information and Terms address 



108 & 110 Post St., San Francisco. 

OuK Woolen Indd.strie.s. — The woolen in- 
dustry of the country employed 00,000 persons 
in ISfiO, and now employs 160,000, while our 
home mills, which produced goods of the vulue 
of $80,000,000 in 1800, now turn out an annual 
product worth .s270,000,000. 

In the production of sheep, we had 22,000,- 
000 of them in ISHO, to day we have over 40,- 
000,000 of them; and we then produced 
in this country (iO,000,000 pounds of wool, now 
we produce 240,000,000 pounds. 

The total of all our efforts in 18S0 stood at 
$400,000,000, and now it stands at about 900,- 

Qdality of Wool Inku kxced liv Fked. 
— Sheep prefer upland pasture and a great vari- 
ety. It has been proved that the pasture has a 
greater influence than climate on the fineness 
of the wool. l''at sheep yield heavier and 
coarser fleeces. The tine flocks of western 
Pennsylvania, when taken to the prairies of 
western Illinois, in the same latitude, will in a 
few years change their* character. The quan- 
tity of fleece and the size of the sheep will in- 
crease, but the fineness of the wool will not be 
retained. Sweet or upland herbage is the best 
for fine wool. — yntloiitd Aijricidtiiriist. 

TiiE Wool Consitmptios. — The consumption 
of raw wool in the United States has increased 
from 00,000,000 pounds in 1 SCO to .•$00,000,000 
pounds per annum. Twenty-four years ago we 
imported 40 per cent of what we used, but now 
we import less than 20 per cent. The number 
of hands employed has increased from 40,000 in 
1807 to 161,000 in 1880. The capital employed 
has increased from §28,000,000 to .•?I()0,000,000 
during that time. In 1860 we imported nearly 
one-third of the woolen goods we used; now we 
import one- tenth. 

Sheep or Cotto.n. — A correspondent of the 
Hiirnl AlabamUin, who has a magnificent cotton 
farm, and has tried cotton and sheep, writes 
that, taking one year with another, he has 
found sheep the more profitable of the two. 
He can earn a given amount of money from his 
farm by devoting it to sheep, quicker and with 
more certainty than by devoting it to cotton. 
The cotton crop often fail.": the wool clip, 
never. His best results, however, have been 
obtained by running the two together. 

Cement for Glass, Porcelain, etc. — Take 
some old, soft cheese and grind it in a mortar, 
washing it well at the same time with hot 
water. After the soluble matter is all washed 
away, a mass of nearly pure caseine will remain. 
This should be squeezed in a cloth to express 
moisture, dried, reduced to powder, and pre- 
served in a closely stoppered bottle. When 
rcijuired for use, a small quantity should be 
ground up with a very little water, enough to 
make a thick, viscid paste, which must l>e used 
at once; as it hardens quickly, no heat should 
be used. Only such a quantity should be 
mixed as may be immediately needed, as, after 
it once hardens it will not dissolve, and neither 
heat nor mois ure has any effect upon it. — 
PoptiUir Srieiics Xewe. 


Friday January 16, 1885 

At 10 o'flock A. M.. 

. . . . AT , . . . 

To Pay Advances: 


1,200 BAGS 

The above Fcrtili^ier is stored at tlie lluiiilioldt Ware- 
house, anil ran lie e.vaniincd upon application to ;thc 
.\uctioiieer8, from whom all infonnatinn can l>e obtained. 

S. L. JONES & CO., Auctioneers, 

'207 & 2O0 California St , S. P. 


ffone,Toncli, WiiSIJ aM DiiraW 

WII.I.I.tM H^'ABt; A <'0. 

Mos. 204 and 206 West Baltimore Streer, 
Baltimore. No. 112 Fifth Avenue, N. V 

The Latest Improved Exterminator 

PiTKSTBD Nov. 20, 1883. 

Will not fall over. Complete 
wci^'hu less than 16 n>8. Dura- 
ble and effective. Havini; Rre 
chamber 14 inches at base. It 
raises a larger amount o( smoke 
ill a ^i\'en time than any other 
Kxtcnninator in use. 
I. For Circulars and informa- 

Hill's Perry, Cal. 

Best <>i references ; 
tion, address 




iiit; the Climate, Health, Fniit Lands, Humes, in Semi- 
Tropic Califurnia, anil the I'rofits of Fruit Culture in this 
wonderful land, incluilinn j am; hlet. by mlilressin^' 
L. M. HOLT, Riverside, Cal., 
Sec'.v San Bernardino Inuni^ra^ion Association. 

San Francisco Savings Union, 

532 California Street, cor. Webb. 

For the half year endini; with December 31, 1894, t 
dividend has been declared at the rate of four and thirty- 
two one-hundredths (4 32100) per cent per annum on 
term deposits, and three and six-tenths (3 10) per cent 
per annum on ordinary deposits, free of taxes, payable 
on and after Friday, January 2, 1885. 




9 Geary St, 1* gg.o 


fel 1 A 1^2 

D. N. & 0. A. HAWLEY, 

601 to 507 MARKBT STKEUT, S. V. 

January 17, 1885.] 


^eeds, Wapt3, tie. 

Del Monte Vineyard and Nnrsery 

M. DENICKE, Proprietor, 
Fresno, Fresno Oounty, - - California. 

Cuttings and Roots 


Grown without Irrigation, and Large, Healtliy Grcwtii 

CLARET— Mataro, Grenaehe, Carignane, Cabernet, 
Malbec, Teintiiricr, Zinfandel, Le Nair, etc. 

BURGUNDY -Hinots, Trousseau, Mciinier, Plussard. 

PORT— Tinto Cao, Amarillo, Mourisco, Bartardo, Tau- 
riga, Morretto. 

WHITE— Sanvignon Verte, Columbar, Folle Blanche, 
Burger, Sultana, Coryuths, Muscats. 

RESISTANT— Riparia, Californica. 

Prices very moderate. 


100,000 Rooted Vines; also, Cuttings 
from 3.5 Acres Bearing Vines; also. Rooted 
Zlnfandels, Muscatels, Empereur, etc., etc. 


Woodland, Cal. 


fine assortment of 


CoDsisting of 

Apples, Pears, Peaches, Plums, Prunes, 
A.pricots, Cherries, Quinces, Etc., Etc., 

Of the Best Varieties for Market Canning and Drying. 

Also, Hooted Grapes, Currants, Gooseberries, etc. My 

trees arc well grown, clean and healthy, taken up with 

care and packed tor shipment to anv part of the country. 

A good collection nf Ornamental Trees, Roses, Shrubbery, 

Green House Plants, etc. 
Nursery and Office- Corntr of Twelfth Street and 

Berryessa, San Jose, Cal, 



All fresh, healthy, hardy stock; transplanted in boxes 
14x22 inches. Blue Gum Trees, 10 to Ifi inches high, at 
•*il'2.00 per 1,000. A box of 100 Trees will be sent to any 
address on receipt of $1.50 in stamps. Red Gum Trees, 
all straight, 1 to 2 feet, at $17.00 per 1,000, or $2.00 per 
100. Large, straight sacked Blue Gums at low rates. 
Monterey Cypress, 4 to 6 inches high, at $14.00 per 1,000, 
or l er'box; 6 to 10 inch at -¥16.(0 ppr 1,0(X), or $1 75 
per 100; (transplanted in larger space) 10 to 15 inches at 
$3 00 per 100; 15 to 20 inches at .^4 00 per 100; 20 to 24 
inches at .$5 00 per 100; 2 to 3 feet at $7.00 per 100. Seed- 
lings, 3 to 6 inches, at $5.00 per 100. Italian Cypress, 10 
to 15 inches, of 70 trees per box, at $2.00 per box Mon- 
terey Pines. 6 to 10 inches, of 70 trees per box, at $2.00 
per box. This year's crop of Blue, Red, or Gray Gum, or 
Monterey or Italian Cypress seeds at low rates. Fend P. 
O. money orders or notes to GEO. R. B.\ILEY, Park 
Nurseries, Berkeley, Cal. 

^eedj, l^lapts, tic. ^eed?, I^lapt?, ttc. 



OPB NEW DEPABTUBE i° the q ■ | ■ ! ■ ^ tflO ik 

.Relief for the People, d JtlCl V JL JKXXXi^CJ 


In order to introduce our new and improved seeds, we make the following unprecedented offer: 

17 packets, ''IZ^.^^^^^'^ WELCOME OATS "^^S'. r'- 55 cents, fJ;;Si 

price, bc'Inff tJl.Go. On receipt of 55 ct-;. in [tostatre stamps or mouey, we will send one p'kt vach of the fullowiiiK ii'?w 
and Ui\\iT"\vd sctds :— Lazy Wives BeaiiK, .•u■kIlov^ k■d^;t.■ll by all to be the best bean that grows. WtUon'H Improved 
Early BIoodTurnIp IJeet- Early Oxhonrt Cubbase, tarlie.^t and best for family use. Early treen Cluster 
Cucumber, go*'d for [.ickks or cucumhers. Early Montana Sugar Com, decidedly the earliest and sweetest sugar 
corn iD the world. New Perpetual Eettuee, u-nder and crisp from -spring until fall. Kealy RurU Watermelon, 
entirely new: large as the Cuban Queen; better qualitv; keeps good until Christmas. Honey Dew Green Citron, a native 
* "cb^t and fiiiest-Havored musk melon in the world. IS'ew Italian Onion, mild flavor, 

of the Sandwich Isla 

grows from seed to weigh S pounds. Improved Sufrar Parsnip. C^olden I>awn Manf o, la 

beautiful pepper ever seen. Improved Early Koiiic Senrle't Radish. Perfect Gem'Squash, cxceile 
I..lvln|t:stoii> New I'^v--'-' ^- ' 

cly sweet ; most 

It fla 

good for summer or winter use. Elvlnfirstoirs New l-^ivoHte Tomato, the largest, 

finest-flavored tomato ever introduced. Earlv St rap-T.eof Turnin. Sample packet of the True Leamlnff Com, 
and a two-ounce packet of G EN U I N E W ELCOM E OATS, which sold last season for 25 cents a packet; and 
from one iJ-ounee packet were grown 471i pounds of fine oats, and from one ntnslc eraln 70 larire, 


To gladden 

,ii and \os^fTthe\lZn\M. 12 packots of cfto/ce flower 

cAA//c Qh r*an^^ consistinB of Asters, line, mixed. Bulsamft, large double, mixed. Mlflrnonette, new 

SeeaS top OU CGHTS, v,,A<\^u Queen. Jlollyhock, large double Knglish. PanslcB, tinest strain. Petunlafu 
"xed, Portulacca. _l*lilox Drumundll, all bright colors. wiiii««.- ,i,^.,v,)„ -xr^.^.. 

. — - „ Sweet Williams, mixed, double. Verbenas* 

New Ivy Leaf Cypress Vine. Zinnias, extra large, double, finest bright color.s. in all 1 2 
p*kti!i for KO cts., or two coUectiuns for 50 ets. Our Illustrated and Descriptive Catalogue i 
eacb order. Addrt 

I Descriptive i;atalogue i 
' SAMUEL WILSON, Seed Grower, Mechanlesvllle, Bucks Co., Pa. 
ClT'Uoney Orders and Postal Notes payable at Doylestown, Pa. 




San Jose, 

- - California. 

Fiftj thousand Freneh Prune trees, from f) to 10 ft. high; 
10,000 first-clasa Apricot trees; 7,000 Kitg I'lum trees; 
10,000 I'eacli tree.s, assorted kinds; S,000 Pear trees, as- 
sorted kinds; 4,000 Cherry trees; 10,000 Apple trees', as- 
sorted kinds, and general nursery stock, will be sold by 
W. H. OWENS & CO. at prices which defy competition. 
Buyers are invited to examine trees and compare prices 
before jiurchasing. 

NURSERY DEPOT-161 and 163 South First street. 

OFFICE-Rooni 13, Martin's Block, 



Pleasanton, Alameda Co., Cal., 

SETH LEWELLINO, Milwai kie, Og.\-., .J. D. SMITH, Li\ brmore. Cal., Proprietors. Fruit Trees. Shade 
Trees, Blackberry, Raspberry and Oregon Seedlings. Gooseberry Rooted Bushes for sale, in lots 
to suit purchasers, at reasonable rates. Trees true to name, grown on new land, no irrigation, no insect pest; mag- 
nificent growth. Chcice varieties, grafted under immediate supervision of Mr. I,ev\elling. 

Prunes, Plums, Pears, Peaches, Apricots and Apples of best market varieties. Address 

B. B. La DOW, Agent, Pleasanton, or 

J. D. SMITH. Livermore, Cal. 

is.a^F ERRY'S 

Will be mailed pppp^^^^fl/ 

to all applicants \ ^^^^^ 
and to customers of last year without 
ordering it. It contains illustrations, prices, 
descriptions and directions for planting aU 
Vegetable and Flower SEEDS, BL'LBS, etc. 



Los Qatos, Santa Clara County, California. 

I offer the public a general assortment of Fruit Trees, 
a good stock of Figs, English Walnuts, 12,000 Petite 
Prunes on Almond (very large). Peaches, Apples, Pears, 
and Plums, etc. All without scale-bug or any other 
insect pest. Stone Fruit Trees raised without irrigation. 


Los Gates, Santa Clara Co., Cal. 


C. W. Reed & Co., 


Have in stock for the present season a choice lot of 
Fruit Trees of the following varieties, viz.: Apple, Pear, 
Peach, Plum, French Prune, Apricots, Cherries, etc. 

Also, 300,000 Pear Seedlings. 

150,000 Plum Seedlings (St. Julien). 
Anil Myrobolan stock. Write for prices, etc., to 
C. W. REED & CO., 

Sacranaento, Cal. 


Established in 1858. 

I offer for sale, at reasonable rates, a general assort- 
ment of Fruit Trees, non-irrigated, vigorous, clean and 
healthy. Prices furnished on application. Address, 


Petaluma, Cal. 

Send in your Orders Early. 


A. CLEVELAND and J. LYTLE, Prop's. 
OmcE— 912 Broadway, - Oakland, Cal. 



Apple, Pear, Peach, Plum, French Prune, Apricots, 
Cherries, etc , and the Rarest Table Fruits. «3r Japan 
Plums. For Sale in Large or Small Lots. 

tS"Write for prices and furthur information. 



30,000 aioice Bartlett and Winter Nelis Pear Trees; 
15,000 extra large Apple Trees; also good Peach, 
Prune, Plum, Apricot, Nectarine, Fig, English Walnut, 
Cherry, Black Walnut, Chestnut and Orange Trees. A 
good stock of Rooted Sultana Grapevines and other 
rooted grapev.nes, and a large stock of Small Fniits, 
Plants, Monterey Cypress, Blue Gum Plants and every- 
thing kept in a Nursery, including Plants, Shrubbery, 
Flowers, etc. Trees, Plants, etc.. Free from Insects, 
ETC. Send for Price List and Catalogue. 


P. 0. Box 304. Los Angeles, Cal. 

John Hannay's Nursery, 



Prom 5 to 7 feet high. 

80,000 Peach, 20.000 Pear, 

50,000 Aprico^ 10,000 Apple, 
8,000 YeUow Egg Plum, 
7,000 Cherry, Black Tartarian, and Na 

poleon, Biggareau (or Royal Anne), 
Hungarian, Italian, and Silver Prunes; and Plums 
Almondb, Figs, l^uinces. Pomegranates, etc. j^Spccial 
inducements are offered to those who buy in large i|uaii- 
tities. Address JOHN HANNAY, 

San Jose, Cal. 


O. O. GOODRICH, Proprietor, 

Offers, this season a Large and Fine Stock of 


At Reduced Rates. 
Peach Trees of all leading varieties a specialty. Parties 
wishing to purchase will find it to their interest to com- 
municate with me. /^"Price List and Catalogue sent on 
application. O. O. GOODRICH, Sacramento, Cal. 


AND. . . 


Largest Stock in the United States. Prices on applica- 
tion. Address 


Bloomington, Illinois. 


200,000 Resistant Vines 

.... OK 


Seedlings and Rooted Vines. 


Of Wine and Table Varieties. 




Parties Intending to plant largely will do well to corre- 
spond with or come and see the undersigned. Has large 
and very line Stock of Keltter's Hybrid, Bartlett, 
W. Nellls, and other leading varieties, at lowest 
Wholesale Prices. Also Walnuts of several va 
rieties, French Prunes, and a general assortment of 
well-grown Nursery Stock. Address 

W. E. SIBLEY, Orange. Cal. 


The largest and finest Trees in the State of their age 
by 20%. Warranted free of all insects, and true to name. 
Nectarines, Peaches and Apricots a specialty. Myers' 
Early Apricot, the earliest in the State. Uodd's Necta- 
rine, the latest in the State. Prices reasonable. Send 
for Catalogue and Price List. 


Visalia, California. 

Buy no Grafted 

25,00O Genuine Le Conte Roots, all Sizes. 


Circulars Free. Oakland, Cal. 

[See RuRAt Press, Jan. 3, 18S.5, pp. 13 and 20.1 

100,000 Rooted Vines & Cuttings 

At very Low Prices at the OAK SlIADK FRUIT COM- 
PANY, Davisville, Cal , of the following Narieties: Zin- 
fandel, Muscatel, Sultana, Emperor, Tokay, and Corne- 
chon. WEBSTER TREAT, Manager, 

Daviaville. Cal. 


(Ccrast;*- UicifMa) 

%\ per pound. About .W plants from one pound of seed. 
Phylloxera-proof CuttinsH, from •jjij per 1,000. 
Seedlings, .'SIO per 1,000; Rooted Cuttings, S2.5 per 1,000; 
Seed, from S1.50 per It.. COATBS & TOOL. 

Napa, Cal. 

s,,rK l, I.V 1 

.inil 11. .list- Plants Bulbs, best and the., pisl in III 
SiTfe arrival and salisf.ic lion i;uaranlt:i-d. W,f lead in 
tity (luality. size and price of all choice plants. N«w anil ulil. 
V.du.ible prcniiimis ffivcn aw.iy. Illustrated and itistrui tivc 
catah.L'iie free. Or,l.Tn»M.) his ,i,l\ertiseHipnt may not apiteai- 



For Sale-500,000 Grape Cuttings. 
Warranted free from every disease, consisting of the fol- 
lowing fine varieties: Matero, Melbeck. Caragan, Gre- 
naehe, Zinfandel, Charbono, Trousseau, Black Prince, 
P'ranken, Reisling, Mevoise, Rose Peru, MuscatJ of Alex- 
andria, at the Lowest Market Price. Address 
J. O. MERITHEW, Viticulturist, 

Copeteno, Santa Clara Co., Cal 


I have for sale eeed of Yitie Cali/nrnim, proof againa, 
phylloxera, which 1 will send at .§1 per pound for 5 
pounds or more, or S1..50 per pound for less than 5 pounds. 

Vitis Californica Cuttings, $8 per 1,000. 

Freight to be paid by purchasers. 

P. o. Box 8. Middletown, Lake Co., Cal. 

>lished 4 

Catalogue mailed to all applicants. 


8isr& 814 N. 4th St., St. Louis, Mo. 

Name this taper. 



Splendid Stock of Fruit and Ornamental 

Trees to Planters and the Trade, 
Consisting in part of Orange, Lemon, Lime, Olive, Fig, 
Pomegranate, Apple, Peach, Pear, Prune, etc. We make 
a specialty uf Semi-Tropic Trees and Plauts. 
Price List Fkke. Address 

THOS. A. GAREY, Agent, 
P. 0. Box 452. Los Angeles, Cal. 

MRS. J. G. MAXWELL. Quincy, Plumas 
County, Cal., furnishes California Pitcher 
Plants (Darlingtoma Calif urnica), 50 cents each; 
Washington Lilies (native, pure white), 25 cents; Scented 
Ferns, 15 cents. Postage added. 


I olTer the trade this season a large and general assort- 
ment of Fruit and Ornamental Trees, and Small Fruits. 
My Trees are healthy, stalky and well grown. Address, 
S. NEWHALL, San Jose Cal. 



I have a choline lot of Bartlett Pears, Petite Prunes, Cher- 
ries, Apples, Apriiots, Plums, Nectarines, OrapcvincB. 
etc., all grown without irrigation, free from scale and 
other injurious insci ts. Guaranteed varieties, and bed- 
rock prices. Catalogues mailed on application. Address 

Clements, San Joatiuin Co., Cal. 


Oregon Champion Gooseberries. 

Most proline known; finest flavor; best for canning. 
Full assortment of FRUIT TREES at Lowest Kates. 


San Leandro, Alameda Co., Cal. 


Siutessor to W. B. WEST, of Stockton Nursery 

IIA.S TIIK. . . . 


at $1.00 each; also tlic true I'rniio «rAy:cn, im- 
portud direct, at r>0 cuiitH eacli. Spei^ial i>rict;8 yiven to 
imrties desirintf lar^e ordurs. 

A full line of nursery stock is still kept, and is entirely 
free from insect pest. 


Raised at the Layliodie Nurseries, in the foothills, 
without irrigation. Sound and thrifty, and free from 
pests. French Prune, Oregon Silver Prune, German 
Prune, Moorpark Apricot, FJartlett and Winter Nellis 
Pears. In lots to suit. Liberal discount to the trade. 


San Jose, Cal. 


Rooted Trees and Cuttings for sale in lots to suit pur- 
chasers, at the 

Five miles west of .Santa Clara, on the Saratoga Avenue. 

Apply to LUUOVICO GADDI, on the premises, or to 
A. T. MARVIN, 510 California St., S. F. 


Chauche noir, Chanche gris (gray Riesling), Meunier, 
Teinturier, for sale at moderate i)rices in lots to suit. 

Glcnwood, Santa Cruz Co., Cal. 

I8 the Best Pump in the World Another 
New improvement is Lewis' Patent 
spray Attachment. 
I3an change from solid stream to sprav iniiiantly Rcja- 
lar retail price $6. Weight, 4J Ib.s. Length, 32 inchei. 
For Salk by JOHN d, WHEELER, 
204 Montgomery St., S. F. 
p. S — A sample cao be seen at this olboo. 




T*^ nnn tons capacity, "tp; nOH 

I Kjf\J\jyj storage at Lowest ILitus. ' ^t^J^-fyJ 

CAL. OltY I(Ol!K to., Props. -Ollice :il8 Cal. St., room. .•!. 

Tbla paper la printed with Ink Manufac- 
tured by Charlea Eneu Johnson & Co., 500 
South 10th St., Philadelphia. Branch OfH- 
cea 47 Roae St., New York, and 40 La Salle 
St., Chicago. Agent for the Pacific Coast— 
Joseph H. Dorety, 529 Commercial St.. S. P. 



[Jandary 17, 1885 

The Norman Horse. 

We give on this page an engraving, showing 
one of half a dozen liarna on the Normau breed- 
ing farm of Dillon Bros., Normal, Illinois. 
The Dillons were pioneevs in this line, and, as 
will be seen by the facts given below, they still 
continue to do pioneer work. Having demon- 
strated beyond a q uestion that the Norman horse, 
crossed with the common produces the ideal 
draft horse for farm and draft purposes in the 
north, and after having demonstrated to their 
own satisfaction that it would be equally valu- 
able in the south, they have engaged in an en- 
terprise in Tex IS, which is simply magnificent. 

These gentlemen, in connection with others, 
purchased a tract of land in Shackleford Co., 
Texas, embracing "2,700 acres, and in addition 
to this are entitled to 7">,000 acres besides, giv- 
ing them a range of over 100,000 acres; 'J, 700 
acres of this is under fence. On this range they 
have placed 4,400 horses, principally native 

Salt o.n the I'acifio — It is most fortu 
nate that of all the useful minerals found on 
this coast, none are more widely distributed 
than salt. IJesides its large demand for family 
use, it is most essential in the reduction of 
silver ores and other metallurgical operations 
on the Pacific Coast. Between 20,000 and .SO, 
000 tons of salt are disposed of in this way every 
year, besides which a vast quantity is used for 
meat and fish packing and such like purposes. 
The annual consumption of this article on the 
Pacific Coast, is about 100,000 tons. Besides 
numerous salt springs, ponds and lakes, this 
mineral exists in crystallized layers interstrati- 
tied with other substances, the whole forming 
great mountain-like masses, and in deposits 
occupying the beds of dry or nearly dry lakes, 
on wide, extended marshes, alkali flits, etc. 
Lirge quantities of salt are also manufactured 
by solar evaporation, the long, rainless summer 
being specially advantageous for the operation. 

Ono of Ihe six Barns on the Home f-arms ot Dillon Bros., Importers and Brec 
Norman Horses, Normal, III. 

ders ol 

mares; these they are breeding to Norman stal- 
lions, as fait as they can .spare the stallions 
from thsir home stables. They have made one 
shipment of 35 stallions. 

The objection that some horsemen have urged 
against the Norman horse, is that they would 
not endure the southern climate. The Dillons 
have proved that this is not true. They have 
demonstrated that the Norman will stand both 
summer and winter, fully as well as native 
stock, and th it colts will thrive full as well as 
at the north. Five two-year-old Norman mares, 
all with foal, were shipped to their Texas ranch, 
all foaled, and mares and colts have done well. 

We need hardly say anything about the re- 
liability of this firm; guarantee all horses bought 
of them to be breeders, and to be just as repre- 
sented. Their beautiful illustrated catalogue 
of Norman horses, giving -list of animals im- 
ported and bred in 1SS4, amount of stock on 

On the bay of San Francisco alone, .''.O.OOO.OOO 
tons are produced in this way every year. The 
plan of producing salt by boiling in kettles or 
evaporating the brine by artificial heat, is not 
practiced here. In the vicinity of Alvarado 
the evaporating reservoirs over Kindreds of 

A Nkw Veoktable Leather. — This product, 
invented by a company in Pr.ris, and which 
possesses all the properties of leather, besides be- 
i ing thoroughly water-proof and a non conduc- 
tor of electricity, is composed of a mixture of 
three kilogrammes of gutta percha, 900 gi-ains 
of sulphur, one kilogramme raw cotton, (iOO 
grains of zinc white, and '2.30 grains of anti- 
mony oxide. After having been mixed, the 
compound is vulcanized with steam, similar 
as is done with caoutchouc. As indispensable 


hand, and much useful information concerning 
the Norman horse, is sent free of charge. 

Improved Graders. 

We give herewith an engraving of Fatjo & 
Sweatt's Improved (iraders which has been 
running for some months in our advertising 
columns. These graders are admirably adapted 
for leveling lands for irrigation, on account of 
the ease with which they can be made to dis- 
tribute their loid over a large or small com- 
pass, as desired by the operator. They are also 
adapted to road-building, ditch digging, ex- 
cavating and all kinds of work where a scraper 
can be used. We have seen oue of these grad- 
ers and from close examination and the testi- 
mony of men who have used them, we are sat- 
isfied that they are a good implement and we 
can safely advise any of our readers who in- 
tend purchasing to call on or address the manu- 
facturers, Fatjo & S A-eatt, .S^nta Clara, Cal. 

Glvuerine in Wine. — The mellowness of old 
wine has been found by experiments in (Jer- 
many to be due to an increase in the quantity 
of glycerine that it contains, rather than to a 
decrease of tannin. The mellowness of the 
drinker depends on the quantity of the wine. 

constituents of this leather must be designated 
gutta percha and sulphur, while the other in- 
gredients can be replaced by chemicals of a like 
nature. Also the <[uantity proportions of the 
several components can be varied, according to 
the purpose for which the product is intended. 
The above manner of composition is recom- 
mended for the manufacture of soles and heels. 

$3,000,000 in Horses. 

This amount represents tlie value of the Perche- 
ron horses imported from Frince by M. W. Dun- 
ham. " Oaklawn Farm," Wayne, Illinois. Over 
i,ooo of these h.ive been distributed to every part of 
the United .'states and Canada, adding untold mil- 
lions to the wealth of the countries. Within the twelve months Mr. Dunham has purchased and 
imported over 6oo head, nearly all recorded in the 
Percheron Stud Book of France, with pedigree in 

Likes the Rcral. — E. H. Rodman, one of 
our Stockton subscribers, writes as follows: "I 
like the Rural, and have read it with pleasure. 
I see you do not give your paper away to poli- 
tics, and whenever you do say anything you 
give your reasons for it. I notice you have 
\ our eye on land grabbing, and gave the figures 
for it. I was glad to see it." 





For Drying on an Extensive Scale all kinds of truits and Vegetables, Hops, Wool, 
Lumber, and all Fabrics, Substances and Articles 
that require drying . 


Kver invented that makes a bttter Raisin than can possibly be maile by solar heat. Its capacity 
is such as to enable the raisin-maker to handle a large crop successfully, and insures bim against 
loss on account of wet or unfavorable weather. As a Fruit Drier it has no ecjual. It will dry 
all kinds of Fruit perfectly and in as short time as possible. It can be constructed to contain 
from one to one hundred tons at a charge, and works equally well on a large or small scale. 
tsTSEND FOR ClRiTLAK. Address 

420 Montgomery Street, - - - San Francisco, CaL 



Clod Crusher, 
and Leveler. 

The ".\rMK" subjects the Boil to the action of a Steel Crusher and Leveler, and to the CuttiD);, 
Lifting, Tnrniug proeeitc of doxibU (/aiijrs of CAST .STEEL COULTERS, the [icculiar shape ami arrange- 
niciit of which give Immense cuttiiij; power. Thus the three operations of criisliing lMni|>!<, leveline 
olT the ground and thoroughly pnlverizing: the soil arc performed at the same time. The entire ah- 
sence of Spikes or .Spring; Teeth avoids pulling up rubbish. It is especially adapted to inverted sod and hard 
clay, where other Harrows utterly fail; works perfectly on light soil, and is the only Harrow that cuts over the 
entire surface of the ground. We make a variety of sizes, 3 to 15 feet wide. 

The " ACME " is in practical use in nearly every County on the Pacific Coast, and has proved itself 
to be just tlie tool tor iHc in VINEYAKUS, ORCHARDS, and GRAIN FIELDS. 

i^Send for Pamphlet containing Thousands of Testimonials from 48 different States 
and Territories. 

Manufactory and Principal Office, Millington, N. J. 
N B.— Pamphlet "TILI^AOE IS MANURE, akd Otiisk Essavm," sent free to parties who name this paper. 
Geo. Bull Si Co., 21 and 23 Main St., San Francisco; G. B. Adams & Son, San Gabriel, 
Cal.; Staver & Walker, Portland, Or., and Walla Walla, W. T. 



Something New, Shaw Slip-Share Gang Plow 


Send for Circulars 


January 17, 1885.] 


H. H. H. 

Trade } "rr- {iarJi: 

As a family remedy, we are safe in iiiakinti; the bold 
assertion that no liniment exists that will compare with 
the H. H. H. in curing the following diseases: 

RHEUMATISM— Apply freely to the parts affected 
Mid take internally from 10 to 20 drops in from 2 to 3 
tabIe8|)oonfuls of water 3 times a day. 

DIAKKHCEA— Dose, as above. 

COLIC— Same as above, repeated ever\' half hour 
until relieved. 

TOOTHACHE— Saturate a piece of cotton and put 
it in the tooth, repeat n 15 minutes if not relieved. 

All other aches and pains apply freely to the parts 

As a horse medicine it !s superior to any liniment ever 
invented. For RINGBONE, SPAVIN, .SWEE- 
apply freely so as to blister, from three to five da_\ s in 
succession, and, in four or five days, if not cured, repeat 
ES, WIND GALLS, and all alight ailments, apply a 
small quantity, so as not to blister. .SADDLE 
SORES, CUTS, ami all other sores where the skin is 
broken, mix the liniment, half and half, with any kind of 
oil and apply in moderation. 






Authorized Capital, - - $1,000,000 

In 10,000 Shares of $100 each. 

Capital Paid up in Gold Coin, $645,360. 

Kescrved KHnd and raid up Stock, $21,17»i. 

A. D. LOGAN President 

I. C. STEELE Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER Cashier and Manager 



A. D. LOGAN, President Colusa County 

H J. LEWELLING, Napa County 

J. H. GARDINER Rio Vista, Cal 

T. E. TYNAN Stanislaus County 

URIAH WOOD Santa Clara County 

J. C. MEllYFIELD Solano County 

H. M. LARUE Yolo County 

I. C. STEELE San Mateo County 

THOMAS McCONNELL Sacramento County 

C. J. CRESSEY Merced County 

SENECA EWER Napa County 

CURRENT ACCOUNTS are opened and conducted in the 

usual way, bank books balanced up, and statements of 

accounts rendered every month. 
LOANS ON WHEAT and country produce a specialty. 
COLLECTIONS throughout tlie Country are made 

promptly and proceeds remitted as directed. 
GOLD and SILVER deposits received. 
CERTIFICATES of DEPOSIT issued payable on demand 
BILLS OF EXCHANGE of the Atlantic States bought 


Casbler and Manager. 

San Francisco, Jan. 15, 1882. 




For simplicity and durability it is the only rcli?> 
bis (iate now in use. No complex machinery abotit 
it. By a simple )ever it is thrown off the center of 
gravity, and opens and closes itself by its own 
weight. A child six ycarsold can open and close 
it sitting in a buggy. 

It is THR Gate when driving a skittish horse or 
young colt, or when ladies do their own driving. 
No Fancy Residence should be without them, and 
every Farmer should have them where there is a 
Gate used. He will save time, besides taking the 
chances of his team leaving him while closing the 
old common Hate. 

These (iatcs are almost as cheap as any common 
Farm Gate. They are durable, never get out of 
order, and will last a lifetime. 

Send for Circular giving reference and price list. 

J*. O. Box 88, LivERMOKB, Alamfda Co., Cal. 
Or Tamrs Stanley. Mission San Jose. do 

County rights for sale, apply to John Avlwaki>. 

On Farms at Lowest Rates. 


108 Montgomery St. > San Francisco. 



No. 625 Sixth Street, 1 
San Francisco, Dec. 19, 1884. / 

For the purpose of protecting my friends and the public from investing in Hay Kick- 
ers or Stackers, which infringe the " Acme " Stacker and Rake Patents, I hereby give 

formal notice that I have purchased of the Acme Hav Harvester Company, of Peoria, 
Illinois, all the original and bottom Patents for Stacking Hay and Grain on the 

following plan and principle, namely : 

A Platform or Toothed Rack for Receiving Hay from a Rake for the Pur- 
pose of Being Elevated. 

I commenced the manufacture of these celebrated labor-saving machines last season, 
and have made such improvements as I found were required to adapt them to the wants of 
this Coast. I have invested a large capital in their manufacture, and am now prepared 
to supply this Coast, guaranteeing satisfaction to purchasers. 

I have no fear of competition from piratical imitators, but right is right, and I 
would only exhibit weakness instead of sound business principles if I did not maintain 
my rights and, at the same time, protect my customers from possible imposition and loss. 

The Patents establishing my title to the above claim are numbered and dated as 
follows : 

No. 169,542, dated November 2, 1875. 
No. 186,007, dated .fanuary 9, 1877. 
No. 194,592, dated August 28, 1877. 

No. 203,:»2, dated May 7, 1878. 
No. 276,689, dated May 1, 188.3. 
No. 276,673, dated May 1, 1883. 

Sole Manuk.4cturer and Proprietor of the 


Hay and Grain Stacker and Loader, and 

Byron Jackson's Improved Rake and Buck Combined. 

" THE 



The only Reliable Trap in existence. Defies all compe- 
tition. Pricks— Plain traps per dozen, $4; plain trap 
apiece, 40 cents; safety traps per dozen, ^5; safety trap 
apiece, 50 cents. 

For Sale by I. J. HATTABAUGH, San Jose, Cal, i^ALSO sr ai^l Hardware Deai.brs."^ 


NEW rLANcI Jn" -horse hoe,- 

As lately introduced, lias no lmhuiI in tlie \voiw<l. Itsr.xcelUMit 
work in the Meld has distanced Itiat of all conipeiitors. Il is. 
in some seciioiis, doiiij^ in one passage, the w ork ot (our or 
five old-slS' le inipleincnts, uml in others .suiHTcrilin;; the cuni- 
hersonif liinl c.x itt-ii^i ve two-liorse tools. Tin' " PLANET 
are the nrut^si and tR-st, li^ and .sUoim(-sL known. Thfre 
an? 7 dislinct tools, eai-h wii li spet-ial mt- riis. no two alike or 
the same price; all practical and labor-sa\'iii^. l-et no 
Farmer or Gardener fail lo stndv up dnrint: the winter 
evenin>.;s our 1HS5 ('ATAIiOGTTK, which gives reduced 
prices, careful and exiict engravings of these different 
machines, and such de.-criptions as will cnnhU' tlip reader to 
judge conectly of tlu-ir merits. Thirty jiage.s aiid Forty 
engravings. Free to all. Correspondeiic-e soliciicd. 

SI Al I rU f rn manufacturers^ t27and 129 
• L. ALLLH a bU., Catharine sr.. Philadelphia, pa. 


FRANK BROTHERS, General Agents, 319 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 





And all eivine perfect satisfaction. 


Will wash Cleaner, Easier, and wilh Less Injury to 
Clothes than any other in tho World. We challeng-e 
any mannfacturcr to produce a better Washer. 
Every IVIacliine Warranted FIVE Years, 

and Satisfaction Guaranteed. Tho only 

Washer that can be damned to any Bized i ; 
tub like a Wnnerer. Made of malleablo 
iron, galvanized, andwill outlast anytwo wooden f 
machines. Agents wanted. Exclusive Terri-^ 
tory. Our ageataallover the country are makin)ir 
from $75 to $200 per month. Eetail price, $7. 
Sample to amenta, $3. Also our celebrated 


Circulars Fiee. Befer to editor of this paper. Address F. F. ASAAIS Sc CO.. Erie. Pa. 


Oculist and Aurist, 

969 Broadway, Room 51, 

Hours: to 12 a. M.: 1 to 3 P. m. 


Lumber Company. 


No. 1310 Second Street, near M. 


Comer Twelfth and J Streets, 



This old and reliable Arm ia now located at their 
Now Building, 
Number 750 IVIisgion Street, San Francisco. 

This immenso structure is 60x180 feet, four stories and 
basement The firsl and second stories are used as sale- 
rooms tor a now atid select class of goods of latest designs 
and patterns. Parties wishing to furnish a house will save 
from 16 to 25 per cent by purchasing their goods her& 

O— A first class lodging hotel, containing 185 rooms; 
water and gas in each room; no better beds in the world; 
no guest allowed to use the linen once used by another; 
a large reading-room; ho^ And cold water; baths free; 
price of room per night, 60c. and 75c.; per week, from $2 
upward; open all night. At Ferries take Omnibus Line 
d&oct to bouK. R. HUGHES, Proprietor. 


Spraying Pump. 

Used by Oi'chardists for .Spraying Fruit 
LiyUID.S. Adopted and reconiinended by the State 
Horticultural Society. This Pump has been f;otten up 
expressly for the purpose noteil. The working: jiarts are 
constructed entirely of Brass, and not affected by the 
corrosive solutions vised in tlicni. The sale of over '200 of 
these Pumps duiins' the past few months is strong testi- 
mony as to their merit. Further information can be 
obtained by addressing 

2 and 4 California St., San Francisco, Cal. 


Combined Toggle Lever and Screw Press. 

I desire to call tlie 
attention of Wine and 
Cider makers to my 
Improved Press. 
With this Press the 
movement of the fol- 
lower is fast at the 
commencement, mov- 
ing one and a half 
inches with one turn 
of the screw. The last 
turn of the screw 
moves the follower 
one-sixteenth of an 
inch. The follower 
has an up and down 
movement of 26J 
inches, with the 
double platform run on a railroad track. You can have 
two curbs, by which }0u can fill one while the other is 
under the press, thereby doing double the amount of 
work of any other press in the market. 1 also manufac- 
ture Horse Powers for all purposes. Ensilage Cutters, 
Plum Fitters, Worth's System of Heating Dairies by hot 
water cinulation. ^S"Scnd for a Circular. W. H. 
WORTH, Petaluma Fniuidry and Machine Works, 
Petaluma, Sonoma Co., Cal. 



Patent Straw-Burning 




All kinds of second hand Portable Engines (Straw and 
Wood Burning) for sale and to rent on reasonable terms. 


San Jose. Oal. 

International Patent Bureau, 

wn. A. BELL, Manager, 

No. 507 Montgomery Street, 

San Francisco, Cal. 


Throughout the U. S., Canada and Europe. 
Foreign OfBce International Patent Bureau, 

a. DITTMAB. MaDfteer. Berlin, CfeimanT. 



Knig'ht's New Book Sent Free. Address 
15 East Third St., Cincinnati, Ohia 



Best Fertilizer in the World. For Sale In 
Lots to Suit 


121 California St.. S. F. 
Or PACIFIC FKUIT CO., 408 and 410D»viB St. 

Wo will Willi yoii ,1 wntrTi nrn chain 
BY .HAD, oil K\l llKS.S, (;.(!. l).,to l)0 

t'.\jiiiMii. il li. i-:i> iii^,';in> iiioiiey 
1111(1 II iiMl.s;iiisliictoi'y.ri'turiic(l at 
oiir< \|.. rise. We lilanufacture all 
our \\ -frhi's .ind savi! yoti 30 per 
ci nl. I ';iialoKuo of 'AW Htyles free. 
Kvi ry \V,,(,.h Wurrnnlc.l, AddresH 

pi'ns,juuuii, PA. 


fACIFie f^URAla f RESS. 

[Janoary 17, 1885 

Wpdmills, ttc. 







le recojcnizod 

Always ^ ves eatiafaction. SIMPLE, 
STRONG and DURABLE in all parts. 
Solid Wriiutflit-iriin Crank Shaft with 
Dot'BLK BKARIX08 for the Crank to 
work in, all turned and run in adjust- 
able babbitted boxes. 

Positively Self-Regulating, 

With nn coil 9i)rinf,'s, or springrs of any kind. No little 
rods, joints, leM-rs, or anything of the kind to get out of 
order, as such things do Mills in use 6 to 12 years in 
good order now, that have never cost one cent for repairs. 
All genuine Enterprise Mills (or the Pacific Coast trade 
come only through this agency, and none, whether of 
the old or latest pattern, are genuine except those bear- 
ing the "Enterprise Co." stamp. Look out for this, as 
inferior mills are being offered with testimonials applied 
to them which were given for ours. Prices to suit the 
times. Full particulars free. Best Pumps, Feed Mills, 
etc,, kept in stock. Address, 


OBNERAL OFFICE AND SUPPLIES (as always before), 

San Francisco Agency-JAMES L.INFOBTH 
23 Main St., near Market. S. P. 



Santa Clara County Agricultu- 
ral Fair in 1S79, 1880, 1881 and 
188-2, and at the State Fair in 
the Most Powerful, Durable 
and Complete Machine for the 
utilization of wind-power ever 
invented. Its advantages are 
great jtower combined with 
simplicity. Manufactured by 


Comer 9th and St. James St. 
&an Jose, Cal. P. O. Box, 758. 
i^Agents wanted, and 
I County Rights for sale. 


■WIT'S !> 


The L>ghtf)<it. Stron2Pst 
an<l E&>iiext KL-i:u1af •! Wind 
Enslne ill th.- w.vrhl. fi- nd 

spu!s<;fiki-i». o., 

goen-Mon to K. C. Uffrl k Co. 

All Worblnc PartA 
made uf MuUeable lj>oa- 


<»KM; roWI.Ks, \\ 1 .NDiHlLI^.S. TANKS 
and all kinds of Puminng Machinery built to orders 
BealeSt,) T" m 170(1^11 8 fTl (Patentees & 
n Franco. ) l, W. liUUuil O UU. t Sole Prop'r. 

3Nr £t "t i o XI. a, 1 

Tra^» ark 


Perfectly Wonderful How Quick This 
Medicine Cures Flesh Wounds. 

The BEST SPAVIN CURE in the Market. 

No farmer or Stock Kaiser sbouM be without it. I 
will guarantee it to do all I claim for it, and refund the 
money should it fail. 

LANGLY & MICHAELS, Wliolesale Ag'ts, San Francisco. 
For full particulars and si)ecial contracts, address 


StocKton, Cal. 

Dewey & Co. {Ma^k^tV} Patent Ag'ts 

200 .A. CI* OS Izx OlOSO OTXltl-VfitlOXX ! 


Oakland, Alameda County, Cal. 



Embracing all the Leading Varieties of Apple, Pear, Peach, Plum, Prune, Apriootg, Nectarines and Cherries 
Also the Largest and Most Complete Assortment of 

On the Pacific Coast, including many California productions of great promise. 




The Greatest Plum for Shipping Long Distances, 

Remaining Solid Longer than any other. 
Ripens in September. The Earliest in Bearing. 

The Largest Fruit. The Smallest Pit. 

The Finest Quality. The Best Shipper. 

The Most Attractive. A Regular Bearer. 

A valuable acquisition to our list of Eastern Shipping Fruits, possessing all the merits of our beat Plums, with 
added firmness and brightness of color: henc«, with its immense size, it is the most profitable for market, and the 
most desirable for general use of all Plums. 

Headquarters for the 






Clematis and Flowering Plants, Small Frnits, Grapevines, Etc. 

Our Trees are grown on New Ground without Irrigation, and are 

^Before Purchasing elsewbere, people intending to plant Trees will find it to their 
interest to come and see our Stock and learn our Prices. 


The University and Telegraph Avenue Street Cars Stop at the Nurseries. 
ta- CORRESPONDENCE SOLICITED. Address all Communications to 
CATALOGUE for 1884-85 Free on Application. 

472 Ninth St., Oakland, OaL 

Coininiggiop fJercliapts. 

Commission Merchants 


No. 75 Warren St., 

New York. 

Eeferences: Tradesmen's National Bank, N. Y.; El- 
wauger k Barry, Rochester, N. Y. ; C. W. Beed, Sacramento, 
OaL; A. Luak & Cu . San Francisoo OaL 

blumTaldwin sTgirvin, 

319 California St., S. F. 



<a-Bag8 and Twine for Sale. 

Grangers' Business Association 


No. 38 California St.. 

San Francisco. 

Consignments of GRAIN. WOOL, DAIRY PRODUCE, 
Dried Fruit, Live Stock, etc, solicited, and liberal ad- 
vances made on tite same. 

Careful and prompt attention paid to orders for the 
purchasin]^ of Grain and Wool Sacks. Wagons, Agrricult' 
ural Implements, Provisions, Merchaiidi»e, and supplies 
of all kinds. 

Warehouse and Wharf: 

At ''THE GRANGERS'," Contra Costa Co. 

Grain received on ntora^^e, for shipment, for sale on 
oonsignmcnt. Insurance effected and liberal advances 
made at lowest rates. Farmer* may rely on their grain 
being closely and carefully weighed, and on having their 
other intercstH faithfully attended to. 

EsTABl-IsnKIi 1868. 


30G Davis .St., .Sail Francisco, 

Consignments of Grain, Potatoes, Beans 
Fruit, Dried Fruit, Etc, Solicited. 

CTAlso want Poultry, Eitks, lliik's, Feltn, Honey and 
Beesiwax. Dairy Proiluce larj;ely dealt in. Frompt re- 
turns made anil satisfactiiin |,'uaraDtc'ed. Interior orders 
careful ly >ille<Lia 

Petbr miter. 



Import«rB and 

Wholesale Grocers 

And Dealers io 



Pront St. Block, bet Clay & Waaliin^ton, San Fnuidico. 
tSTSpecial attention given to country tradera. 
P. O. Box 1640. 

Qio. Morrow. IKjiUilillHlied L'^.'i^.] Gro. P. MoR>o«. 




S9 Clay Street and 28 Commercial Street 

Sa.n FRA.\nsco, Ckh. 


n. E M o V .ia. Ij. 


Commission Mercl\ants 




Qrain, Wool, Hides, Beans, and Potatoes. 

308 and 310 DAVIS ST., 





Hembers of the San Francisco Produce Exchange 
SIO California St., San Francisco. 
Liberal advances made on conirignimenta. 


Restorative Pills. 


A Specific for Exhausted Vitality, Physical 
Debility, Wasted Forces, etc. 

Approved by the Academy of Medicine, Paris, and by 
medical celebrities of the world. Aoents for California 
and the Pacific States: 

J. O. STEELE & CO.. 
635 Market St., (Palace Hotel) Sax PRAMCiaco, Cal. 
Sent by mail or express anywhere. 
PRICES REDUCED.- Box of 60, S1.25; of 100, $2.00 
of 200, ia.50; i.t 400, je.OO. Prcp«rator> Mils, |2.0a 


January 17, 1885.] 



Fruit and Freights. 

Important Statements Concerning the 
Future of our Fruit Industry. 

The following is a memorial of Califcrnia fruit 
and grape producers to transportation companies 
concerning the enlargment of the market for 
their products by reduction of rates of freight 
thereon to Eastern markets: Prepared by com- 
mittees appointed by the California State Horti- 
cultural Society, the State Convention of Fruit 
(Irowers, and the State Viticultural Convention: 

The fruit growers and shippers of Cilifornia 
ask the serious attention of the railroad trans- 
portation companies to the following statement 
of facts affecting the future of the fruit shipping 
business, more particularly to Eastern markets. 
The fruit product of California has now reached 
such dimensions as to make it absolutely neces- 
sary that it find a market outside the State. 

Whether such product may safely go on in- 
creasing, and whether it can be marketed as 
"green" fruit, or must be dried to enable it to 
reach the consumer at a more economical rate 
of freight, depends altogether upon the treat- 
ment which the product may receive at the 
hands of the transportation companies, more 
particularly with reference to Eastern markets 
— Chicago and the centers of consuming popula- 
tion east thereof, to and including the Atlantic 
sea-board cities. Heretofore the business of 
shipping California fruits and grapes to Eastern 
markets may fairly be said to have grown up in 
the face of almost prohibitory ra'es of freights. 
It has always been a business of great vicissi- 
tudes to the grower and shipper, and reached 
its culmina'ing point in ISS.*?, when the ship- 
ment reached the aggregate of 1!),22'2,.'")S0 
pounds, leaving, on the whole, considerable 
losses to the shippers. In the year 1884 the 
shipments declined to an aggregate of ll,!l!)6,- 
070 pounds, a decrease of 37o per cent, due 
mainly to the disinclination of the growers and 
shippers to repeat their losses of 1883. That 
they have fared no better in profits, notwith- 
standing the diminished quantity shipped, is 
best illustrated by the fact that, on a line of 
shipments from the Natoma Company's or- 
chards and vineyards, Sacramento county, Cal., 
comprising 26 cars, covering the run of the sea- 
son to Chicago, New Orleans, (Uncinnati and 
St. Louis, the contracting shipper lost outright 
the sum of |2,.'i8.'i.65. On these shipments the 
cost of the fruit, including the labor of packing 
and placing on the cars, was |16,.j72.fil, while 
the amount of freights actually paid thereon to 
the railroad companies transporting it was 
$24,534.60, being nearly .50 per cent in excess 
of all that was paid for the raising, packing and 
delivering on the cars of the fruit. 

Naturally, and quite justifiably, shippers, 
who are so puuished, already refuse to renew 
their contracts for succeeding years, and it is 
plainly apparent that the fruit and grapj crop 
of 1885, which is certain to largely exceed that 
of 1884, cannot be moved to Eistern markets 
at the same cost for freight that has attended 
the shipments of previous years. Taking for 
illustration the freight rate on green fruit per 
passenger train to Chicago, as the principal dis- 
tributing point, .'#800 per car of ten tons weight, 
and considering that after allowing for the 
weight of packages there is scarcely more than 
eight tons of fruit in said car, it follows that 
every pound of fruit so delivered in Chicago has 
cost five cents per pound for the freight alone. 
This is more than twice the price received for 
the fruit at the orchard by the grower. 

It must be borne in mind, too, that this 
freight has to be guaranteed in advance, to be 
paid whether the fruit is delivered at the point 
of destination in good order or not, no risk 
whatever being assumed by the railroad com- 
panies in this respect. It is respectfully sub- 
mitted that this is a most unequal and inequit- 
able division of the profits of the business, and 
that the interest cannot reasonably be expected 
to further extend itself, nor even to maintain 
its present proportions, on such a basis. 

Measured by the amounts received out of the 
total avails of California fruit sales in Exstern 
markets, the transportation companies that 
carry it thither have much more at interest 
than have the California orchard and vineyard 
owners, who improve the lands, plant the or- 
chards and vineyards, care for them through 
the long years required to bring them to bear- 
ing, and finally place the fruit and grapes on 
the cars for shipment, thus enabling the freight- 
age to be earned. Should therefore a decline 
take place in the business, as is unquestionable 
at existing rates, the losses may be fairly said 
to fall upon the transportation companies in 
the larger proportion. 

So much with reference to the business as it 
now stands, as to quantities produced and to 
be marketed. Vastly larger proportions, how- 
ever, does the matter assume when the future 
possibilities of the business are considered. 

The extension of the orchard and vineyard 
areas of California, capable of furnishing choice 
shipping fruit and grapes, has been such that, 
if rates can be made justifying the shipment of 
its product to Eastern consumption markets, 
bringing within profitable reach the consumers 
of the Atlantic Coast, the quantity handled can 
be, at least, doubled each year following 1885, 
until it may safely be estimated that 10 cars 
may be handled where one is now sent. This, 
however, must be a matter of progressive de- 
velopment and encouragement. Such encour- 
agement must come, in a large degree, from the 
transportation companies, who, as before shown, 
have the largest interest in the business, receiv- 

ing for their freightage the greater share of the 
gross proceeds. 

To extend the consumption markets at all co- 
measurately with the possible extensions of 
California's production, rates of freight must be 
afforded that will carry the products to the 
consuming population of the far Eastern and 
Atlantic communities at less rates than they 
are now placed to the consumers, say at Chicago 
and points supplied from that market. 

It is a well-known fact in the trade that but 
a small proportion of California's shipments has 
reached such Eastern markets, being debarred 
therefrom by the high rate of freight, say not 
less than 6 cents per pound on the weight of 
fruit actually contained in a car, delivered say 
in New York. It is precisely in such distant, 
and now inaccessible, Atlantic sea-board popu- 
lation centers that the most consumers are to 
be found, and, could they be afforded choice 
California fruits, in their season, at prices as low 
or lower than now costing the consumers of 
Chicago and neighborhood, would it not ration- 
ally follow that markets would be created ex- 
ceeding those of Chicago and o her inland cities, 
in the same proportion as the population of the 
former exceeds that of the latter? 

In this respect alore cannot it reasonably be 
assumed that the transportation companies can, 
by a judicious policy of fostering rates of 
freight, most profitably increase their business 
in California fruits ? Such fostering rates and 
extended facilities ??ius< jweih- the further de- 
velopment of the Eistern shipments of Califor- 
nia fruits and grapes. Growers cannot safely 
go on extending their areas of shipping pro- 
ducts without a present guarantee of such co- 
operative policy on the part of their partners 
in the business, as the transportation compa- 
nies may not inappropriately be called, since 
they rwo-eive the lirger portion of the avails 
thereof. For the lack of such assurances they 
must inevitably, in sjlf-protection, restrict thtir 
products to varieties that will "can" and dry, 
instead of such as require shipment to Eastern 
markets in the perishable "green" state, since 
in so doing they will have to pay freight on 
only one pound of dried fruit in place of five to 
seven pounds of green, and the dried article 
may go by slow freight and at a proportionately 
less rate per pound, so that, as a matter of 
fact, the transportation companies' interest 
would be not more than one-tenth of what it 
would be on a product shipped East as " green 
fruit" at $400 per carload. 

This process has already been commenced by 
many of the orchardists and vineyardists of the 
State, and if the present rates of freights on 
green fruits to the Eastern markets are main- 
tained through the shipping year 1885, there 
will be very extensive grafting of orchards and 
vineyards to varieties not requiring to be 
shipped as "green fruit" and on last time. 

This is a consideration which should have 
timely and appreciative attention from the 
transportation partner in the business, who may 
thus find himself deprived of the profits he 
might have secured by reasonable encourage- 
ment of the "green fruit" shipper. 

The best method of applying such encourage- 
ment must be left to the aforesaid transporta- 
tion partner. The growers will have the fruit 
if they are reasonably assured of the basis 
whereon to handle it profitably. 

Something has been said, on the part of the 
transportation interests, about tabular state 
ments showing the amount of fruit that could 
be guaranteed for shipment in 1885, and sue 
ceeding years, to be prepared, on the part of 
the fruit growers and shippers, but it has been 
found, on careful consideration by the undet 
signed, the committee representing such grow- 
ers and shippers, not possible to work up any 
guarantee of such nature. 

The growers are willing to invest their time 
and money in raising such products, on an 
assured basis of transportation to market at 
rates that will afford them a living profit, and 
they respectfully submit that this is the best 
possible guarantee of their good faith, and that 
they will be on hand with the product to load 
the oars in any number that the Eastern markets 
will consume. 

As to the quantities that said Eastern mark 
ets may be expected to consume, it is theunani 
mous testimony of those dealers, whose business 
centers at Chicago, that they can dispose of up 
wards of ten (10) cars per day if they can lay 
down the fruit at Chicago at a freight of $400 
per car in five days time, while it is their 
equally unanimous testimony that, if the pres- 
ent rates of freight are adhered to, they will be 
compelled (so heavy have been their losses in 
the last two years) to entirely abandon the con 
tracting for fruit in California, for shipment 
East, and will confine themselves entirely to 
handling such fruits as the growers may ship 
to them on consignment, which will be com 
paratively little. 

Numerous letters can be shown to this effect, 
from all the leading parties in the trade, all 
carrying an irresistible conviction, because 
based on indisputable facts. 

While, as before stated, it is found to be not 
practicable to unite the growers and shippers in 
a guarantee of any specific amount of fruit and 
grapes which can be calculated upon to make 
up regular daily fruit trains, at a $400 rate to 
Chicago, the following items are gathered from 
the leadiiig shipping sections, of the quantity 
of such products that would be available for 
Eastern shipment at such reduced rates of 
freight, and they are submitted for oonsidera 
tion of the transportation companies, with the 
conviction that they may be relied upon, ard 
that they may be accepted as a safe guide of a 

proportionate increase from other growing sec- 
tions not reported upon. 

From Hay wards and vicinity the area already 
planted would quadruple the shipments of kinds 
heretofore shipped, steadily working up for the 
next three years. Of apricots (not heretofore 
shipped from this locality), at a freight rate of 
$400 per car, and at a price of 11 cents per lb. 
net on the trees, an Plasteru shipment could be 
worked up of 1,000 or 2,000 tons, within the 
next five (5) years. Of cherries in a similar 
way at least 100 tons could be shipped. 

From Vacaville, which in 1884 shipped 200 
tons of fruit and grapes, the quantity could be 
counted on to double every year for three years, 
while of apricots alone (which were shipped 
East in 1884 to the extent of 75 tons), the trees 
now planted will progressively increase in 
yield until, within five years, not less than 
1,000 tons would be available for Eastern ship- 
ments. Of pears, peaches, grapes and the fore- 
going combined, at a rate of $400 freight per 
car to yield the grower 1^ cents per lb. on the 
tree, there could be furnished for Eastern ship- 
ment, in 1885, not less than 1,000 tons, with 
an annual increase thereafter for five years, of 
25 per cent. 

Prom Winters, which shippsd in 1884, 12 
cars, there will be available for shipment in 
1885, if a favorable year, upwards of 100 cars, 
with a progressive increase of 20 per cent an- 
nually for the following five years. 

From Suisun and neighborhood, which shipped 
in 1884 about 25 cars, principally pears, there 
are pear trees already planted which will yield, 
when in bearing, at least 2,000 tons, half of 
which may be safely counted on for Eastern 
shipment, while of apricots, peaches and nec- 
tarines, young trees, now coming in bearing, 
will progressively increase in yield, of which 
500 tons may be safely counted for Eastern 

San .lose, and the shipping region therefrom, 
reports that with a good season, there will be 
available for E istern shipment in 1885, of all 
kinds of fruits and table grapes, at least 200 
cars, with a steady increase thereon annually 

Santa Cruz Mountain region, shipping from 
Wright's Station, which shipped 10 cars in 1883, 
and only one in 1884, could in 1885 ship 30 cars. 

Santa Cruz county, from Glenwood and Santa 
Cruz as shipping points, could furnish 20 cars 
together for Eastern shipment in 1885, with 
rapid increase annually thereafter. 

^V^atsonville and vicinity could furnish 20 cars 
in 1885 similarly increasing thereafter. 

Ss,cramento, and tributary region, could in- 
crease its shipment for 1883 by 50 per cent (50'^ ) 
over that of 1884, and continue such increase 
relatively for the next three years. 

Without specific returns from other fruit- 
raising localities, enough is known of the num- 
ber of young trees now coming into bearing to 
warrant the calculation that they will show, in 
1 885 and thereafter, a proportionate increase of 
the quantity of fruit and table grapes available 
for Eistern shipments. Especially is this so of 
the southern part of the State, where, of apri- 
cots alone, have baen planted upwards of two 
millions of trees which will, many of them, 
commence to bear in 1885, and will, when in 
full bearing, on a favorable year, easily produce 
50,000 tons of green fruit. Apricots, however, 
willalways be dried at any freight over $400 per 
ton for green fruit; and thus represent a vastly 
diminished bulk for shipment, taking also the 
lower slow-freight rates. To sum up, viewing 
all the facts of the fruit and grape producing 
capacities of the State, it is certain, beyond a 
question, that they will be able to furnish the 
transportation companies by far the largest sin- 
gle item of their Eastern freight tonnage, if 
rates of freight are now made encouraging their 
production and sufficiently low to give them free 
access to nil the Eastern consumption markets. 

To secure this result there will be needed a 
rate of not over $400 per carload of ten tons, 
on time fast enough to place the perishable 
kinds in Chicago in five days, with proportion- 
ate rates and time to all other distributing 
points, and ynorc pariirulnrly to the Allanlic 
xe.a-hoard cities, and of not over $200 per car on 
long-keeping fruits which can endure the or- 
dinary freight time of transit, say similar to 
the present transportation of oranges from 
Southern California to Eistern markets. These 
long-keeping, slow freight fruits would have to 
compete, to a degree, with fruits of similar 
kinds raised in the South and SDuthwest, and 
for that reason could not stand any higher 
freight that $200 per car, while the time of 
transit (within reasonable limit of freight time) 
would be immaterial to them. 

Such rates of freight, with a reduction also 
of the prices of fruit in the orchards (which 
growers are fully prepared to accept), would 
place California fruit in the Chicago market at 
about five (5) cents per pound, which would 
enable it to be retailed to consumers at prices 
that would popularize it, and cause a consump- 
tion compared with which the present business 
would bo quite insignificant. 

It would form a tar heavier item of tonnage 
for the transportation companies thin the trans- 
port of tea, now sent from China across the Pa- 
cific to San Francisco, and thence by railroad 
through to New York, for not exceeding the 
rate that is herein asked for fruit, while to the 
transportation companies locally interested in 
the development of (California it would present 
the inestimable advantage of largely increasing 
prosperous interior commr.nities, whose local 
re<)uireinents would afford profitable business to 
their local lines -a by no means unimportant 
consideration, be it understood. 

If the millions of the East can be fed i 
California fruits, which have paid a freight i .i nl 
of two (2) cents per pound, it is submitted that 
it will bequite as bjneficial to the transporta- 
tion companies as it will be wholesome to the 
Eastern consumers. 

As to the best methods of bringing about these 
results, they must be considered and decided 
upon by the transportation companies. Wheth- 
er, at the start, a train could be loaded each 
day, is perhaps problematical (although un- 
doubtedly it would very speedily gro^v to this); 
still the fruits should be dispatched each day, 
so as to keep up a regular market supply and 
avoid overstock. A solution of the matter may 
be in the plan of sending special fruit trains 
at stated days, and on the intermediate days 
letting cars go forward with the passenger 
trains, as now, but of course all at the reduced 
rate of freight. Another, and most important 
element in the calculation as to regular daily 
fruit trains, will be found in the shipment of 
iL-im; r/i-aj/es to Eastern wine growers. Euough 
has been ascertained on this subject to make it 
probable that, at not exceeding $250 per car- 
load, on five days' time to Chicago, hundreds of 
carloads of Calif jrnia wine grapes can be dis- 
posed of to Eastern winn makers at prices that 
will pay our vineyardists. More information is 
being gathered on this particular point, and it 
can be treated more specifically at a suitable 
time, if the suggestion is deemed by the trans- 
portation companies worthy of further consid- 

In concluding this necessarily inadequate pre- 
sentment of a most important subject, your 
memoralists venture to bespeak, at your hands, a 
more than ordinarily careful and liberal-minded 
consideration of it. 

Appointed to represent and speak for the en- 
tire horticultural and viticultural interests of 
the State of California, they may safely claim 
that the interests, for which they herein invoke 
your co-operative assistance, are, at the present 
moment, of the first importance in the State, 
and bid fair, with proper encouragement, to de- 
velop to such magnitude as to furnish subsist- 
ance and employment to more people than any 
other interests in the State. As near as can be 
ascertained, there are at present in California, 
4,000 vineyardists, each furnishing labor and 
support, directly and indirectly, to an average 
of 10 persons, which makes an aggregate of 
forty thousand (40,000) people connected with 
the industry of viticulture. 

Of orchards, there are listed by the State 
Bjard of Horticulture, five thousand (5,000) and 
upwards, each furnishing labor and support, di- 
rectly and indirectly, to an average of five (5) 
persons, which makes an aggregate of twenty- 
five thousand (25,000) connected with the indus- 
try of horticulture. Thus, the two industries 
aggregate a population of sixty-five thousand 
(65,000) permanent, industrious, wealth-creating, 
freiqhl /jrodiicing ivorkvrs, anil all at work for the 
Iransportiition companies. Their failure now to 
find a market for their produce would retard 
the development of the State many years. 
Their success in making such markets (which 
may fairly be said to be dependent on the treat- 
ment they receive from the transportation com- 
panies in the matter of freight) will lead to the 
progressive enlargement of their industries to 
an extent beyond the conception of ordinary 
observers; will increase the population of the 
State (bringing settlers from abroad to buy now 
vacant land of the railroad companies, the Gov- 
ernment and others), and will build up local 
transportation business (the most profitable of 
all that a railroad can enjoy) to an extent and 
with a permanence possible to no other inter- 
eats now established in the State. 

L. W. Buck, Vacaville, 
.]. M. HixoN, San Francisco. 
W. H. AiKES, Santa Cruz, 
Committee from State Fruit Growers' Oonventioti of 1SS4. 
I. A. WiLf'ox, Santa Clara, 
W. C. Blackwood, Haywards, 
A. T. Hatch, Suisun, 

Committee from State Horticultural Society. 
Wm. B. West, Stockton, 
W. McPherson Hill, Glen Ellen, 
Horatio P. LiVERMORE,San Francisco. 

Committee from State \'iticuUiu-al Convention of 1884. 
The aggregate costs and freights of 26 car- 
of grapes sent to Porter Brothers from 
Natoma Company, S;icramento Co.,area8follows: 
1881. Destination. Freight. Cojt of Fruit. 

Sept. 17, CliicaKO * »05 76 «834 02 

19, New Orleans 808 !■•!■> 018 34 

'21,('hicaK0 808 97 007 58 

'H, 936 18 613 18 

'lf>, New Orleans 903 90 831 24 

•27, Cliicat'o 956 05 683 40 

Oct. 1, St. Louis 958 52 609 49 

2, Chlcaso 957 03 631 24 

3, New Orleans 911 78 627 80 

4, Cliioago 944 87 6'23 07 

!», St. Louis 914 79 631 24 

11, New Orleans 910 69 588 24 

17, Chieago 968 17 6:i9 84 

18, 948 87 598 99 

19, 924 99 015 61 

20, New Orleans 920 40 654 45 

•21, St. Louis 944 28 674 '24 

22, Cliioago 985 24 654 45 

24, 965 24 632 95 

25 981 60 674 '24 

•27, 961 16 619 62 

28, New Orleans 849 05 557 71 

30, Chicago 997 92 674 24 

Nov. 1, New Orleans 992 50 074 24 

4, Chieago 1,014 29 677 25 

1,038 85 

704 34 

Total $'24,534 71 .'S10,572 61 

This cost of fruit represents the entire cost 
of purchase of the fruit and the labor of pick- 
ing, selecting and putting on the cars, so that a 
very considerable percentage of it goes, not to 
the orchardist,but to labor expenses in shipment, 



[January 17, 1885 

Lapd? ?ale apd Jo Let. 

For Lease and for Sale, 

40.000 ACRES 
Of good land in Fresno, near the County 
Seat. Some of this land is already irri- 
gated, and all can be easily irrigated. It 
is adapted rot only to Grain, but also to 
Alfalfa, Fruit and Vines. 

1,000 ACRES 
Of the above land for sale at the low price 
of $20 per acre. 

^•''■'^ E. B PERRIN, 

402 Kearny St., San Francisco. 

New and Valuable Fruits! 


Now for sale for tin- first liiiio, at $1 cncli 
or 6 for $3, 

This 19 a fine Ornainentftl Plant, bearing fine 
fruit all the round. Also: 

I'lTAV.V, the CnUnbinx Cactus, proJucinR very fine 
l''ruit and Flowers. 

ANONA, the Guatemala Custard Apple, very fine flavor 
and very hardy. 

PKAK-FORMED OUAVA, largest and best for .lellies. 



Central American Tropical Norsery 


r"<3H. S /\ TiE. 

One thousand acres of VlNKYAltD, ORCHARD ANI: 
ALFALFA LAND in Kresiio Couiif y. neai the town ol 
Fresno, at $10 per acre, as a whole, or $ao per acre in 

subdiviBioDB. Apply to 


402 Kearny St., S. F. 


without Iri-ijfatlcm. 

Frwbymall, specimen numl*r of "The Vali/ornian Rfal 
EnXtf* Exchange and Marl." full of reliable information on 
ate, productious, etc. , of 


Address. "EXCHANGE AND MART." Santa Cruz. CaL 


r<> Voim^'. i»l<l, rich (.1- iM,or. 

Ii s.'\i-s.- slop dnit;^'inp, 
:inil c ure yiiur'si-lf with 1)1!. 
llni:Ni.:'>> (\l'V/ Improved) 
I'.lei-lric licit. Klcctririlyi!) 
I.ife.niul 11 l"<-\ of It IS Dis- 
ease and Death. TlioiWiinds 
testify to its priceless value. 
' X-,", -x - /■ sii.imil cures rrpurtcd In 1S.S3, 

W lioli- fiiiuily can wear same licit. Cures without liicul- 
clne, I'ains in the Hack, Hips, lli-nd or Limbs. Xi rvous 
Del,llity. Lumhairo, fleneral Deliiliiv. IJlieimiatism. Par- 
alysis, Kcuralllia, Sciatica, Disease of Kidneys, S|)lnal 
Diseases, Torpid Liver, Gout, Asthma, lli'ait Disi^ase, 
Dyapppsla. t'onstlpation. Kryslpi'las. Iiidii-'csilon, l!np- 
ture.falarrh, Plles,Kpilcpsy. Aiiile. DIal.ctes. l^ind stamp 

for Pamphlet. W. J. EOEl^E, 708 llarict St., Sis Fran- 
cisco, Cal. Inventor. Proprietor and .Manufacturer. 


Ur. Iloriio' 
Itt lt.Ti ui», 

t.-.-.l tlH- r.ll 
l-^ t'l ller.-.llliu'a c oiilM 


!i<l in r.ll .lavs l,y 
, i;uar..M 
oni- in the \v..rld 
(Ills l:i,,-lri.-,t- Miw 
rliil, iniraljlc, 
11.1 Ktlc-eliyi- in .-miiis.- ltit|V 
1 in s:t. .Si-Mcl f,,r |,Miii|i!ili't 

tiiro. I'rii-el:i-ilii.-. .l. iii-.-ilin s:t. .s.-n.l f..r i.Miiii.!ilr-t 


MAltliKT STKl'.KT, bA.S h'KAN'ClSCO. 

For Choirs, Conventions, Singing 
Classes and the Higher 

No belter Itooks liav<' apin-ared fi>r yfais 
tliaii tile following : 

Choral Worship. 

full siz-eCbureh Millie Riok 
of 3'.iO iiau'es; lOit pa^'es Klements, with a capital collec- 
tion of Sacred and Secular music; 7:> pajtes of the I. st 
Hymn Tunes; llo iia}!U< of Anthems, and .1(1 paj;ci of 
miscellaneous Ciiiicert Music. $1; doz., if!)- 

The Model Singer. S^.T^.r^'ri.""!! 

SINGING CLASSKS; pajf-'s; 124 Graded Exercises, :>7 
Glees and Part Sony's, 29 llynm Tunes, 18 Anthems, and 
4 Chants. Abundant and useful material for the Sitii;iiip; 
School Teacher. On cents; per doz. , ■■;<;. 

Song Greeting. 

T.. O. Kmkrhon. a new and 
cxtr.i fine song Imok tnr the 
'■hi:4lKT s' lmoN.*" iiKuiiini,' by tli.Tt, ('o!Ic;;cs, Technolo^n 
cal, and other -.i eeial ftchtuds, A'-adeinies, Institutes. 
Seminaries, Hith and Normal Scliools; uto large octavo 
pages; s:i iiarmoni/.ed snin,'^; of the hiu-^hest order, both in 
wordH and musie, etassieal in beauty and intercstint; to 
everyone. Also exefUes and solfegtrios for \oice »nl 
turc. 60 cents; | er doz. , ><tt. 

Send for lists Any hook i. tailed for t>ie retail pri' o. 


C. H. DITSON & CO., 

867 Broadway, New York 


RAMSOME, 204 Montgomerj' St., S. F. Seud lor Circuls 



by pr.ictical ex|)erience, found that the JUD.SON POWDER csjiccially, is the best adapted to REMOVE 

FROM 6 TO 20 POUNDS OF THIS POWDER will always brinp; any sized stump or tree witli 
roots clear out of the ground. The EXPENSE IS LESS THAN ONFr-HALF the cost of Grubbing. 

In most instances, Giant Powder, or any other "llisfb Explosive," is too uick, and ordinary Blasting Powder 
not strong eiioii;;h. 

i^For particulars how to use the same, apply to 

BANDMANN, NIELSEN & CO., General Agents 



Booth's Sure Death Squirrel Poison 

For Squirrels, Gophers, Birds, Mice, Etc. 

/tJTEnilorscd by the Gmnge and Farmers wherever iiscd."^ 
The Clieappst and Kent. 
Put up ill 1-pouiid, 6-pound, and .Vgallon tins. 
Every Can Warranteil. 
TM% Poison has been on the market Ic-ss than two .\ears, yet 
in this short time it has gainv<l a reputation of "Sure Death," 
ci[ualed by none. By its merits alone, with verv little advertising', 
it is now used extcnsixely all over the Pacific Coast, as « ell as in 
Australia and New Zealand. 


M.\M'P.\Crl RKP BY 

rat- n: il .J..M 
For Sab- by all Wholesale and Retail Dealers 

A. R. BOOTH, San Louis Obispo, Cal. 

Suet-ial Terms i>n Qu.intitios in Rulk. 



This large and \\-ell-kuown villa has been leased by C. C. Wheeler, of the VVinsor. It has 
lieeu thoroughly renovated th oughout. The House and Cottages are situated on large and 
licautiful grounds. The Billiard and Reading Rooms have been handsomely fitted up for ladies 
and gentlemen. In close pro-ximity is the Perrj' Seminary for young ladies, the Sackett School, 
the Misses Field's Home School for Young Ladies, California Military Acidemy, Hopkins' 
Academy, I'agoda Hill Kindergarten, and many other Schools. Cars pass the House every 
seven minutes from Broadway SStation to State University. Ten minutes from Broadway and 
forty minutes from San Francisco. Special rates to regular boarders and fatnilies. Telephone 
communications to local points free. 

C. C. WHEELER, Proprietor. 

S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Avenue, San Francisco. 

er Free Coa h to and from the House. J. W. BECKER, Proprietor. 

DAIRYMEN and FARMERS ( HOC DISEA8E8.-The 'Arm and Hamme*^ 

Should use only the "Arm and Hammer" brands brand Soda and Saleralus is used with great 
for Cleaning and Keeping Milk Pans Sweet and } success for the prevention and cure ol HOC 

Clean. It is the Best for all <; CHOLERA ami other diseases. 

Household Purposes. s Mix with the animal s lood. 


To iiwiuro obtaininc only the "Arm k Hammer " brand Soda 

. or Saleratiifl, luiy it in " pound or half pound " cartoons which 

bear o>ir name and trade-mark, as Interior gooiLs are eomi timcR substituted for the "Arm & Ham- 
mer brand when bou[;bt iu huUi. Ask for the " Arm & Hammer" brand SALSODA (Washing Soda). 



Carry Engines and Boilers in Stock 
^ ,■ lor immediate delivery. 

H. P.GREGORY & CO.. Sole Agents, 3 and 4 California St., San Francisco. 


• It other Wrinprers. Has more caj aeity. The beariii).'s of Rrtlls neeil no 
iillinK- The col wheels are .ilways in gi-ar: crank in not attached to 
the shaft of either roll- "Empire ' is warranted to jjive Hat Isfaetion. 
Sample to A Rents (see cut), or with the "NEW BKfKEK." at 
M luileHale prices. Write at onee lor circular, as this ad\ertisciiient 
will not ajipear loni;. Mention this jAper. 

E W. MELVIN, Gen'l Agent, Sacramento, t'al 

Many Agents are Making S5 to $10 per Day 

.^i;i.i.i .su (■ru Ni w WoiiK iis Fakminci, 
Single Copies niuiird for 83.50. S. nd for 
Tnble of Contents aii.l Terms to Aeents. PETER HEMPERgON a 00 

HOW m FARM pm." 

3B a 37 Cortltndt Str««t, H«w Telfc. 

breeders' birectory. 

six linen or less in this Dirc(H»ry at 50c. a line per mouth 


W. C. DAMON, Naiia. Wyandottes, Light Brahmas, 
P. Kocks, W. iS: U. Leghorns, B'. Spanish: free circulars. 

G. W. SESSIONS, San Mateo, Cal. Thoroughbred 

White anil Brown Leghorns, *'.! each, eggs 10 cents each. 
Langshan eggs, Plymouth Koek eggs, '•I..'i0. liuldcii 
Ciate and Axford Incubators cheap, used one season. 

further information address I. P. Clarke, Mayfleld, Ckl. 


1 tt). boxes, -40 cts.; 3 Ui. boxes, il; 10 tti. boxes, ii.M; 
25 ll». boxes, ;f5. This is the only prcjiaration in the 
world that w-ill po8iti\cly preveiitevery disease of poul 
try and make bens lay. Ask your grocer or druggist for 
it. B. F. Wellington, Prop'r, 4J5 Washington St., 8. F. 

CUTTING & ROBINSON, 1". O. Box 7, Stockton, 
Cal., Importers and Breeders of all kinds of Land and 
Water Fowls. Send 2 cent stamp for Circular. 

GEO- B. BAYLEY, 1317 Castro St., Oakland, Im- 
porter and Breeder of all the liest known and most 
lirolltable Land and Water Fowls, and manufacturer 
of Poultry Appliances in great variety. Send stamp 
for Circular. 

MRS. L. J. WATKINS. San Jose, Cal. Purebred 
Fancy I'oultry. White and Brown Leghorns, Pl.vmoutb 
Kocks, Langshans and Uoudans. Eggs and Fowls. 

H . STODDARD, Santa Barbara, brceilcr of pure Dark 
Brabinas, "Philander Williams" strain: also Peacocks. 

MRS. M. E. NBWHALL, Saii Jose. White and 
Brown Leghorns, Langshans, Plymouth Rocks, Light 
Brahmas, Pekin Uucks and Bronze I'urkeys. 

r. D. MORRIS, Sonoma, Cal. Tuolouse and Embdeo 
Ueese, Bronze and W. Holland Turkeys, and all leading 
varieties of Thoroughbred Poultry. 

D. D. BRIGGS, Los Oatos, Cal., importer and breeder 
of langshans, W. F. Bl. Spanish, Bl. Ilambiirgs, B. B. 
It. Red and White Pile, and Cioldeii Duck Wing tiames, 
Bl. Samatra's, Malay's, Uolden Poland's, Pekin and 
Muscovy Ducks. Circulars free. 

SMITH'S POULTRY YARDS, Blandiug avenue, 
bet Everett and Broadwav, Alameda, Cal. Address, 
Chas. W. Smith, P. O. Box 57, Oakland, Cal. 

Cal. Thoroughbred Poultry and Eggs for Bale. Also 

O. J. ALBEE, .Santa Clara, Cal , Box 2-2fl, Breeder of 
Thoroughbred Poultry. 


THEO. SKILLMAN. Petuluma, Cal., importer and 
brecilcr of thoroughbred Poland-China Iloga. 

H. W. MEff K, San Lorcnio, Alameda Co., Cal., breeder 
of thoroiighbieJ Holsteins. Corresponilcnce solicited. 

SEE H. PIERCE'S Jersey ailvertisem't in this pajier 

P. J. SHAFXEB. Olema, Cal. Breeder ol fine Jergeya 

J. R. ROSE, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., Cal. Breeder 
of Thoroughbred Ucvons, Koadsters and liraft Horses. 

Station, S. F. Si N. P. K. R. P. O., Penn's Grove 
Sonoma Co., Cal. Wilfred Page, Manager Breeders 
of Short Horn Cattle, Kiiglish Draft Horses, Spanish Me- 
rino Sheep and Berkshire Swine. 

MRS. M. E. BRADLEY, San Jose, Cal. Breedei 
of recorded thoroughbreit Short Horn Cattle and Berk- 
shire Hogs. A choice lot of young stock for Bale. 

PETER SAXE & SON, Lick House, San Francisoo, 
Cal. lm^>orters and Breeders, for past 14 years, of 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

J. A. BREWER, Centerville, Alameda Co., Cal. 
Short Horns uml Grades. Correspondence solicited. 

SYLVESTER SCOTT, Oloverdale, Sononia Co. 
Cal., breeder ol Thoroughbred Short Horns. 

aEOKGE BBMENT, Redwood City, San MateoCo., 
Cal. Breeder of Ayrshire Cattle, Southdown Sheep and 
Berkshire tlogs. All kinds of stock for sale. 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Thorough 
bred Poultry, Cattle and Hogs. Write for circular. 


WM. MUTH-RA8MUSSEN, Independence. Inyo 
County, Cal., dcik-r in. Honey , (.'omb I'ouiidation, and 
Italian ljuecns in season. Bee-hive and frame ma- 
terial saw ed to order. 

J. D. ENA8, Sunnyside, Napa, Cal., breeds Pure 
Italian t^iueens. No foul hnHxl. Comb Foundation, 
Extractors, etc. ''Cook's Manual of the Apiary." 

HICKS' HIVE— The best movable frame hive in use. 
Also all kinds of Apiarian supplies. "North American 
Beekeepers' Ouide." Send for Circulars and price list, 
yueeu Bees, etc C. B. Whiting, 42 Merchants' Ex., S. F. 


JULIUS WEYAND, breeder of pure blooded An- 
gora Goats, Little Stoii^-, Colusa Co., CaL 

L. U. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importcrand breeder 
of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Ked Duroc 
and Berkshire Swine High graded Rams for sale. 


WILLIAM NILES, LosAngeles,CaL Thoroughbred 
Poland-China and Berkshire Pigs. Circulars frfte. 

JOHN RIDER, Sacramento, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire Swine. My stock of Hogs are oU 
recorded in the American Berkshire Kcoord. 

TYLER BEACH, San Joae, CaL Breeder ol Thar. 

onarhhred BArkshin^fi. 

ft II t I « UU. ^ AGENCY is the oldest estab- 
lished and most successful on the Pacific Coast Mo. 2it'£ 
Market St, Elevator 12 Front St., S. F. 

Anokll's Liver Pills cure rheutuatism and heailache. 

January 17, 1885.1 

pACiFie i^uraid press. 

I- o 



Largest and Choicest Herd in this Country. 

Every Animal selected by a member of the 
firm in person. 

Over thirty yearly' records made in tills lierd average 
14,212 tlis. 5 ounces; average age of cows 4i years. 

In 1881 our entire herd of mature cows averaged 14,164 
lt>8. 15 ounces. 

In 1882 our entire herd of eight three-year-olds averaged 
12,388 n.s. 9 ounces. 

April 1, 1884, ten cows in this herd had made records 
from 14,000 to 18,000 each, averaging l."i,608 lbs. 6 3-10 ozs. 

For the year ending June, 1884, five mature cows aver- 
aged 15,621 llis. 1 a-.") ounces. 

Seven heifers of the Netherland Family, five of them 2 
years old and two yearH old, averaged' 11,556 ttis. 1 2-B 


Nine cows averaged 17 ttis. 5.1 ounces i er week. 
Eight heifers, 3 years old, averaged 13 lbs 4'J ounces 
per week. 

Kleven heifers, 2 years old and younger, averaged lo 
)hi. 3 ounces per week. 

The entire original imported Netherland Family of six- 
cows (two being but 3 years old) averaged 16 lbs. 7 7-12 
ounces per week. 

l^When writing always mention 



Registered in the A. J. C. O. and A. G. C. C, 
of New York, only Standard 


Jersey Belle of Scituate that Made 25 lbs. 
4i OZ3. of Butter In one week. 

A graudsou of above cow is now in nsc in tlie Yerl)a Bueua 
Tbiaherd won all tbe herd prizes for 1382. Since then have been 
added young animals from Mr. Pierce's valuable herds East. 
He now has Jersey Belle of Scituate, Coomassie, Mary Aun 
of St, Lambert, Parmer's Gloiy and Kurotas strains; also 
large selections from the Islands, without regard to cost. 
He has interest in Eastern herds of 200, at the head of which 
Btand only living son of Jersey Belle, Romeo de Bonair (87i %. 
Mary Ann's blood), and Piersou, the best show bull iu Amer- 
ica. These bulls are vahied at SIO. 000 each. 

HENRY PIERCE, San Francisco. 

Of Short Horn Cattle and Dairy Cows. 

Catalogues and Prices on application to 

Rndnn ntntlon. . . - San Mateo Oo. 



Price Reduced to 


ijf Twenty gallons of fluid 
mixed with cold water will 
make 1,200 gallons of Dip. 
It is superior to all Dips and Dressings for Scab in 
Sheep; is certain in effect; is easily mixed, and is applied 
in a cold state. Unlike sulphur or tobacco, or other 
poisonous Dips, it increases the growth of the wool, stim- 
lates the fleece, and greatly adds to the yolk. It destroys 
all vermin. It is efficacious for almost every disease (in- 
ternal and external) sheep are subject to. 


San Francisco, Cal. 

Calvert's (JarboUc 


9» per Gallon. 

After dipping the Sheep, is use- 
ful for preserving wet hides, de- 
stroying t..e vine pest, and for 
wheat dressings and disinfecting 
purposes, etc. T. W. JACKSON, 
8. F., Sole Agent (or Pacific Coast. 



Free from Poison. Prepared 

by the Italian Government 

Oo. Curea thoroughly the 

remedy known. R«-liftble testi- 
moniam at our oftioo. 

For particulars apply to 

OHAS. DUlelENBK AO i CO.. Sole Atentt, SU BMnmentl 
Street, San Fnnolsoo 


Brahmas, Langshans, Leghorns, Plymouth Rocks. 

Toulouse Geese, Rouen and Pekin Ducks. 

Bronze and Wild Turkeys. 

My Fowls arc colonized on different farms and have ample range. Eggs from such fowls arc mure certain to 
hatch than those confined in small yards. 1 have now on hand, for sale, a large lot to select from, of this year's hatch. 
i^Send 2-cent stamp for CiRcui,AR and Prick List to R. G. HEAD Napa Cal 






i^'I'artifular attention 19 calleil to my new 


For young Chickens, Turkeys, etc. 

INCUBATORS~of all Varieties. 

At Stalls 12 and .'iS Center Market, corner Dupont and 
Sutter Streets, San Francisco, Cal. 

Maltese Cats, Scotch Terriers, Pugs and 
Other Varietiee of Dogs. 

Importer and Brcodi;r ot choice Poultry — r.:inL4sli;iris, 
Light Brahmas, Partridge Cochins, Plymouth Ilin ks. A 
trio of Langshans, imported direct from Croad's Yard, 
England. Eggs and yuung stock for sale. Send for far- 
ther information. 


Fruit Vale, Alameda County, Cal. 

• roughbred Fowls. Eggs and Fowls fur sale. Brown 
and White Leghorns, $1 per setting. Plymouth Kock, 
White Face, I51ack Spanish and Houdans, Light ami 
Dark Brahmas, Partridge and Buff Cochins, •'Jl.SO per 
setting; Langshans, >?2 per setting; Pekin Ducks, SI per 
setting. Money to accompany order. Address, R. DU- 
BERNET, P. 0. Box 75, BROoiavN, Alameda Co., Cal. 


Wyandottcs, Light Brahmas, 
'lymonth Kocks, Brown and 
Wliiti: Leghorns, Langshans, 
Partridge Cociiins, Buff Coch- 
itis, Houdans, Silver Spangled 
Ilanilmrgs, W. F. B. Spanish, 
and Pckiji Ducks and Bronze 
Turkeys — a nn ih goUcr. My 
fowls are raised on 7 different 
farms, thereby making them 
healthy and vigorous. (Cata- 
logue free. Address THOS. WAl'i'H, Brighton, Cal. 


Headquarters for Pure Langshans — the 
Great Egg Producers. 
F.arly Chicks for sale— single pairs, trios or pens. 
Also, a few choice Light Brahmas and Plymouth Ilccks. 
Stock large, strong and vigorous. Kggs that will hatch, 
ff.'i.oo per 1». 

Frultvale, Alameda Co., Cal. 
iWVisitora take horse cars at Kast Oakland. 




icili Kdition. m Pages, explain- 
ing the entire business, (iivcs 
syniptonis and best remedies f(]r 
all diseases. A fiil-pjC'c lllu^trntl■ll 
Cutuloguc. All fr.r-2.V. In Nlanips. 

A. M. I..^NO, 
Covo UaU'. I>ewi« <;<>. Ky. 


Poultry Association 


Of this Society will be held 

.... AT ... . 


Cor. Stockton & Geary Sts., San Francisco, 

. . . .FllOM THK. . . . 

19th to the 24th of January next, 


/^Entry List positively closes January 15th. 

For Premium Lists and any further informati n, ad- 
dress the Secretary, 


Box 1771, San Pranclsco. 


' mouth llocks, Light Brah- 
t las, Langshans, Brown Leg- 
hums, B. B. R. Game Bantams, 
I'carl Guineas, Homer Antwerp 

J. N. LUND, 

Cor. Piedmont Av. & Booth Sts 
P. O. Box 116. 


Eggs from finest imported stock, ff.i per sitting. Karly 
hatched cockrcls and pullets for sale. Address 

623 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 



ELIAS GALLUP, Hanford Tulare, Co., Cal. 

Breeder of pure-bred Poland China Pigs ot the Black 
lie.iuty. Black Bess, Bi.sniarck, and other noted taniilie.s. 
Imported boars King of Bonny View imd Gold Dust at bead 
ot the herd. Stock recorded iu A. P. C. R. Pigs sold at 
reasonable rate.';. Corrc.>ii)ondeuce solicited. Address as above. 

For Sale at our Farm at Mountain View 

From our Thoroughbred Berkshire Boar and Sow, 
which we imported from England in 1S80. Pigs from Im- 
ported Boar and Sow, S'ifc each; frcmi Imported Boar and 
Thoroughbred Sow, $10 to $20. Our Imported Pigs are as 
nice Pigs as there are in the State. Address : 

I. J. TKUMAN, San Francisco, Cal. 


My Berkshire.? are Thoroughbred, and selected with 
great care from the best herds of iinijorted stock in the 
United States and Canada, and for individual merit, can- 
not be excelled. My breeding stock are recorded in the 
"American Berkshire Record," where none but i>ure-bred 
Hogs are admitted. Pigs sold at reasonable rates. Cor- 
respondence solicited. JOHN RIDER, Elgliteenth 
and A Streets, Sacramento City, Cal. 


A l*erfert Sy.stein of l)r«'ss Cutting^. 
Okkice— 224 Stockton Street, San Francisco. 

4S"Patterns cut to measure. Received diploma at 
Mechanics' Institute Fair, 1883. 


Comie Tranaparent & 25 (no 2 alike) Clironio Cartlg, 
namu on, lOc Present free. A. Uiiies, Cassville, O. 


" "ONCE 


Send for Circulars antl Price List. 

S. VJLIT ITOOIIDEIXT <& CO., Boston, Mass. 


Send 50 Cents iu Stamps, 



containing full InstrnclionR for 
making and ni;inaging an Incubji. 
tor ccwting that will b'lbl 

also illnstnitions .and lull 
cb^srription of an Kg;; Tester and 
Artilb ial Mother. 

CiiAni.Ks B. Jaquks k Co., 

Metuchen, New Jersey. 



From S!40 up. Send 
for descriptive price list 

TborouKhbi'eil Ponltr) 
and Kkrs. 
1011 Broadway, 
Oakland, Cal 



1884. Two Gold Medals this Year.-1884. 

The I'ktai.iiva has led I'OUR vhars in succession, 

3 Gold Medals, 1 Silver Medal, and 14 
other Premiums. 

No other iNriuiAToit in the United States can show the 
record the PKI'AMJMA can. «ysend for full Descrip- 
tive Circular, No. !). Address 

P. O. Bo.\ 242. Petaluma, Cal. 

Spi.RNUiBl— Latest Style cliromo cards, name, 10c. Pre- 
mium with ■! paoka. F. U. PARDEE, New Uaven.Ct. 


f AciFie i^uraId press. 

[Janoary it. ISS" 

g jE(« Market 3!{,EfOFiT 

Note. — Our quotationsare for Wednesday, not Satardaj 
the date which the paper bears. 

Weekly Market Review. 


San Francisco, Jan. 14, 1884. 

Trade has been ralher dull tiiis week. Wheal has 
experienced an unfortunate reaction fiom the ad- 
vance noted in our last report, and dropped off 
about half the advance gained. trad- 
ing is being done and a more general desire to specu- 
late is raising the value on "futures." The situa- 
tion abroad is unsatisfactory again as the latest 
cable shows: 

I.ivERrooL, January 14.— Wheat— Dull. Cali- 
fornia spot lots, 7s 3d to 73 6d: oft coast, 36s 6d; 
just shipped, 37s 6d; nearly due, 36s 6d; cargoes off 
coast, unchanged; cargoes on passage, cheaper to 
sell; Mark Lane Wheat, rather easier; Maize, quiet; 
Knglisli and French country markets, steady; Wheat 
and riour in Paris, quiet. 

Eastern Wool Marliets. 

New York, Jan. 11. — On the general market 
m liters appear to move in very much the same chan- 
nels as for some lime indicated. The offering of 
first-class and attractive parcels of clothing wool is 
of necessity kept low, consequent upon the moderate 
parcels of stock remaining in first-class hands, and 
when buyers want anything in that line, they close 
quickly and promptly on the conviction that an effort 
to gain an advantage would be useless. Toa certain 
extent operations arc of a similar character on other 
grades, but the fuller and more widely distributed 
accumulation and the desire among holders to keep 
the slock in motion, prevents any notici able increase 
of value, and rales are no higher than for some time 
past, though one or two sales yesterday of special 
parcels, it is thought, indicate rather an upward ten- 
dency. The best feature at the moment is the steady 
and full movements of supplies. Both fine and low 
grades got a good share of the call this week, an<l 
operators express corresponding satisfaction. Other 
markets also send good reports and generally the 
position may be considered as having made quite as 
great a gain in tone since the beginning of the year 
as that shown on any other stiple article. Sales in- 
clude 20,000 pounds California and Teri itory at 15(0 
20 cents; 2,000 pounds scotired and 3.000 pounds 
spring on private terms. 

New York Hop Markets. 

New Yokk, Jan. 11. — For choice State goods the 
niarket is fairly firm and for a good useful article 
quite steady. Prime stock is not offering at all freely 
and seems to be worth 16(0:17 cents cash, and lower 
grades go begging at relatively less money. Pacific 
Coast, 1334. fair to choice, I2@i6 cents. 

London Agricultural Seed Trade. 

[Reported by Jmix Shaw k Scixs.Seed Merchants]. 

An exceedingly quiet spirit, as might be expected, 
continues to characterise the market for field seeds, 
all business therein being for ihepresent in abeyance. 
American clover seed is still quite neglected on this 
side. Canary seed is without change, but for Hemp 
seed the lone is weaker. The ratei demanded lor 
Spring lares, are above the views of buyers. Blue 
pease and Haricot beans move off slowly on last 
week's terms. 

jy Mark Imhc, I.oiiilfii, England. 

Foreign Review. 

London, Jan. 5. — The Mark Lane Express, 
in its weekly review of the British grain trade, says; 
Rains during the past week have been favorable and 
crops promise remarkably well. I'he advance in 
England wheat is maintained, although the dem.and 
is inactive. The sales of F^nglish wheat during the 
past week were 51,217 quarters at 32s 7d |j? quarter, 
against 44.144 quarters at 33s 9d quarter during 
elit correspondmg week last year. There was an ad- 
vance likewise in foreign wheat at the beginning of 
the week. It became less firm by the middle of the 
week, but recovered at the close. Two cargoes ar- 
rived off coast. One cargoe was sold, one withdrawn 
aad one remained. Twenty cargoes are now due. 
'I'lie market for cargoes on passage is excited and 
prices advanced. A large business was done. Oregon 
wheat sold for 39s 3d and California for 38s. The 
wheat trade is now inactii-e. Flour meets with fair 
demand. Maize is scarce. Barley is is dearer. Oats 
are in fair demand. 

B.\GS— Calcutta Wheat, held at sJi^'sHc spot, 
and 6c for future delivery; California Jute, nominal; 
Potato Gunnies, io<S)i2c. 

B.^RLEY — Barley has weakened and declined a 
little this week. On call the desire to sell seems 
greatest and rales have dropped. Sales this morn- 
ing were: Buyer .se.-ison — 200 tons, $1.04}^; 400, 

$i.04H; 900, %i.o3,y^ \ 100, $r.o4H; 100, $1.04; 100; 

$1.03,'-^; 100, $1.0354; 100, $1.03^: 100, $1.03}^; 
800, $1.03; 600, $1.02 5i; $100, $i.o2.H, 300, $i.o2;<. 
Seller .season — 300 tons, 93c; 300. 92jic; 100, 92;4c; 
100, 92c; 200, 9iJic. Buyer 1885 — 100 tons, Ji. 07, 
Buyer M.ay — 100 tons, oqc {(? ctl. 

BEANS— Bean prices have changed this week 
considerably, all toward lower points, as shown in 
our table. There are large offerings and much fault 
is found with the quality, giving the buyers the ad- 

CORN— Corn is about the same as last week, 
large yellow, however, dropping slightly. There is 
still plenty of poor corn which it is ho id to sell at 
8sc I;? ctl. 

DAIRY PRODUCE-Buiter prices are about the 
same as last week. The cool weathc- makes ralhi r 
a slow growth of feed and supplies do not increase 
much. Cheese is unchanged. 

E(jGS— Eggs are cheapening and increasing in 
supply. The decline since last week 13 about 5c ^ 

FEED— Bran is still cheap. The Hay range is as 


[Furnished for publication in this paper by Nklson Goroh, Sergeant Signal Service Corps, U. S. A. 


Red Bluff. 



Los Angeles. 

San Diego. 


.Tan 7'Jaul4 










Weather. . | 



Temp 1 

Wind .... 1 

Weather.. | 

1 Temp 

\^ :u.\ 

U it her.. 



! Wind 







Wind .... 



















































Saturday. . . . 
















































































































Totals ... 


1 09 







Expi.ANATioN.- CI. for clear; Cy , cloudy; Fr , fair; Fy., foL-gy; — indicates too small to mea-sure. Temperature 
wind and weather at 11:58 a. m. (.San Francisco mean time), with amount of raiufall in the preceding 24 lioura 

follows: Alfalfa, $8 sogiia 50; Wheat, $12(0)16; 
Oat, $9@i5; Barley, $8@|2; Mixed, '$7(5)10 {;? ton. 

FRESH MEAT— Beef has declined about tc {jf It) 
this week as arrivals have been freer. Lamb has 
declined a fraction. Live Hos; seems to show a iittle 
better disposition but no important movement has 
been noted. 

FRUIT — Choice Riverside .Navel Oranges reach 
$4 Iff box; other sorts range from $r 50 to $3 50. 
California Sicily Lemons bring $2 box. Apples 
are unchanged. Dried Fruit is very dull and low. 

HOP.S — Hops are worse and worse, and I2e is 
now the top price quoted by city dealers. 

O.ATS Oats still dull and unchanged. 

ONIONS- About the same range prevails; the 
best go up to $1.89 ]^ ctl, and poor lots at 2561 soc 
(.i sack. 

POTATOi:S— Potatoes have held up well be- 
i of limited supplies, but large lots are now ar- 
riving from Oregon and may sink the market con- 
siderably lower. 

l'RO\TSION.S— 'I he situation is .about the same; 
prices low and trade limited. 

POCrnRY AND GAME— There has been a 
general reduction as shown in our table. 'I"urkeys 
are still in abtmdant supply. l);ieks are an excejUinn 
and are advancing under the Chinese demand. 

\'EGErABLE.S— There is no important change, 
(ireen Peppers still come occasionally from Los .An- 
geles; the last sold at 8c per \h. 

WHEAT — A considerable fall from last week's 
advance is noted, but transactions continue fairly 
large in volume. Movement is not quick, but buyers 
are found for the bulk of offerings of gooil shipping 
quality at a range of $i.28>'»(<i $1.30 ^ ctl. On call 
this morning there was a more pronounced specula- 
tive feeling than has been exhibited for some lime. 
.S.iles footed up close upon 3.000 tons, as follows: 
Buyer season — 100 tons, $1.36^^ ; 300, $1.3')^; 2,- 
400, $1.36)^ t;? ctl. Afternoon sales were: I'.uyer 
season— 100 tons, $1.36)^; ico, $1.37 ctl. 

WOOL— Wool supplies are now said to be con- 
siderably reduced. Prices are unchanged. Infor- 
mation of interest to wool growers may be found on 
other pages of this issue. 

Domestic Produce. 



Bayo, ctl 2 50 >j( 3 00 

Butter 1 10 ((? 1 40 

Castor 4 (10 (g — 

Pea 1 50 (3 1 75 

Red 2 25 (a 2 .■!?: 

Piuk 1 65 (a 1 75 

Large White.... 3 CO C* - 
SmaU White.... 1 25 1 50 

Lima 1 75 (g 2 OU 

F id Pea8,blk eye 2 50 <a 2 G5 

do green 2 75 (a 


Southern 3 @ 3i 

Northern 4 


California 4 @ 4i 

German 61@ 7 



Oal. fresh roll, lb. 24 @ 27 k 

do Fancy br'uds 28 (d Ml 

Pickle roll 24 (a 25 

Firkin, new ::o @ 21i 

Eastern 15 @ 18 

New York — (g — 


Chee8e,Cal., lb.. 11 (g 14^ 

Oal., ranch, doz.. 29 @ :;a 

do, store Vm 28 

Ducks 20 @ 22i 

Oregon — @ — 

Eastern, by ex.. 27i@ 30 
Pickled here.... ~@ — 

Utah 30 @ m 


Bran, ton 13 00 @14 00 

Commeal 27 50 (gin W 

Hay S) 00 («lt; 00 

Middlings 16 00 (al8 OU 

Oil Cake Meal.. 30 00 C<i32 50 

Straw, bale 60 <a 70 

Extra, City Mills 4 25 @ r, 00 
do Co'ntry Mills 1 i.'ii (ce 4 ':2.k 

Superfine 2 7'i (« 4 UO 

Beef. 1st ((ual., lb 8i@ 

Second 7i. g 

Third fii 5 


Spring Lamb.... 8 @ 
Fork, undressed. 4A^ 

Dressed t:i@ 

Veal 8 @ 

Barley, feed, ctl. 85 .. . 
do Krowiug.. 1 02.Ka 1 12s 

(Jhevalier 1 20 S 1 30 

do Coast... 1 10 @ 1 20 

Buckwheat 1 70 @ 1 80 

Com, Wbite.... I 00 2 1 D7i 
Yellow 1 05 § 1 12" 

14. 18S5 

W EUNESDAV. .1.11 

do Chile.. 
Almonds, hdsbl. 

Soft Bbell 10 m 

Brazil 11 (a — 

Pecans lii<S ~ 

Peanuts 5 ^ 6 

Filberts 14 0j - 


New, It, 1 @ IJ 

Karly Ruse IS, (fl 85 

(;utfcy Cove 1 00 C' 

Petaluma 1 CO (g 1 laj 

Tomales — @ — 

River reds IHJ ^a 75 

Humboldt 1 05 «t 1 kO 

do Kidney.... 1 25 @ — 
do Peachblow. — @ — 

Jersey Blue 1 10 S 1 15 

Chile 80 M 90 

do Oregon... 1 10 at 

Peerless 1 13 i« 1 40 

Salt L.ake @ — 

.Sweet ctl W) (g 75 


Heus, doz I'l (K) <$il 7 00 

Roosters 4 75 (d 50 

Broilers 3 .'iO (a 4 50 

Ducks, tame 8 iiu (gli) uu 

do. Teal 75 - 

do. Mallard . . 2 5U (d — 
Qeese, pair 2 25 @ 2 50 

Wild Gray, doz .1 00 @ 3 50 

White do... " " ~ 
Turkeys. lb 

do Dressed.. 
Turkey Feathers, 

tail and wing . 
Snipe, Eng.. doz. 

do Comaion.. 



1 50 @ 

15 @ 


Hi @ 


10 @ 



2 .50 


1 00 @ 

1 25 

1 00 @ 

1 25 

2 00 ^ 

2 25 

Venison . . 

Cal. Bacon, 

Heavy, tt. ll».a 

Medium 12 S 

Light 13 @ 

Extra Light . . 14 ca 

Lard 94M 

Cal.SmokedBeef 15 ^ 

Shoulders 9i@ 

Hams, Cal 12if 

do Eastern.. 15 S 

Alfalfa. 121a 

do Chile " 


Clover red 





Italian RyeGniss 

SmaU Round. 1 15 @ 

Oats, choice 1 30 (f^ 

do No. 1 1 25 (tt 

do No. 2 1 12i«» 

do black 1 10 M 

Rye 1 10 (a 

Wheat, No. 1. . . 1 28 W 
do No 2. . . 1 25 ^ 
Choice milling 1 35 @ 

Dry 16J@ 

Wet salted 7).@ 


Beeswax. lb 24 @ 

H*iuey in comb. (d 
Extracted, light. @ 
do dark. 4 <sj 

Oregon — @ 

California 10 # 

Wash Ter — (g 

Old Hops — @ 


Red & 

Sllvurskin 50 @ 


Walnuts, Cal., lb Ji'S 

1 20 
1 40 
1 35 
1 15 
1 15 
I 15 
1 30 

1 40 




Perennial 25 ( 

Millet, German.. 

do Coinnum. 
Mustard, white.. 

Brown . 


Ky. Bhie Grass.. 

2d quality 16 @ 

Sweet V. (.;rass. 75 @ 

Orchard 20 

Bed Top 15 (5 

Hungarian .... 8 (a 

Lawn 30 & 

Hes<iuit 10 m 

Timothy e @ 


Crude, lb 5J c<» 

Refined 81(st 

spai NCI— 1884. 

Eastern Oregon. 15 (g 

FALL 1884. 

Northern free.. 10 (rf 

do defective.. :♦ «' 

Mouutaiu free. . 10 (a 

.San .TouMuin. ,. ti ifc 

South tNiast.... 6 (a 

^7 % 

2 «S 
2 @ 
20 m 

Fruits and Vegetables. 




Apples, box .50 lie 2 11) 

Bananas, btuich. 1 50 1^ :i 0^1 
Cocoanuts, luO.. B 00 7 00 
Crauberries. bbl 13 00 <rt25 OO 

Limes. Mel 10 110 liili DO 

• hi t'al. box ... 1 00 c" .; 00 
Leiuous, Cal.,bx 1 25 2 00 
do Sicily, box. 5 00 @ 5 50 
do Australian. — (<* — 
Oranges. Cal . bx 1 .50 (rt 4 00 
do Tahiti, t.x 3 25 (a 3 50 
do Mexican, M 10 Ull W22 dO 
do Panama. . . - (n 1 

Pears, box 1 00 la 2 iiu 1.x. 50 " 1 00 
Pineapples, doz. 4 50 c^r 5 00 
Pulnegraliatesbx 75 *" 1 00 

tiiliuces 25 (a .50 

Apples, sliced, lb 2 @ 2\ 
do evaporated. 6 @ 
do f|uartvred .. 2 @ — 

Apricots '• (3 — 

Blackberries.... '' @ 

Citron 28 ® 30* 

Dates 9 (8 10 

Figs, pressed 4 

Fi;is, loose 2 — 

Nectarines 11 (ft 12 

Peaches 7 ^ i 

1 50 @ 1 85 

- m - 
-(ft - 

- (a - 

1 90 w 2 25 


WEDNEHDAV, .1.11- 14, 

do pared 14 W 

Pears, sliced.... 4 (ft 

do whole .... 3 @ 
Plums 2 @ 

do pitted 8 m 

Prunes 5 @ 

do French 

Raisins, Cal. bx. 

do halves.... 

do quarters. . 

do eighths... 
New raise.! .... 
^aute Oiirruuts. 

Artichokes, doz. .'10 @ 

Beets, ctl .50 @ 

Cabbage, 100 lbs. SU @ 

Carrots, sk ^ ^ 

CauliHower. doz. .10 @ 

Celery, doz 50 @i 

Garlic, lb 5 (a 

' Lettuce, doz. . . 
Mushrooms, lb.. 
Okra, .Irj. lb.. 
Parsnips, ctl ... . 
Peppers, .Iry H.. 
.Squash, Marrow 

fat, too 6 CO 

do,Hnbb'd.bx,12 CO @.b 00 
Turnips, ctl 50 <g 

10 m 
8 & 

30 & 
1 00 @ 
. 15 @ 

Signal Service Meteorological Report, 

San Frani'Isco Week eudiug .lamiary 13, 1885. 






120 I 134 i 9t; I 165 I 1119 120 I 149 


iCloudy ! Fair I Cloudy | ( 'loiidy I Fair | Fair | 

RAINFALL IN TWENTY F.trit 11. il U.«*. 

.05 I .01 I ..52 I .50 I .29 I .00 I 47 
Total precipitation siiina July 1. 1884-13 15 inches 

Our Agrente. 

Oi;r Friends can do much in aid of our paper and tht 
isku^e of praetichi knowledge and science, oy assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lendinj; their in- 
Cuence and cncourai^ing (avora. We intend to send no;e 
but worthy men. 

Jakkd C. IloAO — California. 

J. J. Bartkll— Sacr.iniento aii.l San Juaquin Countie-. 

A. C. Knox — San Benito and Montere.\ Counties. 

Geo. McDowell Santa Clara Coiuit.v. 

Wm. H. Cock— Pre. no County. 

O. W. Inualls -Arizona. 

W. WlllTWELL Oiejfon. 

M. S. I'liiMB— Alameda County. 

Mrs. U/.iEK -Ilanib^ldt Cou ntv. 

Complimentary Samples of this 
Paper are occasionally sent to parties 
m connected with the interests specially rep- 
i resented in its columns. Persons so rccciv- 
' ing copies are reijuested to examine its con- 
tents, terms of subscription, and give it their 
3wn patronage, and, as far as practicable, aid 
in circulating the journal, and making its value 
more widely known to others, and extending 
its influence in the cause it faithfully serves. 
Subscription nate, §.S a year. K.xtra copies 
mailed for 10 cents, if ordered sfmn enough 
Personal attention will be called to this 
(as well as otlier notices, at times), 
by turning a leaf. 

Don't Fail to Write. 

Should this paper be received by any subsoriber who 
does not want it, or lieyond the time he intenda to pay 
for it, let him not fail to write us direct to stop it. A 
postal card fcostinij one cent only) will suffice. We 
will not knowingly send the paper to anyone who docs 
not wish it, but if t is continued, throuKh the failure of 
the subscriber to notify us to discontinue it, or some 
rregponsible party requested to stop it, we shall positively 
Jemtnd payment (or tbe time it l> gont. 

Jan. 7 

Jan. 3 

1 Jan. 9 

Jan. 10 

.Ian 11 

.lull. 12 

Ji.h IJ 

:ili. 177 
., .Ij2 


1 30.025 
; 29.879 




3(1. 1S5 




1 E6.0 
1 17.0 


1 .M.O 1 58 5 1 55.4 1 .52 5 
1 47.5 1 51 8 1 49.0 | 45.0 






1 93 3 


1 88.3 1 74.0 


SI 5 



Hatches Eggs Better than a Hen. 

f^Seii.l :>taiii|i for Illi htratkii Ciri ilar to 

GEO. B. BAYLEY, Manufacturer, 
1317 Castro St, Oakland, Cal. 
N. B.— A larje line of Poultrv Ai.pli.iii. cs. -iu. b .is Wi e 
Netting, Bone Mills, ('bopping Machines, etr.. tor sale 
at the Lowest Kates. 


i. IK 


One pound of Lye to one (tallon of Water. 


F..K Sale Br 

202 California St, San Francisco. 

N. B. — 111 writing for prirei* state number of c&wn (48 
pounds each) re.|iiireil. 


The Rising Sun Baking Powder. 

.Mannfaoturt-.l and n.ild onl.v bv 
T. XI. OOOK cfc CO.. 

Big Tree Store, 


Strictly Pure. No Adulteration. 

No Stanli. X.i Aniiiionia. No Chalk. No Alum. 
Pure t ream of Tartar and Iti .-arb. of Sod.-i. 
Send for cur "Orocer.v ll. rald and Coiisuniers" (Juiilo. 
Corner Sth and J .Streets, Sacmmento, Cal. 

J. Hutchison's Nurseries, 


Established in 1852. 

An iinniense htOL-k of MoMciiii^; and Oriiaiiieiital 
siirubbur.v,eoiuprisin(f new Rhododendrons, Clem- 
atis, Camellas. Magnolias, Daphnes. Cape 
Jasmines. Ktc , Kti. , in in.lUss \uriit.\. 

Cypress for Hedges in Large Quantity. 

CHOICE FI.OWF.KS nuile up in an.\ .lexinn a siM-cialt\. 

lil LBS AMI SEHliS of all kinda. 

f?rSi-nd fur c '.it.alo'.aie. 


Thoroughbred and Graded Short Horns 

At San Mateo Bancho, San Mateo, Cal. 
Apply on premhes to S. (i. GOODHUE, or 

523 Montgomery St.. San Francisco. 


All Tested. True to Name. Immense Stock 

(I.S.M.'i) tcllini,' ull ab.iut iit tv and old varieties, full <le- 
Hcrlptions, profnHcl\ lllimtrati-d, iiiurb valuable 
iiiloruiatioii. .SKNT To Al.l, .M'I'LM.Nii KRKK. 

Large Stock of Fruit Trees, Small Fruits 
and Vines. 


Lima, Indiana 



A HuceesH Uuarantecd in raisin); Poultry with our ma- 
chines. Perfect ventilation. Autoiiiatieaupply of iiioliit- 
ure; Belf-rci;ulatin^. turns einrs instantly. It is the best 
machine made, and will give Ibe test results. Our iiia 
.•biiio" are all warrante.l. .St ud for Circiilai. 

ia33 Broadway, Oiikland, Cal 

January 17, 1885.] 



List of D. S. Patents for Pacific Coast 

(From the official list of U. S. Patents in Dewbt & Co. 'a 
SciBNTifio Pkkss Patent Aqbncy, 262 Market St., S. F. 


310,244. — Type Writing Machine — E. S. Bel- 
den. S. F. 

310,261.— Feed Rack — W. S. Downing. Half 
Moon Bay, Cal, 

310,397. — Clutch for Caule K. R. — .\'. A. 
Fisher, Sacramento, Cal. 

310,268. — Can Filmn(; Machine — J. J. Ger- 
man, Teniescal, Cal. 

310,274. — Coupling Hook, ano I-oops — Harris 
fc Ball/ly, Hill's Ferry, Cal. 

310,296. — Mortar Bed for Stamp Baiteries 
-- Mnssii & Fernandez, Mazatlan, Mexico. 

310,310.— Cut off Valve Gear — John B. I'itcli- 
ford, S. F. 

310,316. — flARVESTER — ]as. W. Reams, Suisun, 

310,231. — HoKsE Shoe Nail J. t. Simpson, 
Oakland, Cal. 

NoTF. —Copies of U. b. and Foreign Patents furnished 
h.v Dk.wby & Co. , in the shortest time possible (hy tele- 
graph or otherwise,) at the lowest rates. American 
and F<»reign patents olpfained, and all patent Imsiness for 
Pacilic t'oast inventors transacted with perfect security 
and in the shortest possible time. 

The Finest Exhibit in the Pavilion. 

That is the w ay the Sacramento Hrr of Sept. 
20th characterized the grand display of Hunt- 
ington, Hopkins Co., which was illustrated 
in week's Kmkal. The />'< < then proceeded 
with the following minute description: 

The most elaborate display on the floor of the 
main hall of the E.xposition Building, and the one 
which attracts the most attention and excites the 
most comment, is that made by Huntington, Hop- 
kins & Co. , the wholesale hardware firm of Sacra- 
mento and San Francisco. The display is situated 
near the center of the main hall, and is in the shape 
of a Chinese pagoda, the main pyramid being i3 
feet square at the base and 40 feet in hight. The 
pagoda is surmountau by a revolving circle com- 
posed of locomotive headlights, glass reflectors, etc., 
the whole topped off by another circle formed of 
lanterns and a large star decorated with circular 
saws and light hardware of a glistening character. 
When these circles are in motion, beneath ihe glare 
of the electric lights, the dazzling effect may be im- 
agined. The main body of this magnificent e.\hibit 
is of a dark red color, with trimmings of black and 
blue, and the decorator, with rare art, has arranged 
the thousand and one articles of hardware so as to 
blend harmoniously with the different shades of color- 
ing. Suspended from the cornice, just below the 
circle of headlights, hangs a line of :,heep shears, e.\- 
tending all the way round, and in the center of each 
square below these are large circular saws, which, 
by some mechanical device, are made to revolve as 
the circle turns. The corners and borders of the va- 
rious sciunres are filled out with aesthetic and artistic 
designs fasliioned from files, brass butts, chain pic- 
ture nails, oilers, spoons, pulleys, sash lifts, cutlery, 
and innumerable article? of light hardware. Below 
the four squares are fl.uing roofs com, lining designs 
in axes, hammers, hatchets, etc., and supported by 
four pillars to the floor of the lower base. Bene.iiii 
this roof are 'our more large squares, all artistically 
decorated with designs made of locks, keys, screw- 
drivers, augers, chisels, squares, padlocks, springs, 
hinges, door-bells, door-knobs, carpenters' braces, 
drawknives, dividers, brackets, docr-pulls, and a 
complete line of brass goods of all descriptions and 
sizes, and many other articles by far too numerous 
to mention. On one of these squares is produced a 
landscape scene re|)resenting a "lad and a lassie" 
coming through the lield, every portion of the scene 
being composed of escutcheon pins, small chains, 
horse-shoe nails, etc. .\ number of aesthetic designs 
frame this picture. 

The lower squ.ues — those on the base of the grand 
pagoda — are decai ated with heavier articles from the 
slock of the firm. Hay-forks, shovels, spades, gar- 
den tools, and such implements ornament the cen- 
ter, w hilst a border is formed of horse shoes, washers, 
bolts, screws, etc., vvhilsf there :ire pyramius of shot, 
anti-friction inet--il, shoe and sieve blacking, cordage, 
belting, hose, etc., resting beneath. 

At each of the four corners of the pagoda is a 
pyramid about 30 feet in hight, surmounted by re- 
volving tops, topped with a star, circular saws, lan- 
terns, etc. Beneath this circle is a cone of scythe 
blades, and under this is a circle formed of double- 
barrel shot guns, surrojnded by a cordon of Niagara 
sprinklers. On the base of these pyramids are 
pointing trowels, 12 revolving saws, crossed cleavers, 
all imposingly arninged. 'I he pyramids are con- 
nected with the pagoda by a cross-shaped pu tilion, 
on which are designs made of trowels, brass goods, 
etc. The edges of the pyramids are trimmed with 
brass door railing, which, with the black, blue, and 
red colors produced a fine t fled. 

We understand the Conuuittee on Awards have 
recommended that the gold medal be awarded this 
display, which reconuiicndation is entirely in h,ir- 
niony with the popular verdict. 

Ck all the publications of nurserymen, there 
is no other that can be compared with Ijovdl^s 
(liiiili to Fruit Viiltiiri . It is really a valuable 
work on horticulture, giving, as it does, full 
instructions for planting, pruning, culture and 
management of fruits of all kinds, and impar- 
tial descriptions of all worthy varieties. It is a 
book of over 70 pages, with an illuminated 
cover, elegantly printed and embellished with 
hundreds of engravings, and several colored 
plates true to nature. Everybody at all inter- 
ested in fruit culture, should send to .) . T. Lov- 
ett, Little Silver, New .Jersey, and get a copy. 
See advertisement in this paper. 

K. M. Dewev, who has bad several years' ex- 
perience with evergreen millet near Tulare, de- 
nounces it as a very damaging plant for farm- 
ers to introduce on their farms, in that seiition 
ftt least. 

Trinity School. 

Trinity School, at 1534 Mission street, in 
this city, is a select school for preparing young 
men for college or for business life. The num- 
ber of pupils is limited to 60. The accommoda- 
tions are excellent, the grounds spacious, and 
good arrangements for recreation and exercise 
during wet weather. The Trinity School is 
now in its eighth year. There was recently j 
held an alumni meeting at the residence of the 
rector, Rev. E. B. Spaulding, which was very 
interesting. Reports showed the school to be 
in a flourishing condition. The Board of 
Alumni numbers 23 members, the school being 
represented by its graduates in the University 
of Cambridge, England; Yale College, New 
Haven; the University of (California; Trinity 
College, Hartford; and the University of the 
South, besides those who are engaged success- 
fully in business in this city and elsewhere. 
Trinity School issues a neat catalogue, which 
can be had on ap))lieation to Rev. E. B. 
Spaulding, 1534 Missi m St., S. F, 

A New Yellow — Mons. Ciuillott, the fa- 
mous rose grower, has astonished the floral world by 
producing from seed a perfectly free b\oom\ng yclloiu 
Rose. Although only a few plants of this rose were 
sold in France in November last, Messrs. D. R. 
Woods & Co., the well-known rose growers and 
florists of .N'ew Brighton. Pa. , again exhibited their 
usual enterprise in importing this and other fine new 
sorts. As they are probably the only firm in the 
United Stales whu will have this rose for sale this 
season, you can obtain a eomijlete discription of it 
only from their catalogue which will be forwarded to 
any of our readers. 

o o nxr s TJ r»T X o a>a-. 

Bronchitis, Influenza, Asthma, 

Ami all I UKi K\X aii.l I^CNG TUOUliLES. 
Solo iiv ai.i. T)i:ugc;ists kok Fifty Cents. 
.1. K. OATKS A CO. Proprietors, 



W. E. Chamberlain, Jr